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Encyclopedia > Pope Urban II

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{{{English name}}}
Birth name Otho of Lagery
Papacy began March, 1088
Papacy ended [[July 27--151.202.114.19 23:44, 14 May 2007 (UTC)]], 1099
Predecessor Victor III
Successor Paschal II
Born 1042
Lagery, France
Died July 29, 1099
Rome, Italy
Other popes named Urban
Styles of
Pope Urban II
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Blessed

Pope Urban II (1042July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. He is most known for starting the First Crusade (1095–99) and setting up the modern day Roman Curia, in the manner of a royal court, to help run the Church. Image File history File links Pope Urban II. From: Roman de Godfroi de Bouillon (14. ... Events Succession of Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Work begins on the third and largest church at Cluny Rebellion of 1088 against William II of England lead by Odo of Bayeux. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... The Blessed Victor III, born as Dauferius (Benevento, 1026? – September 16, 1087), Pope (May 24, 1086 until his death), was the successor of Pope Gregory VII (1073–85). ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Pope Urban may refer to one of several people: Pope Urban I, 222/223 to 230 - a Saint Pope Urban II, 12 March 1088 to 29 July 1099 - the Blessed Pope Urban Pope Urban III, 25 November 1185 to 19 October 1187 Pope Urban IV, 29 August 1261 to 2... Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Blessed may refer to: The state of having received a blessing. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... The Pope, (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1], is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... Events Succession of Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Work begins on the third and largest church at Cluny Rebellion of 1088 against William II of England lead by Odo of Bayeux. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


He was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church-educated. He was archdeacon of Rheims when, under the influence of his teacher Bruno of Cologne, he resigned and entered the monastery of Cluny where he rose to be prior. In 1078, Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) summoned him to Italy and made him cardinal-bishop of Ostia. Châtillon-sur-Marne in the région of Champagne-Ardenne is a small commune (1186 inhabitants) in the Valley of the Marne, surrounded by the Parc Naturel de la Montagne de Reims. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Saint Bruno (Cologne, c. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... The Bishop of Ostia was the ecclesiastical head of the Italian Catholic diocese of Ostia. ...


He was one of the most prominent and active supporters of the Gregorian reforms, especially as legate in Germany in 1084, and was among the few whom Gregory VII nominated as possible successors to be Pope. Desiderius, abbot of Monte Cassino, who became Pope Victor III (1086–87) was chosen Pope initially, but after his short reign Odo was elected Pope Urban II by acclamation (March 1088) at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina. He took up the policies of Pope Gregory VII, and while pursuing them with determination, showed greater flexibility, and diplomatic finesse. At the outset he had to reckon with the presence of the powerful antipope Clement III (1080, 1084–1100) in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods held in Rome, Amalfi, Benevento, and Troia supported him in renewed declarations against simony, lay investiture, and clerical marriages, and a continued opposition to Emperor Henry IV (1056–1105). Gregorian Reform is generally considered named after Pope Gregory VII(1073-1085), who personally denied this, and claimed it was named after Gregory the Great. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... The restored Abbey. ... The Blessed Victor III, born as Dauferius (Benevento, 1026? – September 16, 1087), Pope (May 24, 1086 until his death), was the successor of Pope Gregory VII (1073–85). ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terracina is a town and comune of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, 76 km SE of Rome by rail (56 km by the Via Appia). ... Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna (c. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Troia (Greek: , transliterated as Aika or Aikai or Ece; Latin: Aecae or Æcæ; also formerly Troja) is a town and commune in the province of Foggia, Puglia (southern Italy). ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050 — 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ...


