FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
Birth name Eugenio Maria Guiseppe Giovanni Pacelli
Papacy began March 2, 1939
Papacy ended October 9, 1958
Predecessor Pius XI
Successor John XXIII
Born March 2, 1876(1876-03-02)
Rome, Italy
Died October 9, 1958 (aged 82)
Castel Gandolfo, Italy
Other popes named Pius
Pius XII's signature
Styles of
Pope Pius XII
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Venerable

Pope Pius XII (Latin: Pius PP. XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. from www. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Castel Gandolfo and the Lake of Albano. ... There were 12 Popes of the Roman Catholic Church who were named Pius Pope Pius I Pope Pius II Pope Pius III Pope Pius IV Pope Pius V Pope Pius VI Pope Pius VII Pope Pius VIII Pope Pius IX Pope Pius X Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XII There... crop of Pope Pius XII signature - no copyright issues This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... crop of Pope Pius XII signature - no copyright issues This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before election to the papacy, Pacelli served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin-American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Germany. His leadership of the Catholic Church during World War II remains the subject of continued historical controversy. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ...


After the war, Pius XII contributed to the rebuilding of Europe, and advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies toward vanquished nations and the unification of Europe. The Church, flourishing in the West, experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the East. In light of his protests, and his involvement in the Italian elections of 1948, he became known as a staunch but pragmatic opponent of Communism. He signed thirty concordats and diplomatic treaties. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... A compass rose For other uses, see East (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A concordat is an agreement between the pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. ...


Pius XII is one of only two popes (along with Pope Pius IX) to have invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility by defining the dogma of the Assumption of Mary, as proclaimed in the Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. The magisterium includes almost 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts. His forty-one encyclicals, include Mystici Corporis, the Church as the Body of Christ; Mediator Dei on liturgy reform; Humani Generis on the Church's position on theology and evolution. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals with the Grand Consistory in 1946. His ongoing canonisation process progressed to the venerable stage on September 2, 2000, under Pope John Paul II. Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Papal infallibility. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Munificentissimus Deus (Latin for The most bountiful God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius XII. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ... This is a list of encyclicals of Pope Pius XII. Pope Pius XII issued 40 Papal Encyclicals, during his reign as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for over 19 years, from his election of March 2, 1939 until his death on October 9, 1958. ... Mystici Corporis was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XII on 29 June 1943. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest...

Contents

Early life

Pacelli was born in Rome on March 2, 1876, into a well-off aristocratic family with a history of ties to the papacy (the "Black Nobility"). His grandfather, Marcantonio Pacelli, was Under-Secretary in the Papal Ministry of Finances[1] and then Secretary of the Interior under Pope Pius IX from 1851 to 1870 and founded the Vatican's newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano in 1861;[2] his cousin, Ernesto Pacelli, was a key financial advisor to Pope Leo XIII; his father, Filippo Pacelli, was the dean of the Sacra Rota Romana; and his brother, Francesco Pacelli, became a lay canon lawyer, credited for his role in negotiating the Lateran Treaty in 1929, bringing an end to the Roman Question. At the age of twelve, Eugenio announced his intentions to enter the priesthood instead of becoming a lawyer. Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli) was born March 2,1876, to Filippo and Virginia (nee Graziosi) Pacelli, in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... The Black Nobility (Italian: aristocrazìa nera) were Italian aristocratic families who sided with the Papacy under Pope Pius IX as opposed to Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy when the Piedmont monarchy came to Rome in 1870, temporarily ending the Papal States. ... Masthead LOsservatore Romano is the Vaticans newspaper. ... Ernesto Pacelli Ernesto Pacelli (died June 13, 1925)[1] was a financial adviser to Pope Leo XIII, Pope Pius X, and Pope Benedict XV and the founder and president of the Banco di Roma from March 9, 1880 until 1916. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... The Tribunal of the Rota Romana or Roman Rota is the normal appellate tribunal of the Holy See and the second highest ecclesiastical court in the Roman Catholic Church. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. ...


After completing state primary schools, Pacelli received his secondary, classical education at the Visconti Institute.[3] In 1894, at the age of eighteen, he entered the Almo Capranica Seminary to begin study for the priesthood and enrolled at the Pontifical Gregorian University and the Appolinare Institute of Lateran University.[3] From 1895–1896, he studied philosophy at University of Rome La Sapienza.[3] In 1899, he received degrees in theology and in utroque iure (civil and canon law).[3] At the seminary, he received a special dispensation to live at home for health reasons.[3] For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Pontifical Gregorian University (Italian: Pontificia Università Gregoriana) is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... University of Rome La Sapienza (Università della Sapienza) is the most ancient university of Rome, Italy. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ...


Church career

Pacelli on the day of his ordination, April 2, 1899

Image File history File links Pacelliordained. ... Image File history File links Pacelliordained. ...

Priest and Monsignor

He was ordained a priest on Easter Sunday, April 2, 1899 by Bishop Francesco Paolo Cassetta — the vice-regent of Rome and a family friend — and received his first assignment as a curate at Chiesa Nuova, where he had served as an altar boy.[4] In 1901, he entered the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, a sub-office of the Vatican Secretariat of State, where he became a minutante, at the recommendation of Cardinal Vannutelli, another family friend.[4] Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy In a general sense, the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. ... This article is about religious workers. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of souls of a parish. ... An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a religious service. ... The Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affiars (Italian: Congregatio de Negotiis Ecclesiasticis Extraordinariis) was a congregation of the Roman Curia, erected in 1793 (as the Congregation Super Negotiis Ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum) by Pope Pius VI under the jurisdiction of the Cardinal Secretary of State, reorganized by later popes, and finally spun... The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Cardinal Vannutelli (sitting) and Mgr. ...


In 1904, Pacelli became a papal chamberlain and in 1905 a domestic prelate.[4] From 1904 until 1916, Father Pacelli assisted Cardinal Pietro Gasparri in his codification of canon law with the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.[5] He was also chosen by Pope Leo XIII to deliver condolences on behalf of the Vatican to Edward VII of the United Kingdom after the death of Queen Victoria.[6] In 1908, he served as a Vatican representative on the International Eucharistic Congress in London,[6] where he met Winston Churchill.[7] In 1911, he represented the Holy See at the coronation of King George V.[5] Papal chamberlain (Cameriere di spada e cappa) is one of the highest honours that can be bestowed on a Catholic layman by the Pope, and is often given to members of noble families. ... Monsignor is an ecclesiastical honorific for clergy of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, and Episcopalian churches. ... Pietro Gasparri Pietro Cardinal Gasparri (Capovallazza di Ussita, Macerata province, May 5, 1852-November 18, 1934) was Roman Catholic archbishop, diplomat and politician in the Roman Curia. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... The 1932 International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, from the Congress Pictorial Record Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of clergy and laymen for adoring and evangelising the Holy Eucharist. ... Churchill redirects here. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


In 1908 and 1911, Pacelli turned down professorships in canon law at a Roman university and The Catholic University of America, respectively. Pacelli became the under-secretary in 1911, adjunct-secretary in 1912 (a position he received under Pope Pius X and retained under Pope Benedict XV) and secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in 1914 — succeeding Gasparri, who was promoted to Cardinal Secretary of State.[5] As secretary, Pacelli concluded a concordat with Serbia four days before Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo.[8] During World War I, Pacelli maintained the Vatican's registry of prisoners of war. In 1915, he travelled to Vienna to assist Monsignor Scapinelli — the apostolic nuncio to Vienna — in his negotiations with Franz Joseph I of Austria regarding Italy.[9] The Catholic University of America (abbreviated CUA), located in Washington, D.C., is unique as the national university of the Roman Catholic Church and as the only higher education institution founded by U.S. Roman Catholic bishops. ... Pope St. ... Pope Benedict XV (Latin: ), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Karl-Josef Rauber; Nuncio for Belgium Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ... Franz Joseph I (in Slovenian Franc Jožef I, in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in Croatian Franjo Josip I, in Czech FrantiÅ¡ek Josef I, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King...


Archbishop and Papal Nuncio

Pope Benedict XV appointed Pacelli as papal nuncio to Bavaria on April 23, 1917, consecrating him as titular Bishop of Sardis and immediately elevating him to archbishop in the Sistine Chapel on May 13, 1917, the very day, Our Lady of Fatima is believed to have first appeared to three shepherd children in Fatima, Portugal. After his consecration, Eugenio Pacelli left for Bavaria. Pope Benedict XV (Latin: ), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Bishop Richard Pates, current auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis and the Titular Bishop of Suacia. ... Map of Sardis and other cities within the Lydian Empire The See of Sardis is an episcopal see in Sardis, currently part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... -1... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...

The Vatican Peace Initiative

As there was no nuncio to Prussia or Germany at the time, Pacelli was, for all practical purposes, the nuncio to all of the German Empire. Once in Munich, he conveyed the papal initiative to end the War to German authorities.[10] He met with King Ludwig III on May 29, and later with Kaiser Wilhelm II.[11] and Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg, who replied positively to the Papal initiative. Pacelli saw “for the first time a real prospect for peace”.[12] However, Bethmann-Hollweg was forced to resign and the German High Command, hoping for a military victory, delayed the German reply until September 20. Pacelli was “extraordinarily disappointed and depressed”,[13] since the German note did not include the concessions promised earlier. For the remainder of the war, he concentrated on Benedict’s humanitarian efforts.[14] For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ...


After the war, during the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919 Pacelli was one of the few foreign diplomats to remain in Munich. According to Pascalina Lehnert, who was personally there at the time, Pacelli calmly faced down a small group of Spartacist revolutionaries, who had entered the nunciature by force in order to take his car. Pacelli told them to leave the extraterritorial building, to which they responded, "only with your car". Pacelli, who had previously ordered to disconnect the starter, permitted the car to be towed away, after he was informed that the Bavarian government had promised to return the vehicle at once. [15] Several versions of this incident and alleged later incidents are much more colorful, but, according to the relator in the beatification process in the Vatican, "mostly based on immagination"[16] The popular view may also overlook his cordial relations with socialist politicians like Friedrich Ebert and Philipp Scheidemann, and his prolonged secret negotiations with the Soviet Union (see below). “Pacelli is simply too intelligent to be irritated by something like this” opined the Bavarian representative at the Vatican.[17] The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spartacist League (disambiguation). ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ...


On the night of Adolf Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch, Franz Matt, the only member of the Bavarian cabinet not present at the Bürgerbräu Keller, was having dinner with Pacelli and Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber.[18] The American diplomat Robert Murphy, then in Munich, writes that "all the foreign representatives at Munich, including Nuncio Pacelli, were convinced that Hitler's political career had ended ignominiously in 1924. When I ventured to remind His Holiness of this bit of history (in 1945), he laughed and said: 'I know what you mean - papal infallibility, Don't forget, I was only a monsignor then'."[19] Hitler redirects here. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Franz Matt was the only member of the German cabinet not present at the Beer Hall Putsch. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Memorial stone of von Faulhaber in the Munich Frauenkirche His Eminence Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 3, 1869 in Klosterheidenfeld, Unterfranken, died June 12, 1952 in Munich) was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. ... There are several notable personalities named Robert Murphy or Bob Murphy: Robert Daniel Murphy, U.S. diplomat Bob Murphy, sports announcer Bob Murphy, jazz pianist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...

The First Nuncio in Berlin

Several years after he was appointed Nuncio to Germany, and after completion of a concordat with Bavaria, the nunciature was moved to Berlin. June 23, 1920 and 1925 respectively. Many of Pacelli's Munich staff would stay with him for the rest of his life, including his advisor Robert Leiber and Sister Pascalina Lehnert — housekeeper, friend, and adviser to Pacelli for 41 years. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Berlin, Pacelli was doyen or Dean of the Diplomatic Corps and active in diplomatic and many social activities. There he met notables like Albert Einstein, Adolf von Harnack, Gustav Stresemann, Clemens August Graf von Galen, and Konrad Cardinal von Preysing, the later two he elevated to cardinal in 1946. He worked with the German priest Ludwig Kaas, who was known for his expertise in Church-state relations and was politically active in the Centre Party.[20]. While in Germany, he enjoyed working as a pastor. He traveled to all regions, attended Katholikentag (national gatherings of the faithful), and delivered some 50 sermons and speeches to the German people. [21] “Einstein” redirects here. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ...   (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Blessed Clemens August Graf von Galen (1878-1946), German count, Bishop of Münster, and cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. ... Konrad Graf Cardinal von Preysing (August 30, 1880—December 21, 1950) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The word cardinal comes from the Latin cardo for hinge and usually refers to things of fundamental importance, as in cardinal rule or cardinal sins. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Katholikentag ( Catholics Day) is a festival-like gathering in German-speaking countries organized by the Catholic laity. ...

