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Encyclopedia > Pope Alexander III
Alexander III
Birth name Rolando Bandinelli
Papacy began September 7, 1159
Papacy ended August 30, 1181
Predecessor Adrian IV
Successor Lucius III
Born c. 1100/1105
Celle, Italy
Died August 30, 1181
Civita Castellana
Other popes named Alexander

Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105August 30, 1181), born Rolando Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 to 1181. Image File history File links B-Alexander_III1. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Lucius III, né Ubaldo Allucingoli (1097 – November 25, 1185), was pope from September 1, 1181 to his death. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Celle is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Civita Castellana (anc. ... There have been eight popes named Alexander. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ...

Contents

Church career

He was born in Siena. For a long time, scholars believed him to be identical with the twelfth-century canon lawyer and theologian, Master Roland of Bologna, who composed the "Stroma" or "Summa Rolandi" – one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum of Gratian – and the "Sententiae Rolandi", a sentence collection displaying the influence of Pierre Abélard. (See John T. Noonan, “Who was Rolandus?” in Law, Church, and Society: Essays in Honor of Stephan Kuttner, ed. Kenneth Pennington and Robert Somerville [Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977], pp. 21–48; Rudolph Weigand, “Magister Rolandus und Papst Alexander III,” Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht 149 [1980]: 3–44; reprinted in idem, Glossatoren des Dekrets Gratians [Goldbach: Keip, 1997], pp. 73*–114*.) Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Decretum Gratiani The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum (in some manuscripts Concordantia discordantium canonum) is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the twelfth century as a legal textbook by a jurist (perhaps) named Gratian. ... Franciscus Gratianus, or Johannes Gratianus, known most often simply as Gratian, was a 12th century canon lawyer from Bologna. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... John Thomas Noonan, Jr. ...


In October 1150, Pope Eugene III (1145–1153) created him Cardinal Deacon of the Title of Santi Cosma e Damiano; later he became Cardinal Priest of the Title of St Mark. In 1153, he became papal chancellor, and was the leader of the cardinals opposed to Frederick I Barbarossa (1152–1190). He negotiated the Treaty of Benevento, restoring peaceful relations between Rome and the Kingdom of Sicily. The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... The Cardinal Deacons are the lowest-ranked of the three orders of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... View of the Neapolitan Crib of the Basilica from the Palatine Hill. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Madama Lucrezia is one of the talking statues of Rome, and is located next to the basilica entrance. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... The Treaty of Benevento was an important treaty between the papacy of Adrian IV and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ...


On September 7, 1159, he was chosen the successor of Pope Adrian IV (1154–1159), a minority of the cardinals, however, electing the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV (1159–1164). This antipope, and his successors antipope Paschal III (1164–68) and antipope Calixtus III (1168–1178), had the imperial support; but after the defeat of Legnano (1176), Barbarossa finally (in the Peace of Venice 1177), recognized Alexander III as pope. On 12 March 1178, Alexander III returned to Rome, which he had been compelled to leave twice: the first time from 1162, when he was sent into a Campanian exile by Oddone Frangipane following his brief arrest and detainment, until 23 November 1165; and again in 1167. The first period he spent in France, the latter chiefly in Gaeta, Benevento, Anagni, and Venice. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Victor IV, the former Cardinal Octavianus (Ottaviano Crescenzi Ottaviani of Monticelli), was known as the Ghibelline antipope. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) was Antipope from 1164 to September 20, 1168. ... Antipope Callixtus III (or Callistus III) was Antipope from September 1168 to 29 August 1178. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire and Ghibellines Lombard League(Guelphs) Commanders Frederick I Barbarossa Alberto da Giussano Strength 2500 (all cavalry) 2500 (2000 cavalry, 500 foot) The Carroccio of Legnano on the way to the battlefield. ... The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was an important peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Oddone Frangipane (also Oddo or Otto) was the son of Leo and grandson of Cencio II of the Frangipani family. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Political aspects

Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino).

Alexander III was the first pope known to have to paid direct attention to missionary activities east of the Baltic Sea. In 1165, his close friend, Eskil, the Archbishop of Lund, appointed a Benedictine monk Fulco as a bishop in Estonia. In 1171, he became the first pope to address the situation of the Church in Finland, with Finns harassing the priests and only relying on God at the time of war.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1196x581, 310 KB) Summary Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1196x581, 310 KB) Summary Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino). ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Spinello Aretino (c. ... Eskil was a 12th century Archbishop of Lund, in Skåne, Denmark (now in Sweden). ... The Diocese of Lund is the southernmost diocese in the Church of Sweden. ... Bishop Fulco was the first known missionary Bishop of Estonia. ...


In March 1179, Alexander III held the Third Council of the Lateran, a brilliant assemblage, reckoned by the Roman Church as the eleventh ecumenical council; its acts embody several of the Pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the Church, among them the law requiring that no one may be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals, a rule only slightly altered in 1996 which allowed a simple majority vote after thirty indecisive ballots. This synod marks the summit of Alexander III's power. The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical...


Besides checkmating Barbarossa, he had humbled Henry II of England concerning the murder of Thomas à Becket in 1170, to whom he was unusually close. In 1172 he confirmed the position of Henry as Lord of Ireland. He had confirmed the right of Afonso I of Portugal to the crown, and even as a fugitive had enjoyed the favour and protection of Louis VII of France. Nevertheless, soon after the close of the synod the Roman republic forced Alexander III to leave the city, which he never re-entered; and on September 29, 1179, some nobles set up the antipope Innocent III (1179–1180). By the judicious use of money, however, Alexander III got him into his power, so that he was deposed in January, 1180. In 1181, Alexander III excommunicated William I of Scotland and put the kingdom under an interdict. Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Saint Thomas Becket (December 21, 1118? – December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Innocent III (Lanzo of Sezza) was an antipope during 1179 to 1180. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Interdict can refer to several things: Look up interdict in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He died at Civita Castellana on 30 August 1181. Civita Castellana (anc. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ...


References

  • "Pope Alexander III" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Leter by Pope Alexander III to the Archbishop of Uppsala. In Latin. Hosted by the National Archive of Finland. See [1] and Diplomatarium Fennicum from the menu.
Preceded by
Adrian IV
Pope
1159–81
Succeeded by
Lucius III

  Results from FactBites:
 
Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Pope Alexander III - Wikisource (857 words)
Alexander retreated towards the Norman south and was consecrated and crowned, 20 September, at the little Volscian town of Nympha.
Pope Alexander refused to submit his clear right to this iniquitous tribunal, which, as was foreseen, declared for the usurper (11 February, 1160).
In the estimation of Rome, Italy, and Christendom, Alexander III's epitaph expresses the truth, when it calls him "the Light of the Clergy, the Ornament of the Church, the Father of his City and of the World." He was friendly to the new academical movement that led to the establishment of the great medieval universities.
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