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Encyclopedia > Pope Paul VI
Paul VI
Birth name Giovanni Battista
Enrico Antonio
Maria Montini
Papacy began June 21, 1963
Papacy ended August 6, 1978
Predecessor John XXIII
Successor John Paul I
Born September 26, 1897
Concesio, Italy
Died August 6, 1978, age 80
Castel Gandolfo, Italy
Other popes named Paul

His Holiness Pope Paul VI (Latin: Paulus PP. VI), (Italian: Paolo VI), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, who had convened the Second Vatican Council, he presided over the majority of its sessions and oversaw the implementation of its decrees. Image File history File links Paul_sextus. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26 to September 28, 1978. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Concesio is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy in Valle Trompia. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Castel Gandolfo and the Lake of Albano. ... Pope Paul has been the name of six Roman Catholic Popes: Pope Paul I (757–767) Pope Paul II (1464–1471) Pope Paul III Pope Paul IV Pope Paul V Pope Paul VI See also: Pope John Paul I and Pope John Paul II This is a disambiguation page — a... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, (born 1927) His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...

Contents

Early career

Giovanni Montini was born in Concesio in Brescia province, Italy, of a family of local nobility on his maternal line. He entered the seminary to train to become a Roman Catholic priest in 1916, and was ordained a priest in 1920. He took the solemn oath against Modernism before an open tabernacle initiated by Pope St. Pius X. He studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome, and the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. His organisational skills led him to a career in the Curia, the papal civil service. In 1937, he was named Substitute for Ordinary Affairs under Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State under Pope Pius XI. When Pacelli was elected Pope Pius XII, Montini was confirmed in the position under the new Secretary of State. When in 1944, the Secretary of State died, the role was assumed directly by the pope, with Montini working directly under him. Concesio is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy in Valle Trompia. ... Province of Brescia is a Province in Lombardy, Italy. ... A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... . ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Modernism describes a broad body of theological views, including the belief that the Church and Catholic dogma are mere human institutions and as such their nature may radically change over time. ... The North American College at the Gregorian The Pontifical Gregorian University is a Roman Catholic theological seminary in Rome. ... There is no institution called the University of Rome, but there are several universities in Rome: University of Rome La Sapienza University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Roma Tre This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is one of the Pontifical Academies inside the Vatican City State. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, every diocese has a curia, consisting of the chief officials of the diocese. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City State, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Some of his work during this period remains shrouded in mystery, with claims and counter-claims, most notably concerning his involvement in the diplomatic activities of the Vatican during World War II. For example, the Vatican's repeated contacts with Count Galeazzo Ciano, fascist Minister of Foreign affairs and son-in-law of Mussolini, remains an issue of some criticism. Montini, who worked as a diplomat, has been accused of having obtained from the Fascists, at the beginning of the war, some promises of unclear advantages for the Vatican, in exchange of its eventual support. However, many other historians dispute this analysis. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Galeazzo Ciano. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ...


The unique complexity of the war-time period saw Montini procure large sums of money to aid European Jews, while he is also alleged to have been involved in enabling some leading Nazi officers to escape the collapse of the Third Reich (see Ratlines). Formally a simple administrative employee of the Vatican government, but effectively the closest supporter of Pius XII, he has often been recognised as one of the most important political figures of the period. No official confirmation exists, but evidence indicates that he (along with Alcide De Gasperi) attempted to set up a channel of communication between Crown Princess Maria José (daughter-in-law of the King of Italy and wife of the Prince of Piedmont, Umberto) and the United States, in order to find a separate peace for Italy with the United States; the Princess however was not able to meet Myron Taylor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's special representative to the Vatican, and no one knows if Montini was unable to organize this meeting or was unwilling to do so. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly North America, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle (August 4, 1906 - January 27, 2001) was born in Ostend, Belgium, the youngest child of Albert I. On January 30, 1930, she married Prince Umberto, who later became the King of Italy. ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904 - March 18, 1983), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... Myron Charles Taylor (1874 - 1959) was a U.S. businessman and diplomat. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Archbishop of Milan