Negotiations with the Soviet Union (1925-1927)

In post-war Germany, Pacelli worked mainly on clarifying the relations between Church and State (see below). But in the absence of a papal nuncio in Moscow, Pacelli worked also on diplomatic arrangements between the Vatican and the Soviet Union. He negotiated food shipments for Russia, where the Church was persecuted. He met with Soviet representatives including Foreign Minister Georgi Chicherin, who rejected any kind of religious education, the ordination of priests and bishops, but offered agreements without the points vital to the Vatican. [22] “An enormously sophisticated conversation between two highly intelligent men like Pacelli and Chicherin, who seemed not to dislike each other.” wrote one participant. [23] Despite Vatican pessimism and a lack of visible progress, Pacelli continued the secret negotiations, until Pope Pius XI ordered them to be discontinued in 1927. Georgi Chicherin (Rus. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ...

Pacelli and the Weimar Republic

Pacelli supported the Weimar Coalition with Social Democrats and liberal parties. Although he had cordial relations with representatives of the Centre Party such as Marx and Kaas, he did not involve the Centre in his dealings with the German government.[24] Pacelli supported German diplomatic activity aimed at rejection of punitive measures from victorious former enemies. He blocked French attempts for an ecclesiastical separation of the Saar region, supported the appointment of a papal administrator for Danzig and aided the reintegration of priests expelled from Poland.[25]. Pacelli was critical of German policy regarding financial reparations, which he considered unimaginative and lacking a sense of reality.[26] He regretted the return of William, German Crown Prince from exile as destabilizing. After repeated German acts of sabotage against the French occupation forces in the Ruhr valley in 1923, German media reported a conflict between Pacelli and the German authorities. The Vatican denounced these acts against the French in the Ruhr. [27] The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly which met at Weimar in 1919, and were the... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... With an area of 2570 km² and 1. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst (6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) of the House of Hohenzollern was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ...


When he returned to Rome in 1929, praise was heaped by Catholics and Protestants alike on Pacelli, who by now had become more popular than any German cardinal or bishop,[28] which he had largely excluded from his negotiations and dealings with the German government.


Cardinal Secretary of State and Camerlengo

Pacelli was made a cardinal on 16 December 1929 by Pope Pius XI, and within a few months, on 7 February 1930, Pius XI appointed him Cardinal Secretary of State. In 1935, Cardinal Pacelli was named Camerlengo of the Roman Church. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Coat of arms of the Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (the escutcheon and motto are proper to the incumbent) The title Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (plu camerlenghi, Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court---either the Chamberlain of the Roman Church, the...


As Cardinal Secretary of State, Pacelli signed concordats with many non-Communist states, including Baden (1932),[29] Austria (1933), Germany (1933), Yugoslavia (1935) and Portugal (1940). The Lateran treaties with Italy (1929) were concluded before Pacelli became secretary of state. Such concordats allowed the Catholic Church to organize youth groups, make ecclesiastical appointments, run schools, hospitals, and charities, or even conduct religious services. They also ensured that canon law would be recognized within some spheres (e.g. church decrees of nullity in the area of marriage).[30] Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of nullity (known as annulment in the United States) in Family Law inspires a wide response among the laws of different states as to the circumstances in which a marriage will be valid, invalid or null. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


He made many diplomatic visits throughout Europe and the Americas, including an extensive visit to the United States in 1936 where he met with Charles Coughlin and Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed a personal envoy — who did not require Senate confirmation — to the Holy See in December 1939, re-establishing a diplomatic tradition that had been broken since 1870 when the pope lost temporal power.[31] Father Coughlin Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979) was a Canadian-born Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigans National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. ... FDR redirects here. ... By the expression temporal power is commonly indicated the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual and pastoral activity (also called eternal power). ...


Pacelli presided as Papal Legate over the International Eucharistic Congress in Buenos Aires, Argentina on October 10–14, 1934, and in Budapest on May 25–30, 1938.[32] A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The 1932 International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, from the Congress Pictorial Record Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of clergy and laymen for adoring and evangelising the Holy Eucharist. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Some historians have argued that Pacelli, as Cardinal Secretary of State, dissuaded Pope Pius XI — who was nearing death at the time[33] — from condemning Kristallnacht in November 1938,[34] when he was informed of it by the papal nuncio in Berlin.[35] Likewise the prepared encyclical Humani Generis Unitas ("On the Unity of Human Society"), which was ready in September 1938 but, according to the two publishers of the encyclical[36] and other sources, not forwarded to the Vatican by the Jesuit General Wlodimir Ledochowski.[37][38] It contained an open and clear condemnation of colonialism, racism and antisemitism but also strong accusations against Jews and elements of anti-Judaism.[39][40][37] Some historians have argued that Pacelli learned about its existence only after the death of Pius XI did not promulgate it as pope.[41] He did however use parts of it in his inaugural encyclical Summi Pontificatus, which he titled "On the Unity of Human Society."[42] Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Humani Generis Unitas (Latin for On the Unity of Humanity) was a planned encyclical of Pope Pius XI before his death on 10 February 1939, which condemned antisemitism, racism and the persecution of Jews. ... Wlodimir Ledochowski, S.J. (October 7, 1866 in Loosdorf, Austria - December 13, 1942 in Rome, Italy) was the twenty-sixth Superior-General of the Society of Jesus. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Summi Pontificatus is an encyclical of Pope Pius XII published on October 20, 1939. ...


His various positions on Church and policy issues during his tenure as Cardinal Secretary of State were made public by the Vatican in 1939. Most noteworthy among the fifty speeches is his review of church and state issues in Budapest 1938.[43]


Reichskonkordat

Main article: Reichskonkordat
The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. From left to right: German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, Giuseppe Cardinal Pizzardo, Cardinal Secretary of State Pacelli, Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, and German ambassador Rudolf Buttmann

The Reichskonkordat was an integral part of four concordats Pacelli concluded on behalf of the Vatican with German States. The state concordats were necessary, because the German federalist Weimar constitution gave the states authority in the area of education and culture, which were of main concern to Vatican policy. As Bavarian Nuncio, Pacelli negotiated successfully with the Bavarian authorities in 1925. He expected the concordat with Catholic Bavaria to be the model for the rest of Germany. [44] Prussia showed interest in negotiations only after the Bavarian concordat. However, Pacelli obtained less favorable conditions for the Church in the Prussian concordat of 1929, which excluded educational issues. A concordat with the German state of Baden was completed by Pacelli in 1932, after he had moved to Rome. There he also negotiated a concordat with Austria in 1933. [45] A total of 16 concordats and treaties with European states had been concluded in the ten year period 1922-1932.[46] The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ... Eugenio Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII, signs the Reichskonkordat with the national socialist government under Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1933. ... The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. ... Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, PhD, STD, JCD (October 29, 1890—August 3, 1979) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. ...


The Reichskonkordat, signed on July 20, 1933, between Germany and the Holy See, while thus a part of an overall Vatican policy, was controversial from its beginning. It remains the most important of Pacelli's concordats. It is debated, not because of its content, which is still valid today, but because of its timing. A national concordat with Germany was one of Pacelli's main objectives as secretary of state, because he had hoped to strengthen the legal position of the Church. Pacelli, who knew German conditions well, emphasized (1) protection for Catholic associations (§31), (2) freedom for education and Catholic schools, and, (3) freedom for publications.[47] The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As nuncio during the 1920s, he had made unsuccessful attempts to obtain German agreement for such a treaty, and between 1930 and 1933 he attempted to initiate negotiations with representatives of successive German governments, but the opposition of Protestant and Socialist parties, the instability of national governments and the care of the individual states to guard their autonomy thwarted this aim. In particular, the questions of denominational schools and pastoral work in the armed forces prevented any agreement on the national level, despite talks in the winter of 1932.[48][49] Karl-Josef Rauber; Nuncio for Belgium Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ...


Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the Church and the Catholic Centre Party. He sent his vice chancellor Franz von Papen, a Catholic nobleman and former member of the Centre Party, to Rome to offer negotiations about a Reichskonkordat.[50] On behalf of Cardinal Pacelli, Prelate Ludwig Kaas, the outgoing chairman of the Centre Party, negotiated first drafts of the terms with Papen.[51] The concordat was finally signed, by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany, on 20 July and ratified on September 10, 1933.[52] Hitler redirects here. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between 1933 and 1939, Pacelli issued 55 protests of violations of the Reichskonkordat. Most notably, early in 1937, Pacelli asked several German cardinals, including Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber to help him write a protest of Nazi violations of the Reichskonkordat; this was to become Pius XI's encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge. The encyclical, condemning the view that "exalts race, or the people, or the State, or a particular form of State ... above their standard value and divinizes them to an idolatrous level", was written in German instead of Latin and read in German churches on Palm Sunday 1937.[53] On June 10, 1941 he commented on the problems of the Reichskonkordat in a letter to the Bishop of Passau, Bavaria: "The history of the Reichskonkordat shows, that the other side lacked the most basic prerequisites to accept minimal freedoms and rights of the Church, without which the Church simply cannot live and operate, formal agreements notwithstanding".[54] Memorial stone of von Faulhaber in the Munich Frauenkirche His Eminence Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 3, 1869 in Klosterheidenfeld, Unterfranken, died June 12, 1952 in Munich) was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. ... Mit brennender Sorge (German for With deep anxiety, word by word: With burning worry) is an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, published on March 10, 1937 (but bearing a date of Passion Sunday, March 14). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ...


Papacy

Election and coronation

Main article: Papal conclave, 1939
Pope Pius XII's Coat of Arms featured a dove, a symbol of peace

Pope Pius XI died on February 10, 1939. Several historians have interpreted the conclave to choose his successor as facing a choice between a diplomatic or a spiritual candidate, and they view Pacelli's diplomatic experience, especially with Germany, as one of the deciding factors in his election on March 2, 1939, his 63rd birthday, after only one day of deliberation and three ballots.[55][56] He was the first cardinal secretary of state to be elected Pope since Clement IX in 1667.[57] He was also one of only two men known to have served as Camerlengo immediately prior to being elected as pope (the other being Pope Leo XIII). His coronation took place March 12, 1939. Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State, was elected pope. ... Image File history File links Pius_12_coa. ... Image File history File links Pius_12_coa. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Clement IX (January 28, 1600 – December 9, 1669), born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope from 1667 to 1669. ... Coat of arms of the Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (the escutcheon and motto are proper to the incumbent) The title Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (plu camerlenghi, Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court---either the Chamberlain of the Roman Church, the... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pacelli took the same papal name as his predecessor, a title used exclusively by Italian Popes. He was quoted as saying, "I call myself Pius; my whole life was under Popes with this name, but especially as a sign of gratitude towards Pius XI."[58] On December 15, 1937, during his last consistory, Pius XI strongly hinted to the cardinals that he expected Pacelli to be his successor, saying "He is in your midst."[59][60] He had previously been quoted as saying: "When today the Pope dies, you’ll get another one tomorrow, because the Church continues. It would be a much bigger tragedy, if Cardinal Pacelli dies, because there is only one. I pray every day, God may send another one into one of our seminaries, but as of today, there is only one in this world."[61] Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After his election, Pius XII listed three objectives as pontiff.[62]

  1. A new translation of the psalms, daily recited by the religious and priests, in order for the clergy to better appreciate the beauty and richness of the Old Testament. This translation was completed in 1945
  2. A definition of the of Dogma of the Assumption. This necessitated numerous studies into Church history and consultations with the episcopate worldwide. The dogma was proclaimed in November 1950.
  3. Increased archaeological excavations under St Peter's Basilica in Rome, to determine, whether St. Peter was actually buried there, or whether the Church subjected itself for more than 1500 years to a pious hoax. This was a controversial point, because of the real possibility of a major embarrassment and technical concerns, to conduct excavations under the main altar, close to the Bernini columns of the papal altar and the main support of the Michelangelo’s cupola. [63] The first results regarding the tomb of St. Peter were published in 1950.[64]
Pius XII ordered archaeological excavations under St Peter's Basilica in Rome, to determine, whether St. Peter was actually buried there; the first results were positive.[65]

Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ...

