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Encyclopedia > Pope Nicholas I
Nicholas I
Image:NicholasI.jpg
Name NA
Papacy began 24 April 858
Papacy ended 13 November 867
Predecessor Benedict III
Successor Adrian II
Born 820
Place of birth Italy
Died November 13, 867
Place of death NA

Nicholas I,(Rome c. 820 - November 13, 867) was a Pope who reigned from April 24, 858 until his death. He is remembered as a consolidator of Papal authority and power, exerting decisive influence upon the historical development of the papacy and its position among the Christian nations of western Europe, and is considered a saint. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Benedict III was Pope from 855 to 7 April 858. ... Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II),(792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ...


He refused to grant an annulment to Lothar II from Theutberga so that Lothar could marry his mistress Waldrada; when a Council pronounced in favor of annulment, Nicholas I declared the Council to be deposed, its messengers excommunicated, and its decisions void. Despite pressure from the Carolingians, who laid siege to Rome, his decision held. During his reign, relations with the Byzantine Empire soured over his support for Ignatius as Patriarch of Constantinople, who had been removed and Photius appointed to replace him. The sole member of the house of Supplinburg to hold the titles, Lothar II (1075-1137) became duke of Saxony in 1106, king of Germany in 1125 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1133. ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... Ignatius (Игнатий in Russian) (1540 - 1620) was the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia of Greek decent in 1605-1606. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Photius (b. ...

Contents


Early Life

Born of a distinguished family, son of the Defensor Theodore, he received excellent training. Distinguished for his piety, benevolence, ability, knowledge, and eloquence, he entered the service of the Church at an early age, was made subdeacon by Pope Sergius II (844-47), and deacon by Leo IV (847-55). After the death of Benedict III (7 April, 858) Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was in the neighbourhood of Rome, came into the city to exert his influence upon the election. On 24 April Nicholas was elected pope, consecrated, and enthroned in St. Peter's in the presence of the emperor. Three days after, he gave a farewell banquet to the emperor, and afterward, accompanied by the Roman nobility, visited him in his camp before the city, on which occasion the emperor came to meet the pope and led his horse for some distance. Sergius II, was Pope from 844-847. ... Leo IV, called Chozar or the Khazar (c. ... Benedict III, prior to his election, had a reputation for learning and piety, and elected on the refusal of the initial choice of clergy and people, Hadrian: a group of important people preferred Anastasius. ... Louis II, (825 – 875), Holy Roman Emperor (sole ruler 855 – 875), eldest son of the emperor Lothair I, became the designated king of Italy in 839, and taking up his residence in that country was crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II on June 15, 844. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ...


Papacy

To a spiritually exhausted and politically uncertain western Europe beset by Muslim and Norse incursions, Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of the Roman primacy in the Church. He was filled with a high conception of his mission for the vindication of Christian morality, the defence of God's law against powerful, worldly bishops. The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ...


Bishops

Archbishop John of Ravenna oppressed the inhabitants of the papal territory, treated his suffragan bishops with violence, made unjust demands upon them for money, and illegally imprisoned priests. He also forged documents to support his claims against the Roman See and maltreated the papal legates. As the warnings of the pope were without result, and the archbishop ignored a thrice-repeated summons to appear before the papal tribunal, he was excommunicated. Having first visited the Emperor Louis at Pavia, the archbishop repaired, with two imperial delegates to Rome, where Nicholas cited him before the Roman synod assembled in the autumn of 860. Upon this John fled from Rome.


Going in person to Ravenna, the pope then investigated and equitably regulated everything. Again appealing to the emperor, the archbishop was recommended by him to submit to the pope, which he did at the Roman Synod of November, 861. Later on, however, he entered into a pact with the excommunicated Archbishops of Trier and Cologne, was himself again excommunicated, and once more forced to make his submission to the pope. Another conflict arose between Nicholas and Archbishop Hincmar of Reims: this concerned the prerogatives of the papacy. Bishop Rothad of Soissons had appealed to the pope against the decision of the Synod of Soissons, of 861, which had deposed him; Hincmar opposed the appeal to the pope, but eventually had to acknowledge the right of the papacy to take cognizance of important legal causes (causæ majores) and pass independent judgment upon them. A further dispute broke out between Hincmar and the pope as to the elevation of the cleric Wulfad to the archiepiscopal See of Bourges, but here, again, Hincmar finally submitted to the decrees of the Apostolic See, and the Frankish synods passed corresponding ordinances.


Marriage laws

Nicholas showed the same zeal in other efforts to maintain ecclesiastical discipline, especially as to the marriage laws. Ingiltrud, wife of Count Boso, had left her husband for a paramour; Nicholas commanded the bishops in the dominions of Charles the Bold to excommunicate her unless she returned to her husband. As she paid no attention to the summons to appear before the Synod of Milan in 860, she was put under the ban. Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ...