Montini was appointed in 1954, to the senior Italian church post of Archbishop of Milan. Traditionally such an appointment would be followed by being made a cardinal at the next consistory (when vacancies in the College of Cardinals are filled). To the surprise of many, Montini never received the red hat (as the appointment to the cardinalate is often called) before Pope Pius's death in 1958; what was not known was that at the Secret Consistory in 1952 Pope Pius revealed that Montini had declined the cardinalate.[1] Though modernist liberals viewed him as the person who would have succeeded Pope Pius, since Montini was not a member of the College of Cardinals,[2] Angelo Cardinal Roncalli was elected pope and assumed the name Pope John XXIII. The new pope raised Montini to the cardinalate after only two months in office, with Montini thus becoming Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... // Antiquity Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (from which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... The term red hat when used within the Roman Catholic Church refers to the appointment of a Cardinal, a senior Prince of the Church who is a member of the electoral college that chooses the Pope. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Pope

Styles of
Pope Paul VI
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Servant of God

Montini was generally seen as the most likely successor to Pope John; as the cardinal electors processed into the Sistine Chapel to begin the conclave, onlookers even whispered "il Papa, il Papa," at Montini. Montini was an enthusiastic supporter of Pope John's decision to establish the Second Vatican Council. When John died of stomach cancer on June 3, 1963, Montini was elected to the papacy in the following conclave and took the name Paul VI. He brought the Second Vatican Council to completion in 1965 and directed the implementation of its goals until his death in 1978. He was also the last pope to date to be crowned; his successor Pope John Paul I replaced the Papal Coronation (which Paul had already substantially modified, but which he left mandatory in his 1975 apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo) with a Papal Inauguration. Paul VI donated his own Papal Tiara, a gift from his former Archdiocese of Milan, to the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. as a gift to American Catholics. In 1968, with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus, he discontinued most of the ceremonial functions of the old Roman nobility at the papal court, save for the Prince Assistants to the Papal Throne. He also abolished the Palatine Guard and the Noble Guard, leaving the Swiss Guard as the sole military order of the Vatican. He oversaw the largest revision to the Church's Liturgy since the Council of Trent. In 1965 he established the Synod of Bishops, but nevertheless reserved certain pronouncements to papal authority alone, including priestly celibacy and contraception, both of which becoming the subject of controversial encyclicals, Sacerdotalis Caelibatus and Humanae Vitae respectively. Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, (born 1927) His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... Servant of God is the title given to a person of the Roman Catholic Church upon whom a pope has opened a cause of sainthood. ... Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... The following were the cardinal electors in the 1963 papal conclave. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) Pope John XXIII died of cancer on June 3 in the Apostolic Palace in the middle of the Vatican Council II. He was commonly regarded as having been the most popular pope in the 20th century to that point. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) Pope John XXIII died of cancer on June 3 in the Apostolic Palace in the middle of the Vatican Council II. He was commonly regarded as having been the most popular pope in the 20th century to that point. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a symbol of the Roman Catholic papacy. ... Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26 to September 28, 1978. ... Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Romano Pontifici Eligendo was the Apostolic Constitution governing the election of popes that was promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1975. ... Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a symbol of the Roman Catholic papacy. ... View of the east side of the basilica. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Name given to a certain type of Papal rescript, where the clause motu proprio (of his own accord) is used, signifying that the provisions of the rescript were decided by the pope personally and not by a cardinal or other advisors. ... The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Prince Assistants to the Papal Throne are hereditary offices of the Papal Curia. ... The Palatine Guard (Guardia Palatina dOnore) was a unit of the military of the Vatican City. ... The Noble Guard (Guardia Nobile) was the most senior guard unit of the Vatican City. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ... This article is about the post-Vatican-II changes to the Mass; for an explanation of the current structure of the Mass, see Mass (Catholic Church). ... Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass in place of the dying Pope John Paul II. Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Sacerdotalis Caelibatus (Latin: Of the celibate priesthood) is the name of an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI. It defends the Catholic Churchs tradition of priestly celibacy in the West. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life, but typically translated as On the Regulation of Human Birth) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ...


Humanæ Vitæ

Main article: Humanae Vitae
Coat of arms of Pope Paul VI in fleur de lys

To the world Pope Paul VI is perhaps best known for his encyclical Humanæ Vitæ (subtitled On the Regulation of Birth), published on July 25, 1968. In this encyclical he reaffirmed the Catholic Church's traditional condemnation of artificial birth control. His decision was widely unexpected, because many had expected the Church to reverse its long-standing teaching on contraception in the wake of the first contraceptive pill, and many Catholic couples opted to use birth control in spite of church teaching.[citation needed] Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life, but typically translated as On the Regulation of Human Birth) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ... Image File history File links Paul_VI_coa. ... Image File history File links Paul_VI_coa. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... The combined oral contraceptive pill, often referred to as the Pill, is a combination of an estrogen (oestrogen) and a progestin (progestogen), taken by mouth to inhibit normal fertility. ...