Appointments

After his election, he appointed Luigi Cardinal Maglione to be his successor as Secretary of State. Maglione, a seasoned Vatican diplomat, had reestablished diplomatic relations with Switzerland and was for many years nuncio in Paris, France. Yet, Maglione did not exercise the influence of his predecessor Pacelli, who as Pope continued his close relation with Monsignors Montini (later Pope Paul VI) and Domenico Tardini. After the death of Maglione in 1944, Pius left the position open and named Tardini head of its foreign section and Montini head of the internal section.[66] Tardini and Montini continued serving there until 1953, when Pius XII decided to appoint them cardinals,[67] an honor which both turned down.[68] They were then later appointed to be Pro-Secretary with the privilege to wear Episcopal Insignia.[69] Tardini continued to be a close co-worker of the Pope until the death of Pius XII, while Montini became archbishop of Milan, after the death of Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster. Luigi Cardinal Maglione (Casoria, province of Naples, March 2, 1877 – August 23, 1944) was the Cardinal Secretary of State in the Roman Curia from 1939 until 1944. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Domenico Cardinal Tardini (February 29, 1888 - July 30, 1961) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and a prominent member of the Roman Curia in Vatican City. ...


Pius XII slowly eroded the Italian monopoly on the Roman Curia; he employed German and Dutch Jesuit advisors, Robert Leiber, Augustin Bea, and Sebastian Tromp. He also supported the elevation of Americans such as Francis Spellman from a minor to a major role in the Church.[70] After World War II, Pius XII appointed more non-Italians than any Pope before him. Americans included Joseph P Hurley as regent of the nunciature in Belgrade, Gerald P. O'Hara Nuncio to Rumania and Monsignor Aloisius Joseph Muench as nuncio to Germany. For the first time, numerous young European, Asian and "Americans were trained in various congregations and secretariats within the Vatican for eventual service throughout the world."[71] Augustin Cardinal Bea, SJ Augustin Cardinal Bea, SJ (May 28, 1881—November 16, 1968) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman (4 May 1889–2 December 1967) was an American prelate, the ninth bishop and sixth archbishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of New York. ... Aloisius Joseph Muench (February 18, 1889 - February 15, 1962) was made a U.S. cardinal on December 14, 1959 by Pope John XXIII.He was born in Milwaukee,Wisconsin and was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood on June 8, 1916 for the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. ...


Consistories

Only twice in his pontificate did Pius XII hold a consistory to create new cardinals, in contrast to Pius XI, who had done so seventeen times in seventeen years. Pius XII chose not to name new cardinals during World War II, and the number of cardinals shrank to 38, with Cardinal Denis Dougherty being the only living U.S. cardinal. The first occasion on February 18, 1946 — which has become known as the "Grand Consistory" — yielded the elevation of a record thirty-two new cardinals, almost 50% of the College of Cardinals and reaching the canonical limit of seventy cardinals. [72] // Antiquity Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (from which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Dennis Joseph Cardinal Dougherty (August 16, 1865 - May 31, 1951) was archbishop of Philadelphia and ranking prelate of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in the U.S. Categories: Stub | 1865 births | 1951 deaths ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Together with the first post-war consistory in 1953—where Msgr. Tardini and Msgr. Montini were notably not elevated[73]—the "Grand Consistory" brought an end to over five hundred years of Italians constituting a majority of the College of Cardinals.[74] In the 1946 consistory Pius XII, while maintaining the maximum size of the College of Cardinals at 70, named cardinals from China, India, the Middle East and increased the number of Cardinals from the Americas, proportionally lessening the Italian influence[75] With few exceptions, Italian prelates accepted the changes positively; there was no protest movement or open opposition to the internationalization efforts.[76] Domenico Cardinal Tardini (February 29, 1888 - July 30, 1961) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and a prominent member of the Roman Curia in Vatican City. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ...


Earlier, in 1945, Pius XII had dispensed with the complicated papal conclave procedures which attempted to ensure secrecy while preventing Cardinals from voting for themselves, compensating for this change by raising the requisite majority from two-thirds to two thirds plus one. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ...


Church Reforms

Liturgy reforms

Main articles: Pope Pius XII Liturgy Reforms and Mediator Dei

In his encyclical Mediator Dei, Pius XII links liturgy with the last will of Christ. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...

"But it is His will, that the worship He instituted and practiced during His life on earth shall continue ever afterwards without intermission. For he has not left mankind an orphan. He still offers us the support of His powerful, unfailing intercession, acting as our "advocate with the Father." He aids us likewise through His Church, where He is present indefectibly as the ages run their course: through the Church which He constituted "the pillar of truth" and dispenser of grace, and which by His sacrifice on the cross, He founded, consecrated and confirmed forever. "[77]

The Church has, therefore, according to Pius XII, a common aim with Christ himself, teaching all men the truth, and, offering to God a pleasing and acceptable sacrifice. This way, the Church re-establishes the unity between the Creator and His creatures.[78] The sacrifice of the altar, being Christ's own actions, convey and dispense divine grace from Christ to the members of the Mystical Body.[79] For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... The creator god is the divine being that created the universe, according to various traditions and faiths. ... A creature is a created being, as opposed to a creator. ...


Liturgy requires participation of the faithful. Pius XII rejects as sterile the widespread Catholic practices of private and interior devotions by individuals during Holy Mass. They separate the faithful "from the sacrifice of the altar, and from the stream of vital energy that flows from Head to members." Catholic worship offers to God a joint profession of Catholic faith and a continuous exercise of hope and charity.[80]


The numerous Liturgy reforms of Pius XII show two characteristics. Renewal and the rediscovery of old liturgical traditions, such as the reintroduction of the Easter Vigil, and, a more structured atmosphere within the Church buildings. The use of vernacular language, favoured by Pius XII, was hotly debated at his time. He increased non-Latin services, especially in countries with expanding Catholic mission activities. The location of the Blessed Sacrament within the Church, to be always at the main altar in the centre of the Church.[81] The Church should display religious objects, but not be overloaded with secondary objects or even Kitsch. Modern sacred art should be reverential and reflect the spirit of our time.[82] Priests are permitted to officiate marriages without Holy Mass. They also may also officiate confirmations in certain instances.[83] The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in many Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ...


Canon Law Reforms

Main article: Pope Pius XII reforms of Eastern Canon Law‎

Decentralized authority and increased the independence of the United Churches were aimed at in the Canon Law/Corpis Iuris Canonici (CIC) reform. In its new constitutions, Eastern Patriarchs were made almost independent from Rome (CIC Orientalis, 1957) Eastern marriage law (CIC Orientalis, 1949), civil law (CIC Orientalis, 1950), laws governing religious associations (CIC Orientalis, 1952) property law (CIC Orientalis ,1952) and other laws. These reforms and writings of Pius XII were intended to establish Eastern Orientals as equal parts of the mystical body of Christ, as explained in the encyclical Mystici Corporis. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Mystici Corporis was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XII on 29 June 1943. ...


Priests and Religious

With the Apostolic constitution Sedis Sapientiae, Pius XII added social sciences, sociology, psychology and social psychology, to the pastoral training of future priests. Pius XII emphasised the need to systematically analyze the psychological condition of candidates to the priesthood to ensure that they are capable of a life of virginity and service.[84] Pius XII added one year to the theological formation of future priests. He also included a "pastoral year", an introduction into the practice of Parish work.[85] An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Virgin redirects here. ...


The call to constant interior reform and Christian heroism is a central part of the message of Pius XII to all Religious. This means to be above average, to be a living example of Christian virtue. As the secular world has fallen back into Hedonism, the Catholic alternative is the sanctification especially of Priests and Religious. The strict norms governing their lives are meant to make them models of Christian perfection for lay people, he writes in Menti Nostrae.[86] Bishops are encouraged to look at model saints like Boniface, and Pope Pius X.[87] Priests were encouraged to be living examples of the love of Christ and his sacrifice.[88] This article is about the type of character. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ...


Theology

Main article: Theology of Pope Pius XII
Oh, the teachings of Pius XII. He understood to adapt the magisterium of the Church to the most modern thinking.

Pope John XXIII, referring to more than 8000 pages of papal teaching.[89] See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ...

Pius XII explained the Catholic faith in 41 encyclicals and almost 1000 messages and speeches during his long pontificate. Mediator Dei clarified membership and participation in the Church. The encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu opened the doors for biblical research. But his magisterium was far larger and is difficult to summarize. In numerous speeches Catholic teaching is related to various aspects of life, education, medicine, politics, war and peace, the life of saints, Mary, the mother of God, things eternal and contemporary. Theologically, Pius XII specified the nature of the teaching authority of the Church. He also gave a new freedom to engage in theological investigations.[90] Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Look up [[wiktionary:|]] in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Theological orientation

Biblical Research

The encyclical, Divino Afflante Spiritu, published in 1943[91] emphasized the role of the bible. Pius XII freed biblical research from previous limitations. He encouraged Christian theologians to revisit original versions of the Bible in Greek and Hebrew. Noting improvements in archaeology, the encyclical reversed Pope Leo XIII's encyclical, which had only advocated going back to the original texts to resolve ambiguity in the Latin Vulgate. The encyclical demands a much better understanding of ancient Jewish history and traditions. It requires bishops throughout the Church to initiate biblical studies for lay people. The Pontiff also requests a reorientation of Catholic teaching and education, relying much more on sacred scriptures in sermons and religious instruction.[92] Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century translation of the Bible into Latin made by St. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by...

The role of theology

This theological investigative freedom does not, however, extend to all aspects of theology. According to Pius, theologians, employed by the Church, are assistants, to teach the official teachings of the Church and not their own private thoughts. They are free to engage in empirical research, which the Church generously supports, but in matters of morality and religion, they are subjected to the teaching office and authority of the Church, the Magisterium. The most noble office of theology is to show how a doctrine defined by the Church is contained in the sources of revelation, … in that sense in which it has been defined by the Church.[93] The deposit of faith is authentically interpretated not to each of the faithful, not even to theologians, but only to the teaching authority of the Church.[94] An assistant is a person or electronic tool that helps some person with their work. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ...


Mariology and the Dogma of the Assumption

On November 1, 1950, Pius XII defined the dogma of the assumption (Titian's Assunta (1516-18) pictured).

As a young boy and in later life Eugenio Pacelli was an ardent follower of the Virgin Mary. Pius XII, who was consecrated on May 13, 1917, the very day, Our Lady of Fatima is believed to have first appeared, consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1942, in accordance with the second "secret" of Our Lady of Fatima (His remains were to be buried in the crypt of Saint Peter Basilica on the feast day of Our Lady of Fatima, October 13, 1958). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 302 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 4013 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pigment Titian Assumption of Mary Assumption... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 302 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 4013 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pigment Titian Assumption of Mary Assumption... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Munificentissimus Deus (Latin for The most bountiful God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius XII. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ... Typical image of the Immaculate Heart of Mary The Immaculate Heart of Mary originally The Sacred Heart of Mary is a devotional name used by some Roman Catholics and Anglicans to refer to the physical heart of Mary, the mother of Jesus as a symbol of Marys interior life... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


On November 1, 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the dogma of the assumption: is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."[95]

The dogma of the bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary, is the crowning of the theology of Pius XII. In this dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life," leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her Assumption, or, whether she was assumed before death; both possibilities are allowed. Mary's Assumption was a divine gift to Mary as Mother of God. As Mary completed her race as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race. Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Russian Orthodox Icon of the Theotokos Theotokos is a Greek word that means God-bearer or Mother of God. It is a title assigned by the early Christian Church to Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. ...


The dogma was preceded by the 1946 encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae, which requested all Catholic bishops to express their opinion on a possible dogmatization. On September 8, 1953, the encyclical Fulgens corona announced a Marian year for 1954, the centennial of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception.[96] In the encyclical Ad caeli reginam he promulagated the feast, Queenship of Mary.[97] Mystici Corporis summarizes his mariology.[98] is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Mystici Corporis was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XII on 29 June 1943. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Social teachings

Main article: Social teachings of Pope Pius XII
Medical theology

Pius XII delivered numerous speeches to medical professionals and researchers. [99] He addressed doctors, nurses, midwives, to detail all aspects of rights and dignity of patients, medical responsibilities, moral implications of psychological illnesses and the uses of psycho pharmaca. He also took on issues like the uses of medicine in terminally ill persons, medical lies in face of grave illness, and the rights of family members to make decisions against expert medical advice. Pope Pius XII went often new ways, thus he was first to determine that the use of pain medicine in terminally ill patients is justified, even if this may shorten the life of the patient, as long as life shortening is not the objective itself.[100] Doctors is a BBC daytime soap opera, which started in 2000. ... Terminal illness is a medical term popularized in the 20th century for an active and progressive disease which cannot be cured easily by popular medicinal practice. ...