The pope was also involved in a desperate struggle with Lothair II of Lorraine over the inviolability of marriage. Lothair had abandoned his lawful wife Theutberga to marry Waldrada. At the Synod of Aachen, 28 April 862, the bishops of Lorraine approved this union, contrary to ecclesiastical law. At the Synod of Metz, June, 863, the papal legates, bribed by the king, assented to the Aachen decision, and condemned the absent Theutberga. Upon this the pope brought the matter before his own tribunal. The two archbishops, Günther of Cologne and Thietgaud of Trier, who had come to Rome as delegates, were summoned before the Lateran Synod of October, 863,when the pope condemned and deposed them as well as John of Ravenna and Hagano of Bergamo. The Emperor Louis II took up the cause of the deposed bishops, while King Lothair advanced upon Rome with an army and laid siege to the city, so that the pope was confined for two days in St. Peter's without food. Yet Nicholas did not waver in his determination; after being reconciled with the pope, the emperor withdrew from Rome and commanded the former Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their homes. Nicholas never ceased from his efforts to bring about a reconciliation between Lothair and his lawful wife, but without effect. In the theology of Catholicism, marriage is an inseparable bond between a man and a woman, created by human contract and ratified by divine grace. ...


Another matrimonial case in which Nicholas interposed was that of Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, who had married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, without her father's consent. Frankish bishops had excommunicated Judith, and Hincmar of Reims had taken sides against her, but Nicholas urged leniency, in order to protect freedom of marriage.


Relations with the Eastern Church

In violation of ecclesiastical law, the Patriarch Ignatius was deposed in 857 and Photius raised to the patriarchal see. In a letter addressed (8 May 862) to the patriarchs of the East, Nicholas called upon them and all their bishops to refuse recognition to Photius, and at a Roman synod held in April, 863, he excommunicated Photius.


Bulgaria having been converted by Greek missionaries, its ruler, Prince Boris, in August, 863, sent an embassy to the pope with one hundred six questions on the teaching and discipline of the Church. Nicholas answered these inquiries exhaustively in his "Responsa Nicolai ad consulta Bulgarorum" (Mansi, "Coll. Conc.", XV, 401 sqq.). At the same time he sent an embassy to Prince Boris in an abortive attempt to convert him to the western usage; ultimately the prince elected to join the Eastern Church.


Legacy

He encouraged the missionary activity of the Church. He sanctioned the union of the Sees of Bremen and Hamburg, and confirmed to St. Anschar, Archbishop of Bremen, and his successors the office of papal legate to the Danes, Swedes, and Slavs. In many other ecclesiastical matters, he issued letters and decisions, and he took active measures against bishops who were neglectful of their duties.


At Rome, Nicholas rebuilt and endowed several churches, and constantly sought to encourage religious life. His led a pious personal life guided by a spirit of Christian asceticism. Regino of Prüm reports that Nicholas was highly esteemed by the citizens of Rome and by his contemporaries generally (Chronicon, "ad annum 868," in "Mon. Germ. Hist." Script.", I.579), and after death was regarded as a saint. Reginon or Regino of Prüm (? - 915) was a medieval chronicler. ...


A much discussed question and one that is important in judging the position taken by this pope is whether he made use of the forged pseudo-Isidorian papal decretals. After exhaustive investigation, Schrörs has decided that the pope was neither acquainted with the pseudo-Isidorian collection in its entire extent, nor did he make use of its individual parts; that he had perhaps a general knowledge of the false decretals, but did not base his view of the law upon them, and that he owed his knowledge of them solely to documents which came to him from the Frankish Empire [Schrörs, "Papst Nikolaus I. und Pseudo-Isidor" in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXV (1904), 1 sqq.; Idem, "Die pseudoisidorische 'Exceptio spolii' bei Papst Nikolaus I" in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXVI (1905), 275 sqq.].



Preceded by:
Benedict III
Pope
858–867
Succeeded by:
Adrian II


Benedict III was Pope from 855 to 7 April 858. ... For a graphical representation of this list, see list of popes (graphical). ... Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II),(792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. ...


This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11, 1905 under the supervision of five editors: Charles G. Herbermann, Professor of Latin and Librarian of the College of the City of New York Edward A. Pace, then... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


References

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ...

See Also

Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas III Pope Nicholas IV Pope Nicholas V Nicholas II, né Gérard de Bourgogne (died either July 19 or July 27, 1061), pope from December 1058 to July 1061, was at the time of his election Bishop of Florence. ... Nicholas III, né Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (Rome, ca. ... Nicholas IV, né Girolamo Masci (Lisciano, a small village near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), was pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Nicholas V - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (925 words)
Civic disorders at Bologna were prolonged, so Pope Eugenius IV soon named him as one of the legates sent to Frankfurt to negotiate an understanding between the Holy See and the Holy Roman Empire, with regard to undercutting or at least containing the reforming decrees of the Council of Basel.
The next year, 1450, Nicholas held a jubilee at Rome; and the offerings of the numerous pilgrims who thronged to Rome gave him the means of furthering the cause of culture in Italy, which he had so much at heart.
Nicholas himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius II) said of him that "what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge".
Pope Nicholas I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1314 words)
On 24 April Nicholas was elected pope, consecrated, and enthroned in St. Peter's in the presence of the emperor.
To a spiritually exhausted and politically uncertain western Europe beset by Muslim and Norse incursions, Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of the Roman primacy in the Church.
As the warnings of the pope were without result, and the archbishop ignored a thrice-repeated summons to appear before the papal tribunal, he was excommunicated.
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