A commission composed of bishops, theologians and laity had been established by John XXIII for the purpose of reviewing the teaching on birth control. In the furor surrounding the publication of the encyclical, stories appeared in the press that it was the commission's majority recommendation that the Church relax its stance on contraception. The Pope chose to discount the so-called "Majority Report" when he promulgated Humanæ Vitæ. Although this version of events is widely accepted,[citation needed] it has not gone unchallenged. For example, in an interview in 2003 with the Catholic news agency Zenit, the natural lawyer and moral theologian Germain Grisez gave a different version of events: Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Germain Gabriel Grisez (born 1929) is a prominent and influential Catholic moral theologian. ...

The final report of the commission was not one of the documents that were leaked to the press, and, so far as I know, it has never been published. The leaked documents, which were misleadingly labeled, were among the appendices to the final report, and none of them was agreed upon by the majority of the 16 cardinals and bishops who made up the commission after it was restructured in February 1966, although they did approve sending those documents along to Paul VI.... [He] was not interested in the number of those who held an opinion but in the cases they made for their views.... Having received the commission's final report, he studied it. After about four months, he announced on Oct. 29, 1966, that he found some aspects of the majority's case to be seriously flawed. He continued studying and concluded that the commission was right in holding that the pill is not morally different from other methods of contraception. Eventually he became completely convinced that there was no alternative to reaffirming the received teaching. He then took great care preparing the document that was eventually published as Humanæ Vitæ. True, the majority of the theologians, who were then among the periti [experts] advising the cardinals and bishops, had argued that contraception was morally acceptable, and nine of the 16 cardinals and bishops agreed with their position. But virtually all the theologians and all but one of the cardinals and bishops also agreed that the pill was not morally different from other contraceptives, which had long been condemned.[3]

Pope Paul was shattered by the widespread negative reaction to the encyclical,[citation needed] and it remained his last. His biography on the Vatican's website notes of his reaffirmations of priestly celibacy and the traditional teaching on contraception that "[t]he controversies over these two pronouncements tended to overshadow the last years of his pontificate".[1] However Pope John Paul II unambiguously reaffirmed both teachings and expanded on Humanæ Vitæ with an encyclical of his own (titled Evangelium Vitae), as well as in a series of 129 talks delivered at his weekly audiences.[4] // Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ...


Meeting with Orthodox Patriarch

Paul was the first pope in centuries to meet the heads of various Eastern Orthodox faiths. Notably, his meeting with Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I in 1964 in Jerusalem led to rescinding the 1054 excommunications of the Great Schism. This was a significant step towards restoring communion between Rome and Constantinople. It produced the Catholic-Orthodox Joint declaration of 1965, which was read out on December 7, 1965, simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council in Rome and at a special ceremony in Istanbul. The declaration did not end the 1054 schism, but showed a desire for greater reconciliation between the two churches, represented by Pope Paul VI and Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I. Nevertheless, not all Orthodox leaders at the time were happy with this Catholic-Orthodox Joint declaration. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... His All Holiness Athenagoras I, by the grace of God, Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch (Greek: Πατριάρχης Αθηναγόρας, born Aristokles Spyrou) (March 25, 1886 - July 6/7, 1972) was the 268th Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1948 to 1972. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... The Catholic-Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 was read out on 7 December 1965 simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council in Rome and at a special ceremony in Istanbul. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pope Paul also became the second pope to meet an Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, Michael Ramsey, after the visit of Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher to Pope John XXIII on December 2, 1960. The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Archbishop Ramsey (left) meets Pope Paul VI. Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury (1904- 23 April 1988) was Archbishop of Canterbury from June 1961 to 1974. ... Geoffrey Worth Fisher, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (May 5, 1887 – September 15, 1972) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1945 to 1961. ... Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


The Pilgrim Pope

Countries visited by Pope Paul VI.
The Coronation of Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI's Coronation Tiara, now in the Crypt of the The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception.

Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit six continents, and was the most travelled pope in history to that time, earning the nickname the Pilgrim Pope. In 1970 he was the target of an assassination attempt at Manila International Airport in the Philippines.[5] The assailant, a Bolivian Surrealist painter named Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores, lunged toward Pope Paul with a kris, but was subdued.[5] Although the Vatican denied it, subsequent evidence suggests Pope Paul did indeed receive a stab wound in the incident. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 64 KB) Summary Travels of Pope Paul VI Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 64 KB) Summary Travels of Pope Paul VI Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Paulcrnd. ... Image File history File links Paulcrnd. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 541 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1301 × 1441 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image created 11/6/2006 by Elizabeth Roy Rights released File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 541 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1301 × 1441 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image created 11/6/2006 by Elizabeth Roy Rights released File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) is the international airport that serves Manila, in the Philippines, and its surrounding metropolitan area. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores (born 1935[1]) was a Bolivian painter who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Pope Paul VI in Manila in 1970. ... Kris from Yogyakarta - Dapur Carubuk The kris or keris is a distinctive, asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand and the southern Philippines. ...


An Indecisive Pope?

According to some critics, Pope Paul VI was habitually indecisive. For example he appeared unable to decide how to deal with the scandal-ridden American Cardinal Cody, who was surrounded by allegations of financial and sexual impropriety. Cody even invited his female 'friend' to pose in a picture with him and Pope Paul taken when Cody was being awarded the red hat. Paul changed his mind over whether to remove Cody, on one occasion contacting a Vatican official at Rome Airport, whom he had sent to inform Cody of his dismissal, and telling him to return as he had changed his mind. Cody remained in office until his death. A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... John Patrick Cody, later John Cardinal Cody, (December 24, 1907–April 25, 1982) was the eleventh bishop (sixth archbishop) of the Roman Catholic diocese of Chicago, serving from 1965 to 1982 (succeeded Albert Cardinal Meyer). ... Upon the death of a cardinal diocesan bishop, his galero is raised above the sanctuary of his cathedral church. ...


Some critics point to Paul's response to Archbishop Lefebvre, who challenged papal authority by refusing to accept the New Mass and liturgical reforms produced after Vatican II. The pope summoned Lefebvre to meetings in which he argued with Lefebvre and showed his great frustration, but he did not excommunicate Lefebvre, as many had expected. Lefebvre was eventually excommunicated automatically (latae sententiae) for his illicit episcopal ordinations in 1988 during the reign of Pope John Paul II. Archbishop Marcel-François Lefebvre C.S.Sp. ... This article is about the post-Vatican-II changes to the Mass; for an explanation of the current structure of the Mass, see Mass (Catholic Church). ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic...

Pope Paul's slippers and gloves
Pope Paul discontinued the use of many traditional features of papal dress, including the papal slippers and gauntlets. Some of those discontinued by Paul were resurrected by Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

The pope's response to the critics of Humanae Vitae is also cited as an example of indecisiveness. When Cardinal O'Boyle, the Archbishop of Washington, D.C., disciplined several priests for publicly dissenting from this teaching, the pope gave him encouragement. But when other bishops did nothing to quell dissent, the pope raised no objection. And when bishops in Canada, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands were lukewarm in their support or even publicly expressed reservations about this teaching, the pope did not discipline them in any way. Image File history File linksMetadata PapalGlovesShoes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PapalGlovesShoes. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Patrick Aloysius OBoyle (1896 - 1987) was made a U.S. cardinal in 1967. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...


Some of Pope Paul's statements in the 1970s seemed critical of the direction taken by the Church after Vatican II, expressing his dislike of some of the "pedestrian" language used in some translations of the New Mass. But he did not generally indicate such unhappiness in his public statements. He did oppose Liberation theology after the 1962–65 Vatican Council, frowning on the CELAM (Latin American Episcopal Conference) support to it. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, In the Western world, the focus shifted from the social activism of the sixties to social activities for ones own pleasure, save for environmentalism, which continued in a very visible way. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the Oppressed. ... CELAM (Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano - Latin American Episcopal Conference) was created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). ...


According to some sources, as Paul became older he spoke of abdicating the papal throne and going into retirement. Some critics see this as another example of indecision, as he remained in the papacy until his death.


It is rumored that Pope John XXIII referred to then-Cardinal Montini as "Our Hamlet" (Amleto), in reference to his indecisiveness. The private secretaries of both popes have denied that John ever made such a statement. Pope Paul himself reflected that description of himself in a private note written in 1978. He asked: Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Hamlet and Horatio in the cemetery by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...

What is my state of mind? Am I Hamlet? Or Don Quixote? On the left? On the right? I do not think I have been properly understood.[6]

(IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...