Family and sexuality

Pope Pius XII developed an extensive theology of the family, taking issue with family roles, sharing of household duties, education of children, conflict resolution, financial dilemmas, psychological problems, illness, taking care of older generations, unemployment, marital holiness and virtue, common prayer, religious discussions and more. Within the overall devine purpose of family life, he fully accepted the Rhythm Method as a moral form of family planning, although only limited circumstances, within the context of family.[101] Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... Oral contraceptives. ...

Theology and Science

To Pius XII, science and religion were heavenly sisters, different manifestations of divine exactness, who could not possibly contradict each other over the long term[102] Regarding their relation, his advisor Professor Robert Leiber wrote: “Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors prematurely. He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo.”[103] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

Evolution
Main article: Humani Generis

In 1950, Pius XII promulgated Humani Generis which acknowledged that evolution might accurately describe the biological origins of human life, but at the same time criticized those who use it as a religion, who "imprudently and indiscreetly hold that evolution... explains the origin of all things". Catholics must believe, that the human soul was created immediately by God. Since the soul is a spiritual substance it is not brought into being through transformation of matter, but directly by God, whence the special uniqueness of each person.."[104] fifty years later, Pope John Paul II, stating that scientic evidence now seemed to favour the evolutionary theory, upheld the distinction of Pius XII regarding the human soul."Even if the human body originates from pre-existent living matter, the spiritual soul is spontaneously created by God." [105] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest...


Encyclicals, writings and speeches

Main articles: List of Encyclicals of Pope Pius XII and Pope Pius XII Magisterium of last months

Pius XII issued 41 encyclicals during his pontificate, - more than all his successors in the past fifty years taken together - along with many other writings and speeches. The pontificate of Pius XII was the first in Vatican history, which published papal speeches and addresses in vernacular language on a systematic basis. Until then, papal documents were issued mainly in Latin in Acta Apostolicae Sedis since 1909. Because of the novelty of it all, and a feared occupation of the Vatican by the German Wehrmacht, not all documents exist today. In 1944, a number of papal documents were burned or “walled in”, [106] to avoid detection by the advancing German army. Insisting that all publications must be reviewed by him on a prior basis to avoid any misunderstanding, several speeches by Pius XII, who did not find sufficient time, were never published or appeared only once issued in the Vatican daily, Osservatore Romano. This is a list of encyclicals of Pope Pius XII. Pope Pius XII issued 40 Papal Encyclicals, during his reign as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for over 19 years, from his election of March 2, 1939 until his death on October 9, 1958. ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Acta Apostolicae Sedis is a periodical that serves as the official gazette of the Holy See and of the Vatican City State. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...

Gemma Galgani was canonized in 1940 by Pius XII

Several encyclicals addressed the Oriental Churches. Orientalis Ecclesiae was issued in 1944 on the 15th centenary of the death of Cyril of Alexandria, a saint common to Orthodox and Latin Churches. Pius XII asks for prayer for better understanding and unification of the Churches. Orientales Omnes, issued in 1945 on the 350th anniversary of the reunion, is a call to continued unity of the Ruthenian Church, threatened in its very existence by the authorities of the Soviet Union. Sempiternus Rex was issued in 1951 on the 15th anniversary of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. It included a call to oriental communities adhering to monophysitism to return to the Catholic Church. Saint Gemma Galgani (born March 12th, 1878 in Camigliano, Italy, died April 11th, 1903) is a Catholic saint who was canonized by Pope Pius XII on May 2nd, 1940. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ...


Orientales Ecclesias was issued in 1952 and addressed to the Oriental Churches, protesting the continued Stalinist persecution of the Church. Several Apostolic LetterS were sent to the bishops in the East. On May 13, 1956, Pope Pius addressed all bishops of the Eastern Rite. Mary, the mother of God was the subject of encyclical letters to the people of Russia in Fulgens Corona and a papal letter to the people of Russia.[107][108][109][110][111][112][113] Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of the organs of Roman Catholic ecclesiastical authority, e. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Canonizations and beatifications

Main articles: Saints canonized by Pope Pius XII and Beatifications of Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII canonized numerous saints, including Pope Pius X and Maria Goretti. He beatified Pope Innocent XI. The first canonizations were two women, the founder of a female order, Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, and a little girl, Gemma Galgani. Pelletier had a reputation for opening new ways for Catholic charities, helping people in difficulties with the law, who so far were neglected by the system and the Church. Galgani was a rather unknown girl whose virtue became model by her canonization. [114] This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Pope St. ... Saint Maria Goretti (October 16, 1890 – July 6, 1902) is an Italian Roman Catholic virgin saint. ... The Blessed Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 – August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... Mary Euphrasia Pelletier Mary Euphrasia Pelletier (1796 - 1868) - Roman Catholic nun, famous for her prominent efforts in the developing of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd order. ... Saint Gemma Galgani (born March 12th, 1878 in Camigliano, Italy, died April 11th, 1903) is a Catholic saint who was canonized by Pope Pius XII on May 2nd, 1940. ...


World War II

Pius XII's pontificate began on the eve of World War II. During the war, the Pope followed a policy of neutrality mirroring that of Pope Benedict XV during World War I. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pope Benedict XV (Latin: ), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In April 1939, after the submission of Charles Maurras and the intervention of the Carmel of Lisieux, Pius XII ended his predecessor's ban on Action Française, an organization described by some authors as virulently antisemitic and anti-Communist.[115][116] Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


In 1939, the Pope employed Jewish cartographer Roberto Almagia to work on old maps in the Vatican library. Almagia had been at the University of Rome since 1915 but was dismissed after Mussolini's anti-Jewish legislation of 1938. The Pope's appointment of two Jews to the Vatican Academy of Science as well as the hiring of Almagia were reported by the New York Times in the editions of November 11, 1939, and January 10, 1940.[117] is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During Soviet Union's aggression on Finland, the Winter War, Pius XII condemned the Soviet attack on 26 December 1939 in a speech at the Vatican. Later he donated a signed and sealed prayer on behalf of Finland.[118] Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 18 January 1940, after over 15,000 Polish civilians had been killed, Pius XII said in a radio broadcast, "The horror and inexcusable excesses committed on a helpless and a homeless people have been established by the unimpeachable testimony of eye-witnesses."[119] is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Germany invaded the Low Countries during 1940, Pius XII sent expressions of sympathy to the Queen of the Netherlands, the King of Belgium, and the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. When Mussolini learned of the warnings and the telegrams of sympathy, he took them as a personal affront and had his ambassador to the Vatican file an official protest, charging that Pius XII had taken sides against Italy's ally Germany. Mussolini's foreign minister claimed that Pius XII was "ready to let himself be deported to a concentration camp, rather than do anything against his conscience."[120] For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


In the spring of 1940, a group of German generals seeking to overthrow Hitler and make peace with the British approached Pope Pius XII, who acted as a negotiator between the British and the abortive plot.[121]


In April 1941, Pius XII granted a private audience to Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly proclaimed Croatian state (rather than the diplomatic audience Pavelić had wanted).[122] Pius was criticised for his reception of Pavelić: an unattributed British Foreign Office memo on the subject described Pius as "the greatest moral coward of our age."[123] The Vatican did not officially recognise Pavelić's regime. Pius XII did not publicly condemn the expulsions and forced conversions to Catholicism perpetrated on Serbs by Pavelić;[124] however, the Holy See did expressly repudiate the forced conversions in a memorandum dated January 25, 1942, from the Vatican Secretiat of State to the Yugoslavian Legation.[125] Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1941, Pius XII interpreted Divini Redemptoris, an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, which forbade Catholics to help Communists, as not applying to military assistance to the Soviet Union. This interpretation assuaged American Catholics who had previously opposed Lend-Lease arrangements with the Soviet Union.[126] Divini Redemptoris was an anti-communist encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI. This article is a stub. ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


In March 1942, Pius XII established diplomatic relations with the Japanese Empire and received ambassador Ken Harada, who remained in that position until the end of the war.[127] In May 1942, Kazimierz Papée, Polish ambassador to the Vatican, complained that Pius had failed to condemn the recent wave of atrocities in Poland; when Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione replied that the Vatican could not document individual atrocities, Papée declared, "when something becomes notorious, proof is not required."[128] His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ...


Pius XII's famous Christmas broadcasts on the Vatican Radio delivered in 1941 and 1942 (the latter of which at 26 pages and over 5000 words took more than 45 minutes to deliver) remain a "lightning rod" in debates about Pope Pius XII during the war, particularly the Holocaust.[129] In his 1941 Christmas broadcast he was calling for a new world order marked by Christian peace. The majority of the 1942 speech spoke generally about human rights and civil society; at the very end of the speech, Pius seems to turn to current events, albeit not specifically, referring to "all who during the war have lost their Fatherland and who, although personally blameless, have simply on account of their nationality and origin, been killed or reduced to utter destitution."[130] New York Times editorials called Pius XII "a lonely voice in the silence and darkness enveloping Europe this Christmas" in 1941[131] and "lonely voice crying out of the silence of a continent" in 1942.[132] For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Administration building and radio masts at Vatican City Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


As the war was approaching its end in 1945, Pius advocated a lenient policy by the Allied leaders in an effort to prevent what he perceived to be the mistakes made at the end of World War I.[133] This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...


The Holocaust

Pius engineered an agreement — formally approved on June 23, 1939 — with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas to issue 3,000 visas to "non-Aryan Catholics". However, over the next eighteen months Brazil’s Conselho de Imigração e Colonização (CIC) continued to tighten the restrictions on their issuance — including requiring a baptismal certificate dated before 1933, a substantial monetary transfer to the Banco do Brasil, and approval by the Brazilian Propaganda Office in Berlin — culminating in the cancellation of the program fourteen months later, after fewer than 1,000 visas had been issued, amid suspicions of "improper conduct" (i.e. continuing to practice Judaism) among those who had received visas.[134][35] is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Banco do Brasil branch. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione received a request from Chief Rabbi of Palestine Isaac Herzog in the Spring of 1940 to intercede on behalf of Lithuanian Jews about to be deported to Germany.[35] Pius called Ribbentrop on March 11, repeatedly protesting against the treatment of Jews.[116] The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... // Chief Rabbinate redirects here. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, also known as Isaac Herzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of the Republic of Ireland and, later, of the British mandate in Palestine and Israel, once formed. ... Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Haredi English as Litvish (adjective) or Litvaks (noun)) are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in Lita, a region including not only present-day Lithuania but also Latvia, much of Belarus and the northeastern Suwałki region of Poland. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1941, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer of Vienna informed Pius of Jewish deportations in Vienna.[130] Later that year, when asked by French Marshal Philippe Pétain if the Vatican objected to anti-Jewish laws, Pius responded that the church condemned antisemitism, but would not comment on specific rules.[130] Similarly, when Pétain's puppet government adopted the "Jewish statutes," the Vichy ambassador to the Vatican, Léon Bérard, was told that the legislation did not conflict with Catholic teachings.[135] Valerio Valeri, the nuncio to France was "embarrassed" when he learned of this publicly from Pétain[136] and personally checked the information with Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione[137] who confirmed the Vatican's position.[138] In September 1941 Pius objected to a Slovakian Jewish Code,[139] which, unlike the earlier Vichy codes, prohibited intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews.[140] In October 1941 Harold Tittman, a U.S. delegate to the Vatican, asked the pope to condemn the atrocities against Jews; Pius replied that the Vatican wished to remain "neutral,"[141] reiterating the neutrality policy which Pius invoked as early as September 1940.[135] Theodor Cardinal Innitzer (born December 25, 1875 in Neugeschrei near Weipert, Northern Bohemia; died October 9, 1955 in Vienna) was Archbishop of Vienna and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... Léon Bérard (January 6, 1876 – February 24, 1960 in Saint-Étienne) was a French politician and lawyer. ... Valerio Cardinal Valeri (November 7, 1883—July 22, 1963) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Karl-Josef Rauber; Nuncio for Belgium Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ...