In accordance with this last policy, the marriage of the countess Matilda of Tuscany with Guelph of Bavaria was promoted, Prince Conrad was helped in his rebellion against his father and crowned King of the Romans at Milan in 1093, and the Empress (Adelaide or Praxedes) encouraged in her charges against her husband. In a protracted struggle also with Philip I of France (1060–1108), whom he had excommunicated for his adulterous marriage to Bertrade de Montfort, Urban II finally proved victorious. Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), called La Gran Contessa, was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ... Welf II (1072 – 24 September 1120, Kaufering), or Welfhard, called Welf the Fat, was duke of Bavaria from 1101 until his death. ... Conrad (12 February 1074 - 27 July 1101 was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. As such he was King of Germany from 1087 to 1098 and also King of Italy from 1093 to 1098. ... King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) was a title used by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire before their coronation by the Pope, and later also by the heir designate of the Empire. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Eupraxia of Kiev (1071-9. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Bertrade de Montfort (died 1117) was the daughter of Simon de Montfort-lAmaury and Agnes, Countess of Evreux. ...


Urban II had much correspondence with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, to whom he extended an order to come urgently to Rome just after the Archbishop's first flight from England, and earlier gave his approval to Anselm's work De Incarnatione Verbi (The Incarnation of the Word). Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ...

Contents

Crusades

Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

Urban II's crusading movement took its first public shape at the Council of Piacenza, where in March 1095 Urban II received an ambassador from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081–1118), asking for help against the Muslims. A great council met, attended by numerous Italian, Burgundian, and French bishops in such vast numbers it had to be held in the open air outside the city. At the Council of Clermont held in November of the same year, Urban II's sermon proved the most effective single speech in European history, as he summoned the French people to wrestle the Holy Land from the hands of the Seljuk Turks: Image File history File links B_Urban_II2. ... Image File history File links B_Urban_II2. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 5, 1095, at Piacenza. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of...

"I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it."[1]

France, the Pope said, was already overcrowded and the holy lands of Canaan were overflowing with milk and honey. He asked the Frenchmen to turn their swords in favour of God's service, and the assembly replied Dieu le veut!, "God wills it!". For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Latin for God Wills It. ...


Urban II died on July 29,1099, fourteen days after the fall of Jerusalem to the Crusaders, but before news of the event had reached Italy; his successor was Pope Paschal II (1099–1118). For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ...


Urban II and Sicily

Far more subtle than the Crusades, but far more successful over the long run, was Urban II's program of bringing Campania and Sicily firmly into the Catholic sphere, after generations of control from the Byzantine Empire and the hegemony of Arab emirs in Sicily. His agent in the Sicilian borderlands was the Norman ruler Roger I (1091–1101). In 1098, after a meeting at the Siege of Capua, Urban II bestowed on Roger I extraordinary prerogatives, some of the very same rights that were being withheld from temporal sovereigns elsewhere in Europe. Roger I was to be free to appoint bishops ("lay investiture"), free to collect Church revenues and forward them to the papacy (always a lucrative middle position), and free to sit in judgment on ecclesiastical questions. Roger I was to be virtually a legate of the Pope within Sicily. In re-Christianizing Sicily, seats of new dioceses needed to be established, and the boundaries of sees established, with a church hierarchy re-established after centuries of Muslim domination. Roger I's Lombard consort Adelaide brought settlers from the valley of the Po to colonize eastern Sicily. Roger I as secular ruler seemed a safe proposition, as he was merely a vassal of his kinsman the Count of Apulia, himself a vassal of Rome, so as a well-tested military commander it seemed safe to give him these extraordinary powers, which were later to come to terminal confrontations between Roger I's Hohenstaufen heirs. For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... The Siege of Capua began in May 1098 and lasted forty days. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Adelaide del Vasto (c. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roger Borsa (1060/1061–February 22, 1111) was the son and successor of Robert Guiscard, the Norman conqueror of Southern Italy and Sicily. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


References

  1. ^ Fulcher of Chartres' account of Urban's speech, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, Five versions of the Speech (available as part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook).

External links

  • Five versions of his speech for the First Crusade from Medieval Sourcebook.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pope Urban II
Preceded by
Victor III
Pope
1088–99
Succeeded by
Paschal II

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