Consistories

Pope Paul VI held six consistories between 1965–1977 that raised 143 men to the cardinalate in his fifteen years as pope. They were held on:

February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

Final months and death

Pope Paul VI left the Vatican to go to the Papal summer residence, Castel Gandolfo, for the final time on July 14, 1978, uncertain of whether he would return. While Mass was being said for him near his bedside during the afternoon of August 6, the feast of the Transfiguration, he became agitated, but managed to receive Communion one last time. He soon fell into unconsciousness for four hours and died soon after. The agitation had been a massive heart attack.


Beatification

The diocesan process for beatification of Servant of God Paul VI began on May 11, 1993 by Pope John Paul II. The title of Servant of God is the first of four steps toward possible canonization. Icon of St. ...


Trivia

Up to and including the current Pope Benedict XVI, all of Pope Paul's successors were created cardinals by him. His immediate successor, Albino Cardinal Luciani, who took the name John Paul I, was created a cardinal in the consistory of March 5, 1973. After John Paul I's 33 day reign, Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, created a cardinal in the consistory of June 26, 1967, took the name John Paul II. After the third longest reign in history, John Paul II died on April 2, 2005. On April 19, 2005, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger was elected to the papacy and took the name Benedict XVI. Ratzinger was created a cardinal in the small four-appointment consistory of June 27, 1977, which ended up being Paul VI's last consistory before his death in August 1978.


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Pope Paul VI : 1963–1978, Retrieved 2 March 2006.
  2. ^ In theory any male Catholic, even a layman, is eligible for election to the papacy by the College of Cardinals, so technically Archbishop Montini could still have become pope in 1958. However, the cardinals in modern times invariably elect a fellow cardinal to the office.
  3. ^ Germain Grisez on "Humanae Vitae," Then and Now, Retrieved 2 March 2006.
  4. ^ See for example, the brief overview: What is the theology of the body?, Retrieved 2 March 2006. For the text see General Audiences : John Paul II's Theology of the Body, Pope John Paul II, retrieved 6 May 2006
  5. ^ a b "Apostle Endangered". Time, December 7, 1970. Retrieved April 13, 2007
  6. ^ Cathal B Daly, Steps on my Pilgrim Journey (Veritas, 1998) p.

See also

The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, C.M. (14 June 1912–3 July 1982) was the architect of the liturgical reforms in the Roman Catholic Church in the second half of the 20th century. ... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... Liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the Oppressed. ...

Encyclicals

Source from William M. Alnor's book Soothsayers of the second Advent. Mysterium Fidei is an encyclical letter of Pope Paul VI on the Eucharist, published in September 1965. ... Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ... Sacerdotalis Caelibatus (Latin: Of the celibate priesthood) is the name of an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI. It defends the Catholic Churchs tradition of priestly celibacy in the West. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life, but typically translated as On the Regulation of Human Birth) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ...


Additional reading

  • J.L. Gonzalez - T. Perez, Paul VI (Tran. Edward L. Heston), 1964. Paulist Press.
  • Peter Hebblethwaite, Paul VI: The First Modern Pope, Paulist Press, 1993, 749 pages, ISBN 0-8091-0461-X

Encyclicals on Vatican site

External links

Wikisource has several original texts related to:
Pope Paul VI
Video on YouTube - Italian Documentaries (English Subtitled)

Preceded by
Alfredo Ildefonso Cardinal Schuster
Archbishop of Milan
1953 – 1963
Succeeded by
Giovanni Cardinal Colombo
Preceded by
John XXIII
Pope
1963 – 1978
Succeeded by
John Paul I

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cultural Catholic - Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) (729 words)
Pope Paul VI was a strong supporter of collegiality, the collective responsibility of all the bishops under the pope for the general welfare of the Church.
Throughout the pontificate of Pope Paul VI the tension between papal primacy and the collegiality of the episcopacy was a source of conflict.
Pope Paul VI died on the Feast of the Transfiguration, August 6, 1978, at the pope's summer residence in Castel Gandolfo.
Pope Paul VI (1703 words)
Pope Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 - August 6, 1978), Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1963-1978), was born in Sarezzo[?], in northern Italy, of a family of the local nobles.
Pope Paul's most controversial decision occurred on July 24, 1968, when in his encyclical[?] Humanae Vitae, "Of Human Life", he rejected the recommendations of a commission established by John XXIII and reaffirmed the Catholic Church's disapproval of artificial birth control.
Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit all five continents, and was until the election of Pope John Paul II the most travelled pope in history, earning the nickname the Pilgrim Pope.
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