In 1942, the Slovakian charge d'affaires, told Pius that Slovakian Jews were being sent to concentration camps.[130] On March 11, 1942, several days before the first transport was due to leave, the chargé d'affaires in Bratislava reported to the Vatican: "I have been assured that this atrocious plan is the handwork of.....Prime Minister (Tuka), who confirmed the plan... he dared to tell me - he who makes such a show of his Catholicism - that he saw nothing inhuman or un-Christian in it...the deportation of 80,000 persons to Poland, is equivalent to condemning a great number of them to certain death." The Vatican protested to the Slovak government that it "deplore(s) these...measures which gravely hurt the natural human rights of persons, merely because of their race."[142] Chargé daffaires (Fr. ... Slovakia (Slovak: Slovensko) is a landlocked republic in Central Europe. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Vojtech Tuka (July 4, 1880, Å tiavnické Bane (at that time Piarg) - August 20, 1946, executed in Bratislava) was the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic between 1940 and 1945 and one of the most controversial people in Slovak history. ...


On September 18, 1942, Pius received a letter from Monsignor Montini (future Pope Paul VI), saying, "the massacres of the Jews reach frightening proportions and forms."[130] Later that month, Myron Taylor, U.S. representative to the Vatican, warned Pius that the Vatican's "moral prestige" was being injured by silence on European atrocities — a warning which was echoed simultaneously by representatives from Great Britain, Brazil, Uruguay, Belgium, and Poland[143] — the Cardinal Secretary of State replied that the rumors about genocide could not be verified.[144] In December 1942, when Tittman asked Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione if Pius would issue a proclamation similar to the Allied declaration "German Policy of Extermination of the Jewish Race," Maglione replied that the Vatican was "unable to denounce publicly particular atrocities."[145] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monsignor, monsignori, is the form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church holding certain ecclesiastical honorific titles. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Myron Charles Taylor (1874 - 1959) was a U.S. businessman and diplomat. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ...


In late 1942, Pius XII advised German and Hungarian bishops that speaking out against the massacres in the eastern front would be politically advantageous.[146] On April 7, 1943, Msgr. Tardini, one of Pius’s closest advisors, told Pius that it would be politically advantageous after the war to take steps to help Slovakian Jews.[147] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Domenico Cardinal Tardini (February 29, 1888 - July 30, 1961) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and a prominent member of the Roman Curia in Vatican City. ...


In January 1943, Pius would again refuse to publicly denounce the Nazi violence against Jews, following requests to do so from Władysław Raczkiewicz, president of the Polish government-in-exile, and Bishop Konrad von Preysing of Berlin.[148] On September 26, 1943, following the German occupation of northern Italy, Nazi officials gave Jewish leaders in Rome 36 hours to produce 50 kilograms of gold (or the equivalent) threatening to take 300 hostages. Then Chief Rabbi of Rome, Israel Zolli recounts in his memoir, that he was selected to go to the Vatican and seek help.[149] The Vatican offered to loan 15 kilos, but the offer proved unnecessary when the Jews received an extension.[150] Soon afterwards, when deportations from Italy were imminent, 477 Jews were hidden in the Vatican itself and another 4,238 were protected in Roman monasteries and convents. Term of Office from September 30, 1939 until June 6, 1947 Profession Lawyer Political Party none (BBWR) First Lady not married Date of Birth January 28, 1885 Place of Birth Kutaisi, Georgia Date of Death June 6, 1947 Place of Death Wales, United Kingdom WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Raczkiewicz (January 28... Konrad Graf Cardinal von Preysing (August 30, 1880—December 21, 1950) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Israel Anton Zoller (September 27, 1881, Brody, Galicia, Ukraine - March 2, 1956) was an Italian Jewish Rabbi who later converted to Roman Catholicism. ...


On April 30, 1943, Pius wrote to Bishop Von Preysing of Berlin to say: "We give to the pastors who are working on the local level the duty of determining if and to what degree the danger of reprisals and of various forms of oppression occasioned by episcopal declarations...ad maiora mala vitanda (to avoid worse)...seem to advise caution. Here lies one of the reasons, why We impose self-restraint on Ourselves in our speeches; the experience, that we made in 1942 with papal addresses, which We authorized to be forwarded to the Believers, justifies our opinion, as far as We see. (...) The Holy See has done whatever was in its power, with charitable, financial and moral assistance. To say nothing of the substantial sums which we spent in American money for the fares of immigrants."[151] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 28, 1943, Ernst von Weizsäcker, the German Ambassador to the Vatican, telegrammed Berlin that "...the Pope has not yet let himself be persuaded to make an official condemnation of the deportation of the Roman Jews. (...) Since it is currently thought that the Germans will take no further steps against the Jews in Rome, the question of our relations with the Vatican may be considered closed."[152] is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernst Freiherr von Weizsäcker (born May 25, 1882 in Stuttgart, died August 4, 1951 in Lindau) was a German diplomat. ...


In March 1944, through the papal nuncio in Budapest, Angelo Rotta urged the Hungarian government to moderate its treatment of the Jews.[153] These protests, along with others from the King of Sweden, the International Red Cross, the United States, and Britain led to the cessation of deportations on 8 July 1944.[154] Also in 1944, Pius appealed to 13 Latin American governments to accept "emergency passports", although it also took the intervention of the U.S. State Department for those countries to honor the documents.[155] A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the church transferred 6,000 Jewish children in Bulgaria to Palestine, Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione reiterated that the Holy See was not a supporter of Zionism.[153] The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


In August 2006 extracts from the 60-year-old diary of a nun of the Convent of Santi Quattro Coronati[156] were published in the Italian press, stating that Pope Pius XII ordered Rome's convents and monasteries to hide Jews during the Second World War.[157] August 2006 is the eighth month of that year, and has yet to occur. ... First courtyard with the guard tower. ...


Post-World War II

On May 29 1954, three years after his beatification, Pope Pius XII canonized Pope Pius X. It was the first canonization of a Pope since 1712
Church Policies after the war
Main article: Pope Pius XII Church policies after World War II

The Church policies after World War II of Pope Pius XII focused on material aid to war-torn Europe, an internal internationalization of the Roman Catholic Church. and the development of its world-wide diplomatic relations. His encyclicals, Evangelii Praecones and Fidei Donum, issued on June 2, 1951 and April 21, 1957, respectively, increased the local decision-making of Catholic missions, many of which became independent dioceses. Pius XII demanded recognition of local cultures as fully equal to European culture. [158][159] Continuing the line of his predecessors, Pius XII supported the establishment of local administration in Church affairs: in 1950, the hierarchy of Western Africa became independent; in 1951, Southern Africa; and in 1953, British Eastern Africa. Finland, Burma and French Africa became independent dioceses in 1955. Pope Pius X, from a 1904 Stereopticon card This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Pope Pius X, from a 1904 Stereopticon card This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...

Persecutions in Eastern Europe and China
Main article: Persecutions against the Catholic Church and Pope Pius XII

While the Church thrived in the West and most of the developing world, it faced most serious persecutions in the East. The communist regimes in Albania, Bulgaria, and Rumania practically eradicated the Roman Catholic Church in their countries.

Church Policies toward Poland
Main article: Pope Pius XII and Poland
Pope Pius and Russia
Main article: Pope Pius XII and Russia

The difficult relations of the Vatican with the Soviet Union, alias Russia, originated in the revolution in 1917 and continued through the pontificate of Pius XII. They affected relations with the Orthodox Church as well. The Catholic Oriental Churches were eliminated in most parts of the Soviet Union during the stalinist era. Persecutions of the Church continued during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders. ...

The Vatican and the Church in China
Main article: Pope Pius XII and China

The relations of the Holy See with China from 1939-1958. began hopefully with the long withheld recognition of Chinese rites by the Vatican in 1939, the elevation of he first Chinese cardinal in 1946, and the establishment of a local Chinese hierarchy. It ended with the persecution and virtual elimination of the Catholic Church in the early Fifties, and the establishment of a Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association in 1957 The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (Chinese: 中国天主教爱国会, pinyin: Zhōngguó Tiānzhǔjiào Àiguó Huì), abbreviated CPA, CPCA, or CCPA, is a division, established in 1957, of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland Chinas Catholics. ...

Jewish orphans controversy

In 2005, Corriere della Sera published a document dated 20 November 1946 on the subject of Jewish children baptized in war-time France. The document ordered that baptized children, if orphaned, should be kept in Catholic custody and stated that the decision "has been approved by the Holy Father". Nuncio Angelo Roncalli (who would become Pope John XXIII, and be recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations) ignored this directive.[160] Abe Foxman, the national director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), who had himself been baptized as a child and had undergone a custody battle afterwards, called for an immediate freeze on Pius's beatification process until the relevant Vatican Secret Archives and baptismal records were opened.[161] Two Italian scholars, Matteo Luigi Napolitano and Andrea Tornielli, confirmed that the memorandum was genuine although the reporting by the Corriere della Sera was misleading, as the document had originated in the French Catholic Church archives rather than the Vatican archives and strictly concerned itself with children without living blood relatives that were supposed to be handed over to Jewish organisations.[162] The headquarters in Milan. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The Hall of Names containing books of all those who perished in the Holocaust. ... Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), located in Vatican City, is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ...


Later life, death, and legacy

Late years of Pope Pius XII
Statue of Pius XII in Braga, Portugal
Main article: Pope Pius XII: Late years

The last years of the pontificate of Pope Pius XII began in late 1954 with a long illness, during which he considered resignation. Afterwards changes in his work habit became noticeable. The Pope avoided long ceremonies, canonizations and consistories and displayed hesitancy in personnel matters. During the last years of the pontificate, Pope Pius procrastinated personnel decisions within his Vatican, and found it increasingly difficult to chastise subordinates and appointees such as Riccardo Galeazzi-Lisi, who, after numerous indiscretions was excluded from Papal service for the last years, but, keeping his title, was able to enter the papal apartments to make photos of the dying Pope, which he sold to French magazines. [163] For other uses, see Braga (disambiguation). ... Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... A resignation is the formal act of giving up ones office or position. ... Procrastination is the deferment or putting-off of an action or task, usually by focusing on some other distraction (compare temporisation). ... Riccardo Galeazzi-Lisi (1891 - 1968) was an Italian doctor who served as Pope Pius XIIs personal physician from 1939 until Pius death in 1958. ...


The pastoral needs of the Church were not affected by his procrastination on Vatican positions. New bishops were appointed whenever necessary. The Pacelli-Pope favoured naming unconventional, often very young priests, such as Julius Döpfner (35 years) and Karol Wojtyla (38 years), one of his last appointees in 1958. His relations with clergy was cordial, but he took a firm stand against pastoral experiments, such as the French “worker-priests,” who worked full times in factories and joined political parties and unions. [164] He continued to defend the theological tradition of Thomism as worthy of continued reform. [165] Numerous highly talented scholars had contributed to it over the century. Therefore, Pope Pius considered thomism, with all its limitations, superior to modern trends such as phenomenology or existentialism. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ... Generally, convention means coming together. ... His Eminence Julius August Döpfner (born August 26, 1913 in Hausen near Würzburg, died July 24, 1976 in Munich) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Arch Bishop of Munich from 1961 until 1976. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Jan. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...


Illness and death of Pope Pius XII
The Pope of Mary: A Madonna and Child, added by John XXIII, hangs over the tomb of Pius XII.
Main article: Pope Pius XII: Illness and death

Since his 1954 illness, Pope Pius addressed lay people and groups with in an unprecedented range of topics. Frequently, he spoke to members of scientific congresses, explaining Christian teachings in light of most recent scientific results. Sometimes he answered specific moral questions, which were addressed to him. To professional associations he explained specific occupational ethics in light of Church teachings.[166] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Jörg Breu the Youngers painting, the Madonna and Child fix the spectator with a gaze that invites the pious to contemplation and prayer The Madonna and Child is one of the central icons of Christianity. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


Before 1955, Pacelli worked for many years with Giovanni Battista Montini. The Pope did not have a full time assistant. Robert Leiber, helped him occasionally with his speeches and publications. Augustin Bea, was his personal confessor. Madre Pascalina Lehnert was for forty years his housekeeper and assistant. Domenico Tardini was probably closest to him Augustin Cardinal Bea, SJ Augustin Cardinal Bea, SJ (May 28, 1881—November 16, 1968) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Domenico Cardinal Tardini (February 29, 1888 - July 30, 1961) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and a prominent member of the Roman Curia in Vatican City. ...


Pius XII died on October 9, 1958 in Castel Gandolfo, the Papal Summer Residence. His funeral procession into Rome was the largest congregation of Romans as of that date, Romans mourned "their" Pope, who was born in their city, especially as hero in time of war. [167] Pope Pius XII's cause of canonization was opened on November 18, 1965 by Pope Paul VI. On September 2, 2000, during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, Pius XII was given the title of Venerable. The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Castel Gandolfo and the Lake of Albano. ... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ...


Views, interpretations, and scholarship

Contemporary

Cardinal Pacelli attacked by Nazi papers as a friend of Jews and western communists.

During the war, the pope was widely praised. For example, Time Magazine credited Pius XII and the Catholic Church for "fighting totalitarianism more knowingly, devoutly, and authoritatively, and for a longer time, than any other organized power".[168] During the war he was also praised editorially by the New York Times for opposing Nazi anti-semitism and aggression.[169] Some early works echoed these favorable sentiments, including Polish historian Oskar Halecki's Pius XII: Eugenio Pacelli: Pope of peace (1954) and Nazareno Padellaro's Portrait of Pius XII (1949). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1191x1410, 134 KB)Das Schwarze Korps, defunct SS-Newspaper in the Nazi Reich, frontpage shot (selected cartoon with caption), 22 July 1937 (Ausgabe: 22. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1191x1410, 134 KB)Das Schwarze Korps, defunct SS-Newspaper in the Nazi Reich, frontpage shot (selected cartoon with caption), 22 July 1937 (Ausgabe: 22. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Oskar Halecki (1891 in Vienna - 1973 near New York) Polish historian, social and Catholic activist. ...


Many Jews publicly thanked the pope for his help. For example, Pinchas Lapide, a Jewish theologian and Israeli diplomat to Milan in the 1960s, estimated that Pius "was instrumental in saving at least 700,000 but probably as many as 860,000 Jews from certain death at Nazi hands."[170] Some historians have questioned this oft-cited[171] number, which Lapide reached by "deducting all reasonable claims of rescue" by non-Catholics from the total number of European Jews surviving the Holocaust.[172] Catholic scholar Kevin Madigan interprets this and other praise from prominent Jewish leaders, including Golda Meir, as less than sincere, an attempt to secure Vatican recognition of the State of Israel.[173] Pinchas Lapide (1922 — 1997) was a Jewish theologian. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: ‎, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Myerson from 1917-1956) was the fourth prime minister, and a founder, of the State of Israel. ...


Pius was also criticized during his lifetime. For example, Leon Poliakov wrote five years after World War II that Pius had been a tacit supporter of Vichy France's anti-Semitic laws, calling him "less forthright" than Pope Pius XI either out of "Germanophilia" or the hope that Hitler would defeat communist Russia.[174] Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, a long-time critic of Pius XII's policies during the war and an opponent of clerical celibacy and the Tridentine Mass, was excommunicated by Pius XII on July 2, 1945.[175] Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Dom Carlos Duarte Costa Carlos Duarte Costa or Saint Carlos of Brazil (1888-1961) was a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church; after being excommunicated by Pope Pius XII, he established the Catholic Apostolic Church of Brazil. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... A pre-1969 Latin Rite altar with reredos: A main altar was usually preceded by three steps, below which were said the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On September 21, 1945, the general secretary of the World Jewish Council, Dr. Leon Kubowitzky, presented an amount of money to the pope, "in recognition of the work of the Holy See in rescuing Jews from Fascist and Nazi persecutions."[176] is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the war, in the autumn of 1945, Harry Greenstein from Baltimore, a close friend of Chief Rabbi Herzog of Jerusalem, told Pius how grateful Jews were for all he had done for them. "My only regret," the pope replied, "is not to have been able to save a greater number of Jews."[177]


The Deputy

Main article: The Deputy

In 1963, Rolf Hochhuth's controversial drama Der Stellvertreter. Ein christliches Trauerspiel (The Deputy, a Christian tragedy, released in English in 1964) portrayed Pope Pius XII as a hypocrite who remained silent about the Holocaust. Books such as Dr. Joseph Lichten's A Question of Judgment (1963), written in response to The Deputy, defended Pius XII's actions during the war. Lichten labelled any criticism of the pope's actions during World War II as "a stupefying paradox" and said, "no one who reads the record of Pius XII's actions on behalf of Jews can subscribe to Hochhuth's accusation."[178] Critical scholarly works like Guenter Lewy's The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany (1964) also followed the publication of The Deputy. In 2002 the play was adapted into the film Amen. The Deputy, a Christian tragedy (German: ) was a controversial 1963 drama by Rolf Hochhuthwhich portrayed Pope Pius XII as a hypocrite who remained silent about The Holocaust. ... Rolf Hochhuth (born April 1, 1931 in Eschwege) is a German author and playwright. ... The Deputy, a Christian tragedy (German: ) was a controversial 1963 drama by Rolf Hochhuthwhich portrayed Pope Pius XII as a hypocrite who remained silent about The Holocaust. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Guenter Lewy (born 1923, Germany) is an author and historian, and a professor emeritus of political science at the University of Massachusetts. ... Amen. ...


Actes

Main article: Actes et Documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale

In the aftermath of the controversy surrounding The Deputy, in 1964 Pope Paul VI authorized Jesuit scholars to access the Vatican State Department Archives , which are normally not opened for seventy-five years. Actes et Documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, was published in eleven volumes between 1965 and 1981.The volumes were published by Angelo Martini, Burkhart Schneider, Robert Graham and Pierre Blet, the latter published a summary of the eleven volumes [179] All four, most frequently Robert Graham published articles and books on the subject matter. Actes et Documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (Acts and Documents of the Holy See relative to the Second World War, often abbreviated Actes or ADSS) is an eleven-volume collection of documents from the Vatican historical archives compiled by Jesuit historians Pierre Blet (France), Angelo... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Actes et Documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (Acts and Documents of the Holy See relative to the Second World War, often abbreviated Actes or ADSS) is an eleven-volume collection of documents from the Vatican historical archives compiled by Jesuit historians Pierre Blet (France), Angelo... Robert Graham is the name of several persons: Robert Graham (Privy Counsellor), English statesman who was a member of the Privy Council. ... Robert Graham is the name of several persons: Robert Graham (Privy Counsellor), English statesman who was a member of the Privy Council. ...


Hitler's Pope

Main article: Hitler's Pope
The cover of Hitler's Pope, showing Nuncio Pacelli leaving the residence of President Hindenburg in 1927.

In 1999, John Cornwell's Hitler's Pope criticized Pius for not doing enough, or speaking out enough, against the Holocaust. Cornwell argued that Pius's entire career as the nuncio to Germany, cardinal secretary of state, and pope was characterized by a desire to increase and centralize the power of the Papacy, and that he subordinated opposition to the Nazis to that goal. He further argues that Pius was anti-Semitic and that this stance prevented him from caring about the European Jews.[180] US Cover Hitlers Pope is a book published in 1999 by the Catholic ex-seminarian, historian, and journalist John Cornwell. ... Image File history File links Hitlerspope. ... Image File history File links Hitlerspope. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... John Cornwell is an English journalist and writer, known particularly for his science writing and books on the Papacy. ... US Cover Hitlers Pope is a book published in 1999 by the Catholic ex-seminarian, historian, and journalist John Cornwell. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Cornwell's work was the first to have access to testimonies from Pius's beatification process as well as to many documents from Pacelli's nunciature which had just been opened under the seventy-five year rule by the Vatican State Secretary archives.[181] Cornwell concluded, "Pacelli's failure to respond to the enormity of the Holocaust was more than a personal failure, it was a failure of the papal office itself and the prevailing culture of Catholicism."


Cornwell's work has received much praise and criticism. Much praise of Cornwell centered around his statement that he was a practising Catholic who had attempted to absolve Pius with his work.[182] Works such as Susan Zuccotti's Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy (2000) and Michael Phayer's The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965 (2000) are critical of both Cornwell and Pius XII. J. Michael Phayer, born 1935, is a historian and professor emeritus at Marquette University in Milwaukee and has written about the Jewish Holocaust. ...


Cornwell's scholarship has been criticized. For example, Kenneth L. Woodward stated in his review in Newsweek that "errors of fact and ignorance of context appear on almost every page."[183] Cornwell himself gives a more ambiguous assessment of Pius' conduct in a 2004 interview where he states that "Pius XII had so little scope of action that it is impossible to judge the motives for his silence during the war".[184] Most recently, Rabbi David Dalin's The Myth of Hitler's Pope argues that critics of Pius are liberal Catholics and ex-Catholics who "exploit the tragedy of the Jewish people during the Holocaust to foster their own political agenda of forcing changes on the Catholic Church today" and that Pius XII was actually responsible for saving the lives of many thousands of Jews.[185]. Rabbi David G. Dalin is a rabbi and author and co-author of several books on Jewish History. ... The Myth of Hitlers Pope The Myth of Hitlers Pope: How Pope Pius XII Rescued Jews from the Nazis is a book written by Rabbi David G. Dalin and published in 2005. ...


ICJHC

Main article: International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission

In 1999, in an attempt to address some of this controversy, the Vatican appointed the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission (ICJHC), a group composed of three Jewish and three Catholic scholars to investigate the role of the Church during the Holocaust. In 2001, the ICJHC issued its preliminary finding, raising a number of questions about the way the Vatican dealt with the Holocaust, titled " The Vatican and the Holocaust: A Preliminary Report."[186] The International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission was a body appointed by the Holy Sees Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews in 1999. ... The International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission was a body appointed by the Holy Sees Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews in 1999. ...


The Commission discovered documents making it clear that Pius was aware of widespread anti-Jewish persecution in 1941 and 1942, and they suspected that the Church may have been influenced in not helping Jewish immigration by the nuncio of Chile and the Papal representative to Bolivia, who complained about the "invasion of the Jews" to their countries, where they engaged in "dishonest dealings, violence, immorality, and even disrespect for religion."[186]


The ICJHC raised a list of 47 questions about the way the Church dealt with the Holocaust, requested documents that had not been publicly released in order to continue their work, and, not receiving permission, they disbanded in July of 2001, having never issued a final report. Unsatisfied with the findings, Dr. Michael Marrus, one of the three Jewish members of the Commission, said the commission "ran up against a brick wall.... It would have been really helpful to have had support from the Holy See on this issue."[187]


References

Primary
  • Acta Apostolicae Sedis (AAS). 1939-1958. Vatican City.
  • (Italian) Angelini, Fiorenzo. 1959. Pio XII, Discorsi Ai Medici. Rome.
  • Claudia, M. 1955. Guide to the Documents of Pope Pius XII. Westminster, Maryland.
  • Pio XII, Discorsi e Radio Messaggi di Sua Santita Pio XII. 1939-1958. Vatican City. 20 vol.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Myron C. Taylor, ed. Wartime Correspondence Between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII. Prefaces by Pius XII and Harry Truman. Kessinger Publishing (1947, reprinted, 2005). ISBN 1-4191-6654-9
  • (German) Utz, A. F., and Gröner, J. F. (eds.). Soziale Summe Pius XII 3 vol.
  • Zolli, Israel. 1997. Before the Dawn. Roman Catholic Books (Reprint edition). ISBN 0-912141-46-8. Also see Amazon Online Reader
Secondary
  • Cornwell, John. 1999. Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII. Viking. ISBN 0-670-87620-8. Also see Amazon Online Reader.
  • Cushing, Richard. 1959. Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press.
  • Dalin, Rabbi David G. 2005. The Myth of Hitler's Pope: How Pope Pius XII Rescued Jews from the Nazis. Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-034-4.
  • Falconi, Carlo. 1970 (translated from the 1965 Italian edition). The Silence of Pius XII. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. ISBN 0-571-09147-4
  • Feldkamp, Michael F. Pius XII und Deutschland. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-34026-5.
  • Friedländer, Saul. 1966. Pius XII and the Third Reich: A Documentation. New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-374-92930-0
  • Gallo, Patrick J., ed. 2006. Pius XII, The Holocaust and the Revisionists. London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-2374-9
  • Goldhagen, Daniel. 2002. "A Moral Reckoning - The role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair". Little, Brown ISBN 0 316 724467
  • Gutman, Israel (ed.). 1990. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-864529-4
  • Halecki, Oskar. 1954. Pius XII: Eugenio Pacelli: Pope of peace. Farrar, Straus and Young. OCLC 775305
  • Hatch, Alden, and Walshe, Seamus. 1958. Crown of Glory, The Life of Pope Pius XII. New York: Hawthorne Books.
  • ICJHC. 2000. The Vatican and the Holocaust: A Preliminary Report.
  • Kent, Peter. 2002. The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: The Roman Catholic Church and the Division of Europe, 1943–1950. Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2326-X
  • Lapide, Pinchas 1980. The Last Three Popes and the Jews. London:Souvenir Press.
  • Levillain, Philippe. 2002. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-92228-3
  • Lewy, Guenter. 1964. The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-306-80931-1
  • Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2000. Pope Pius XII: Architect for Peace. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-3912-X
  • Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2002. Consensus and Controversy: Defending Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4083-7
  • Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2002. Shepherd of Souls: A Pictorial Life of Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4181-7
  • Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2004. Man of Peace: An Abridged Life of Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4245-7
  • McDermott, Thomas. 1946. Keeper of the Keys -A Life of Pope Pius XII. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.
  • McInerney, Ralph. 2001. The Defamation of Pius XII. St Augustine's Press. ISBN 1-890318-66-3
  • Murphy, Paul I. and Arlington, R. Rene. 1983. La Popessa: The Controversial Biography of Sister Pasqualina, the Most Powerful Woman in Vatican History. New York: Warner Books Inc. ISBN 0-446-51258-3
  • (Italian) Padellaro, Nazareno. 1949. Portrait of Pius XII. Dutton; 1st American ed edition (1957). OCLC 981254
  • Paul, Leon. 1957. The Vatican Picture Book - A Picture Pilgrimage. New York: Greystone Press.
  • Phayer, Michael. 2000. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33725-9.
  • Pollard, John F. 2005. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850–1950. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pfister, Pierre. 1955. PIUS XII - The Life and Work of a Great Pope. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
  • Ritner, Carol and Roth, John K. (eds.). 2002. Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. New York: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0275-2
  • Rychlak, Ronald J. 2000. Hitler, the War, and the Pope. Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 0-87973-217-2. Also see Amazon Online Reader
  • Sánchez, José M. 2002. Pius XII and the Holocaust: Understanding the Controversy. Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 0-8132-1081-X
  • Scholder, Klaus. 1987. The Churches and the Third Reich. London.
  • Volk, Ludwig. 1972. Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933. Mainz: Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag. ISBN 3-7867-0383-3.
  • Zuccotti, Susan. 2000. Under his very Windows, The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08487-0

For the victim of Mt. ... Israel Anton Zoller (September 27, 1881, Brody, Galicia, Ukraine - March 2, 1956) was an Italian Jewish Rabbi who later converted to Roman Catholicism. ... John Cornwell is an English journalist and writer, known particularly for his science writing and books on the Papacy. ... US Cover Hitlers Pope is a book published in 1999 by the Catholic ex-seminarian, historian, and journalist John Cornwell. ... Richard James Cushing (1895 - 1970) was a U.S. cardinal in 1958. ... Rabbi David G. Dalin is a rabbi and author and co-author of several books on Jewish History. ... The Myth of Hitlers Pope The Myth of Hitlers Pope: How Pope Pius XII Rescued Jews from the Nazis is a book written by Rabbi David G. Dalin and published in 2005. ... Michael F. Feldkamp, (* April 23, 1962), German historian, journalist. ... Saul Friedländer (born 1932) is a French-Israeli historian. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990, in tandem Hebrew and English editions, by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust Memorial Authority. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission was a body appointed by the Holy Sees Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews in 1999. ... Peter Kent (born in Sussex, England July 27, 1943) is Deputy Editor for Global Television News, a Canadian TV network. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Pollard, 2005, p. 70.
  2. ^ Marchione, 2004, p. 1.
  3. ^ a b c d e Marchione, 2005, p. 64.
  4. ^ a b c Marchione, 2000, p. 193.
  5. ^ a b c Marchione, 2004, p. 10.
  6. ^ a b Marchione, 2004, p. 9.
  7. ^ Dalin, 2005, p. 47.
  8. ^ Dalin, 2005, p. 48.
  9. ^ Levillain, 2002, p. 1211.
  10. ^ Emma Fatoni, Germania e Santa sede, Le Nunziature di Pacelli tra la Grande Guerra e la Republica de Weimar, Societa Editrice il Mulino, Bologna, Italia, 1992, pp.45-85)
  11. ^ Marchione, 2004, p. 11.
  12. ^ Burkhart Schneider,Pio XII. Pace, Opera della Giustizia, Edizione Paolini, Roma, 1984, p.16
  13. ^ Burkhart Schneider, Pio XII. Pace, Opera della Giustizia, Edizione Paolini, Roma, 1984, p.17
  14. ^ Ronald Ryschlak, Hitler the War and the Pope, Genesis Press, Columbus MS, USA, 2000, p.6;
  15. ^ Lehnert, 15-16
  16. ^ Peter Gumpel, conversation October 9, 1994
  17. ^ Bayrisches Geheimes Staatsarchiv München, Bayrische Gesandtschaft beim Päpstlichen Stuhl, 1919, Faszikel 967, 139,167
  18. ^ Schmidt, Lydia. (2000). Kultusminister Franz Matt (1920–1926): Schul-, Kirchen- und Kunstpolitik in Bayern nach dem Umbruch von 1918. CH Beck. ISBN 3-406-10707-9
  19. ^ Robert Murphy Diplomat among Warriors Doubleday, Garden City,N.Y. 1964, p.205
  20. ^ Ludwig Volk Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933 ISBN 3-7867-0383-3.
  21. ^ They were published by Ludwig Kaas, Eugenio Pacelli, Erster Apostolischer Nuntius beim Deutschen Reich, Gesammelte Reden, Buchverlag Germania, Berlin, 1930
  22. ^ (Hansjakob Stehle, Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans, Piper, München, 1975, p.139-141
  23. ^ Hansjakob Stehle, Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans, Piper, München, 1975, p.132
  24. ^ Rudolf Morsey, Eugenio Pacelli als Nuntius in Deutschland, in Herbert Schambeck, Pius XII. Duncker &Humblot, Berlin, p.131.
  25. ^ Rudolf Morsey, Eugenio Pacelli als Nuntius in Deutschland, in Herbert Schambeck, Pius XII. Duncker &Humblot, Berlin, p. 121.
  26. ^ Karl Heinz Harbeck, Akten der Reichskanzlei. Das Kabinett Cuno, Boppard, 1968, p. 544.
  27. ^ Emma Fatoni, Germania e Santa Sede, Le Nunziature di Pacelli tra la Grande Guerra e la Republica de Weimar, Societa Editrice il Mulino, Bologna, Italia, 1992, p. 265f.
  28. ^ Nikolaus Junk, Im Kampf Zwischen Zwei Epochen, Mainz 1973, p. 381.
  29. ^ Kent, 2002, p. 24.
  30. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin (ed.). Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (trans.). (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1
  31. ^ Dalin, 2005, p. 58–59.
  32. ^ Marchione, 2002, p. 22.
  33. ^ Phayer, 2000, p. 3.
  34. ^ Walter Bussmann, 1969, "Pius XII an die deutshen Bischöfe", Hochland 61, p. 61–65
  35. ^ a b c Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p. 1136.
  36. ^ Passelecp, Suchecky p.113-137
  37. ^ a b Hill, Roland. 1997, August 11. "The lost encyclical." The Tablet.
  38. ^ January 28,1939, eleven days before the death of Pope Pius XI, author a disappointed Gundlach informs to author La Farge,."It cannot continue like this" The text has not been forwarded to the Vatican. He had talked to the American assistant to Father General, who promised to look into the matter in December 1938, but did not report back.Passelecp, Suchecky. p.121.
  39. ^ Humani Generis Unitas
  40. ^ www.adl.org/main_Interfaith/nostra_aetate.htm?Multi_page_sections=sHeading_4
  41. ^ On March 16, four days after coronation, Gundlach informs LaFarge, that the documents were given to Pius XI shortly before his death, but that the new Pope had sofar no opportunity to learn about it. Passelecp, Suchecky. p.126.
  42. ^ ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XII ON THE UNITY OF HUMAN SOCIETY TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN: THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHIOPS, AND OTHER ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE APOSTOLIC SEE (AAS 1939).
  43. ^ Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli Discorsi E Panegirici 1931-1938 Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939
  44. ^ Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p. 539.
  45. ^ Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p.539-544.
  46. ^ They included: Latvia 1922, Bavaria 1925, Poland 1925, France I., 1926, France II. 1926, Lithuania 1927, Czechoslovakia 1928, Portugal I 1928, Italy I1929, Italy II 1929, Portugal II 1929, Rumania I1927, Prussia 1929, Rumania II 1932, Baden 1932, Germany 1933, Austria 1933. See P.Joanne M.Restrepo Restrepo SJ. Concordata Regnante Sanctissimo Domino Pio PP.XI. Inita PontificiaUniversita Gregoriana, Roma, 1934.
  47. ^ Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p. 546,547.
  48. ^ Ludwig Volk Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933, p. 34f., 45–58.
  49. ^ Klaus Scholder "The Churches and the Third Reich" volume 1: especially Part 1, chapter 10; Part 2, chapter 2
  50. ^ Volk, p. 98–101. Feldkamp, 88–93.
  51. ^ Volk, p. 101,105.
  52. ^ Volk, p. 254.
  53. ^ Phayer 2000, p. 16; Sanchez 2002, p. 16–17.
  54. ^ 74.A lEveque de Passau, in "Lettres de Pie XII aux Eveques Allemands 1939-1944, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1967, p.416
  55. ^ Michael F. Feldkamp Pius XII und Deutschland ISBN 3-525-34026-5.
  56. ^ Dalin, 2005, p. 69–70
  57. ^ Catholic Forum. Pope Pius XII.
  58. ^ Pius XII, quoted in Joseph Brosch, Pius XII, Lehrer der Wahrheit, Kreuzring, Trier,1968, p.45
  59. ^ “Medius vestrum stetit quem vos nescetis. Everybody knew what the pope meant". Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.105
  60. ^ Lehnert, Pascalina Ich durfte Ihm Dienen,Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986, p.57
  61. ^ Pascalina Lehnert, Ich durfte Ihm Dienen, Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986,p. 49
  62. ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.75
  63. ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.76
  64. ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p. 76.
  65. ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p. 76.
  66. ^ Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and Congregation of Ordinary Affairs
  67. ^ Pio XII, La Allocuzione nel consistorio Segreto del 12 Gennaio 1953 in Pio XII, Discorsi e Radiomessagi di Sua Santita Vatican City, 1953,p.455;
  68. ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.157
  69. ^ Guilio Nicolini, Il Cardinale Domenico Tardini, Padova, 1980, ISBN 887026-340-1; p.313
  70. ^ In the State Department he had actively supported “foreigners”, for example Francis Spellman, the American monsignor, whom he consecrated himself as the first American Bishop in the Vatican curia. Spellman had organized and accompanied Pacelli's American journey and arranged a meeting with President Roosevelt. Only 30 days after his coronation, on April 12, 1939, Pope Pius XII named Spellman as archbishop of New York. ((For many interesting details see the authorized biography of Cardinal Spellman: Robert I. Gannon The Cardinal Spellman Story, Doubleday Company, New York, 1962
  71. ^ Oscar Halecki, James Murray, Jr. Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli, Pope of Peace; p.370
  72. ^ (previously Leo X's elevation of thirty-one cardinals in 1517 had held this title). John Paul II would later surpass this number on February 21, 2001, elevating forty-four cardinals. By that time, the limit had been suspended and over 120 Cardinals existed.
  73. ^ Levillain, 2002, p. 1136.
  74. ^ Tobin, Greg. (2003). Selecting the Pope: Uncovering the Mysteries of Papal Elections. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 0-7607-4032-1. p. xv-xvi, 143.
  75. ^ Oscar Halecki, James Murray, Jr. Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli, Pope of Peace, p. 371.
  76. ^ For example Padellaro:“Church history will memorize with special letters the secret conclave of 1946, and the cosmopolitan Pius XII, who called men of all races into the Senate of the Church" Nazareno Padellaro, Pio XII Torino, 1956, p. 484
  77. ^ AAS, 1947, Mediator Dei, 18
  78. ^ AAS, 1947, Mediator Dei, p. 19.
  79. ^ AAS 1947, Mediator Dei, p. 31.
  80. ^ AAS, 1947, Mediator Dei, 47
  81. ^ AAS, 1957, p. 425.
  82. ^ AAS, 1952, pp. 542-546
  83. ^ AAS, 1946, pp. 349-354
  84. ^ AAS, 1956, p. 354 ff
  85. ^ AAS, 1956, p. 357.
  86. ^ AAS, 1950, p. 657
  87. ^ AAS 1954 313
  88. ^ AAS 1957 272
  89. ^ John XXIII, Pius XII, in Domenico Tardini, Pius XII, Roma 1959, p.14.
  90. ^ Humani Generis (1950) and Divino Afflante Spiritu (1943), p. 305.</
  91. ^ AAS, 1943, p. 297.
  92. ^ AAS, 1943, p. 305.
  93. ^ Pius XII, Enc. Humani Generis, 21
  94. ^ Humani Generis, p. 21.
  95. ^ AAS, 1950, p. 753.
  96. ^ AAS 1953, 577
  97. ^ AAS 1954, 625
  98. ^ Pius XII, Enc. Mystici Corporis Christi, 110
  99. ^ Pio XII, Discorsi Ai Medici compiles 700 pages of specific addresses.
  100. ^ Pope Pius XII, The Moral Limits of Medical Research and Treatment.
  101. ^ Two speeches on October 29, 1951, and November 26, 1951: Moral Questions Affecting Married Life: Addresses given to the Italian Catholic Union of midwives October 29, 1951, and November 26, 1951 to the National Congress of the Family Front and the Association of Large Families, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, DC. Text of the speeches available from EWTN or CatholicCulture.org
  102. ^ Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1940, p407; Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1942, p.52; Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1946,p.89Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1951, p.28.221.413.574
  103. ^ Robert Leiber, Pius XII Stimmen der Zeit, November 1958 in Pius XII. Sagt, Frankfurt 1959, p.411
  104. ^ Pius XII, Enc. Humani Generis, 36
  105. ^ www.catholic.net/RCC/Periodicals/Inside/01-97/creation.html
  106. ^ Communication, Father Robert Graham, SJ, November 10, 1992
  107. ^ Orientalis Ecclesiae, AAS, 1944, p. 129.
  108. ^ Orientales Omnes, AAS, 1946, pp. 33-63.
  109. ^ Sempiternus Rex, AAS, 1951, pp. 625-644.
  110. ^ Orientales Ecclesiae. AAS, 1953, pp. 5-15.
  111. ^ Apostolic Letters to the bishops in the East. AAS, 1956, pp. 260-264.
  112. ^ Fulgens Corona, AAS, 1953, pp. 577-593.
  113. ^ Papal letter to the People of Russia, AAS, 1952, pp. 505-511.
  114. ^ Pascalina Lehnert, Pius XII, Ich durfte ihm dienen, Würzburg, 1982, p. 163
  115. ^ Friedländer, Saul, 1997, Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution, New York: HarperCollins, p. 223.
  116. ^ a b McInerny, 2001, p49.
  117. ^ McInerny, 2001, p. 47.
  118. ^ Finnish Defence Forces - The Winter War 1939-1940 Retrieved 9-5-2007.
  119. ^ Gilbert, Martin, The Second World War, p. 40.
  120. ^ Dalin, David G. The Myth of Hitler's Pope: How Pope Pius XII Rescued Jews from the Nazis. Regnery Publishing. Washington, 2005. ISBN 0-89526-034-4. p. 76.
  121. ^ Prof. John S. Conway: The Vatican, the Nazis and Pursuit of Justice.
  122. ^ Minutes of August 7, 1941. British Public Records Office FO 371/30175 57760
  123. ^ Mark Aarons and John Loftus Unholy Trinity pp.71–2
  124. ^ Israel Gutman (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Holocaust vol 2 p.739
  125. ^ Ronald Rychlak, Hitler, the War, and the Pope, p. 414–15, note 61.
  126. ^ Mary Ball Martinez. 1993. "Pope Pius XII and the Second World War". Journal of Historical Review. v. 13.
  127. ^ [1] [2].
  128. ^ Report by the Polish Ambassador to the Holy See on the Situation in German-occupied Poland, Memorandum No. 79, May 29, 1942, Myron Taylor Papers, NARA.
  129. ^ Rittner and Roth, 2002, p. 4.
  130. ^ a b c d e Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p. 1137.
  131. ^ New York Times. December 25, 1941. "The Pope's Message." p. 24.
  132. ^ New York Times. December 25, 1942. "The Pope's Verdict." p. 16.
  133. ^ Kent, 2002, p. 87–100.
  134. ^ Lesser, Jeffrey. 1995. Welcoming the Undesirables: Brazil and the Jewish Question. University of California Press. p. 151–168.
  135. ^ a b Perl, William, The Holocaust Conspiracy, p. 200.
  136. ^ Phayer, 2000, p. 5.
  137. ^ Michael R. Marrus and Robert O. Paxton, 1981, Vichy France and the Jews, New York: Basic Books, p. 202.
  138. ^ Delpech, Les Eglises et la Persécution raciale, p. 267.
  139. ^ John F. Morley, 1980, Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939–1943, New York: KTAV, p. 75.
  140. ^ Phayer, 2000, p.5
  141. ^ Perl, William, The Holocaust Conspiracy, p. 206.
  142. ^ Lapide, 1980, p139.
  143. ^ Phayer, 2000, p. 27–28.
  144. ^ Israel Pocket Library, Holocaust, p. 133; Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p. 1137.
  145. ^ Hilberg, Raul, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 315.
  146. ^ Israel Pocket Library, Holocaust, p. 136.
  147. ^ (French) Actes et documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre mondiale / éd. par Pierre Blet, Angelo Martini, Burkhart Schneider. 7th April 1943
  148. ^ Israel Pocket Library, Holocaust, p. 134.
  149. ^ Eugenio Zolli. Before the Dawn. Reissued in 1997 as Why I Became a Catholic.
  150. ^ Israel Pocket Library, Holocaust, p. 133.
  151. ^ Letter of Pius XII of 30th April, 1943 to the Bischop of Berlin, Graf von Preysing, published in "Documentation catholique" of 2nd February, 1964.
  152. ^ Berel Lang. "Not Enough" vs. "Plenty": Which did Pius XII do?. Judaism. Fall 2001. and "Jewish Virtual Library: 860,000 Lives Saved - The Truth About Pius XII and the Jews"
  153. ^ a b Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p. 1138.
  154. ^ Gilbert, Martin, The Holocaust, p. 701.
  155. ^ Perl, William, The Holocaust Conspiracy, p. 176.
  156. ^ Baglioni, Pina (August 2006). 30Days - The Holy Father orders…. 30Days. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  157. ^ Davies, Bess Twiston. "Faith news - Comment - Times Online", The Times, 2006-08-19. Retrieved on 2006-11-02. 
  158. ^ Audience for the directors of mission activities in 1944 A.A.S., 1944, p. 208.
  159. ^ Evangelii Praecones. p. 56.
  160. ^ Jerusalem Report, (February 7, 2005).
  161. ^ Anti-Defamation League. ADL to Vatican: Open Baptismal Records and Put Pius Beatification on Hold. January 13, 2005.
  162. ^ Dimitri Cavalli. Pius's Children. The American. April 1, 2006.
  163. ^ Schneider, 80
  164. ^ See main article
  165. ^ See Humani Generis
  166. ^ See main article
  167. ^ Pascalina Lehnert, Ich durfte ihm dienen, p.197
  168. ^ Time. August 16, 1943.
  169. ^ New York Times December 25, 1941 and December 25, 1942 [3]
  170. ^ Lapide, Three Popes and the Jews, 1967, quoted in Dalin, 2005, p. 11.
  171. ^ E.g. Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust, p. 623.
  172. ^ Lapide, 1967, p. 269.
  173. ^ Kevin Madigan. Judging Pius XII, page 2. Christian Century. March 14, 2001.
  174. ^ Leon Poliakov. November 1950. "The Vatican and the 'Jewish Question': The Record of the Hitler Period — and After." Commentary 10: 439–449.
  175. ^ Redmile, Robert David. 2006. The Apostolic Succession and the Catholic Episcopate in the Christian Episcopal. Xulon Press. ISBN 1600345166. p. 247.
  176. ^ McInernny, 2001, p155.
  177. ^ McInernny, Ralph, The Defamation of Pius XII, 2001.
  178. ^ Lichten, 1963, A Question of Judgement.
  179. ^ Pierre Blet Pius XII and the Second World War, Paulist Press, 1999
  180. ^ Phayer, 2000, p. xii-xiii.
  181. ^ Sanchez, 2002, p. 34.
  182. ^ Sanchez, 2002.
  183. ^ Kenneth L. Woodward. The Case Against Pius Xii, Newsweek. September 27, 1999. http://www.newsweek.com/id/89597
  184. ^ For God's sake. The Economist. Dec 9th 2004.
  185. ^ Dalin, 2005, p. 3.
  186. ^ a b ICJHC, 2000.
  187. ^ Melissa Radler. "Vatican Blocks Panel's Access to Holocaust Archives." The Jerusalem Post. July 24, 2001.

Humani Generis Unitas (Latin for On the Unity of Humanity) was a planned encyclical of Pope Pius XI before his death on 10 February 1939, which condemned antisemitism, racism and the persecution of Jews. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 2006 is the eighth month of that year, and has yet to occur. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Pope Pius XII
General
  • Official Vatican page on Pius XII
  • New Oxford Review The Pius War by Joseph Bottum
  • Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust - Jewish Virtual Library
  • Tomb of Pius XII
Official documents
  • October 2000 Report of the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission, notice of Commission suspending work
  • Complete Text of the Concordat between the Vatican and the Third Reich
Pro-Pius
  • The Holy See vs. the Third Reich
  • Jewish Historian Praises Pius XII
  • Did Pius XII Remain Silent?
  • Cornwell's Cheap Shot at Pius XII
  • Pius XII and the Jews: The War Years, as reported by the New York Times
  • Righteous Gentile: Pope Pius XII and the Jews Rabbi David Dalin, Ph. D.
  • Holy Cross' Pius XII and the Holocaust
Anti-Pius
  • Cornwell's "Hitler's Pope" - excerpt published by Vanity Fair
  • Review of "Papal Sin" by Gary Wills in the New York Times Book Review
Mixed
  • Judging Pius XII from Christian Century by Kevin Madigan
Roman Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pietro Cardinal Gasparri
Cardinal Secretary of State
1930 – 1939
Succeeded by
Luigi Cardinal Maglione
Camerlengo
1935 – 1939
Succeeded by
Lorenzo Cardinal Lauri
Preceded by
Pius XI
Pope
1939 – 1958
Succeeded by
John XXIII
Persondata
NAME Pius XII, Pope
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Pacelli, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1939 to 1958
DATE OF BIRTH March 2, 1876
PLACE OF BIRTH Rome, Italy
DATE OF DEATH October 9, 1958
PLACE OF DEATH Castel Gandolfo, Italy
Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Full Text of Abridged Version of 'Hitler's Pope,'by John Cornwell (8503 words)
Pius XI and his new secretary of state, Pacelli, were determined that no accommodation be reached with Communists anywhere in the world -- this was the time of persecution of the church in Russia, Mexico, and later Spain - but totalitarian movements and regimes of the right were a different matter.
Pius XII agreed to act as go-between for the plotters and the Allies.
The church of Pius XII is reasserting itself in confirmation of a pyramidal church model: faith in the primacy of the man in the white robe dictating in solitude from the pinnacle.
Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust (2586 words)
The Pope was born in 1876 in Rome as Eugenio Pacelli.
Pius XII protested against the deportation of Jews and, when his protests were not heeded, he cabled again and again.
Pope Pius XII ordered Jewish babies baptized by Catholics during the Holocaust not to be returned to their parents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m