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Encyclopedia > Pope Leo X
Leo X
Birth name Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici
Papacy began March 9, 1513 (elected)

March 11, 1513 (proclaimed) Pope Leo X (portrait by Raphael) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Papacy ended December 1, 1521
Predecessor Julius II
Successor Adrian VI
Born December 11, 1475(1475-12-11)
Florence, Italy
Died December 1, 1521 (aged 45)
Rome, Italy

Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici (11 December 14751 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. He is known primarily for his papal bull against Martin Luther and subsequent failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) published the 95 Theses and posted them in the Castle Church in Wittenberg. (It is possible, however, that Luther only mailed them to his superiors.) He was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, the most famous ruler of the Florentine Republic, and Clarice Orsini. His cousin, Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, would later succeed him as Pope Clement VII (1523–34). The remark "It has served us well, this myth of Christ" is often attributed to him, despite the fact that it first appears in John Bale's fiercely antipapal treatise The Pageant of the Popes.[citation needed] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Pope Adrian VI (Utrecht, March 2, 1459 – September 14, 1523), born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Floris Boeyens, served as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1522 until his death. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... This article is about the city in Italy. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Clarice Orsini (NN, 1453 – Aug NN, 1488), born in Italy to Giacomo Orsini di Monterotondo and Maddalena Orsini. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... John Bale John Bale (21 November 1495–November, 1563) was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, Bishop of Ossory. ...

Contents

Biography

Early career

Giovanni de' Medici was born in Florence, Italy. This article is about the city in Italy. ...


He was destined from his birth for the church, he received the tonsure at the age of six and was soon loaded with rich benefices and preferments. His father prevailed on Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica in March 1489, although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later. Meanwhile he received a careful education at Lorenzo's brilliant humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena. From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 &#8211; July 25, 1492), pope from 1484 to 1492, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Calixtus III had been a senator at Rome. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Santa Maria in Domnica, facade. ... Politian (also known as Angelo Poliziano or Angelo Ambrogini) (1454 - 1494) was an Italian classical scholar and poet. ... Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (February 24, 1463 – November 17, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. ... Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 - Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the... Raphael: Portrait of Cardinal Bernardo Dovizi Bibbiena. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ...


On 23 March 1492 he was formally admitted into the sacred college and took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father which ranks among the wisest of its kind. The death of Lorenzo on the following April 8, however, called the seventeen-year-old cardinal to Florence. He participated in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, and opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia. He made his home with his elder brother Piero at Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and the invasion of Charles VIII of France, until the uprising of the Florentines and the expulsion of the Medici in November 1494. While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni travelled in Germany, in the Netherlands and in France. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The papal conclave of 1492 (August 6 – August 11, 1492) convened after the death of Pope Innocent VIII (July 25, 1492), elected Rodrigo Borja as Pope Alexander VI. The first conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel, the election is notorious for allegations of simony. ... Portrait of Piero de Medici by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Expulsion is one of words used to describe expulsions after World War II, indicating condemnation of the events. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ...


In May 1500 he returned to Rome, where he was received with outward cordiality by Alexander VI, and where he lived for several years immersed in art and literature. In 1503 he welcomed the accession of Julius II to the pontificate; the death of Piero de' Medici in the same year made Giovanni head of his family. On 1 October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans Julius II sent him against his native city at the head of the papal army. This and other attempts to regain political control of Florence were frustrated, until a bloodless revolution permitted the return of the Medici. Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, but the cardinal actually managed the government. Alexander VI, né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


Role in Italian Wars

At the very time of Leo's accession Louis XII of France, in alliance with Venice, was making a determined effort to regain the duchy of Milan, and the pope, after fruitless endeavours to maintain peace, joined the league of Mechlin on 5 April 1513 with the emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand I of Spain and Henry VIII of England. The French and Venetians were at first successful, but were defeated in June at the Battle of Novara. The Venetians continued the struggle until October. On 9 December the fifth Lateran council, which had been reopened by Leo in April, ratified the peace with Louis XII and officially registered the conclusion of the Pisan schism. Louis XII (b. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 &#8211; June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... The Battle of Novara was a battle of the Italian Wars fought on June 6, 1513, next to Novara, in Northen Italy. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general council. ... Look up leo, Leo, LEO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the new king of France, Francis I, an enthusiastic young prince, dominated by the ambition of recovering Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Thomas Wolsey a cardinal. Francis entered Italy in August and on 14 September won the battle of Marignano. The pope in October signed an agreement binding him to withdraw his troops from Parma and Piacenza, which had been previously gained at the expense of the duchy of Milan, on condition of French protection at Rome and Florence. The king of Spain wrote to his ambassador at Rome "that His Holiness had hitherto played a double game and that all his zeal to drive the French from Italy had been only a mask"; this reproach seemed to receive some confirmation when Leo X held a secret conference with Francis at Bologna in December 1515. The ostensible subjects under consideration were the establishment of peace between France, Venice and the Empire, with a view to an expedition against the Turks, and the ecclesiastical affairs of France. Precisely what was arranged is unknown. During these two or three years of incessant political intrigue and warfare it was not to be expected that the Lateran council should accomplish much. Its three main objectives, the peace of Christendom, the crusade (against the Turks), and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and either Leo or the council, or both, failed to secure such agreement. Its most important achievements were the registration at its eleventh sitting (9 December 1516) of the abolition of the pragmatic sanction, which the popes since Pius II had unanimously condemned, and the confirmation of the concordat between Leo X and Francis I, which was destined to regulate the relations between the French Church and the Holy See until the Revolution. Leo closed the council on 16 March 1517. It had ended the Pisan schism, ratified the censorship of books introduced by Alexander VI and imposed tithes for a war against the Turks. It raised no voice against the primacy of the pope. The title of Francis I can refer to: Francis I of Austria (1768-1835) Francis I, King of France 1515-47 Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1745-1765) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (c. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France, Republic of Venice Duchy of Milan Commanders Francis I, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, Bartolomeo dAlviano, Louis de la Trémoille Maximilian Sforza, Cardinal Matthaeus Schiner Strength 30,000 Unknown The Battle of Marignano, in the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) that is called the War of... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 - August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... A concordat is an agreement between the pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


War of Urbino

The year which marked the close of the Lateran council was also signalized by Leo's war against the duke of Urbino Francesco Maria I della Rovere. The pope was proud of his family and had practised nepotism from the outset. His cousin Giulio, who subsequently became pope as Clement VII, he had made the most influential man in the curia, naming him archbishop of Florence, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Holy See. Leo had intended his younger brother Giuliano and his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers. He had named them Roman patricians; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy. The death of Giuliano in March 1516, however, caused the pope to transfer his ambitions to Lorenzo. At the very time (December 1516) that peace between France, Spain, Venice and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turks, Leo was preparing an enterprise as unscrupulous as any of the similar exploits of Cesare Borgia. He obtained 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France. The Duchy of Urbino is a former soverign state of northern Italy. ... Francesco Maria I della Rovere (March 22, 1490 - October 20, 1538) was an Italian condottiero, who was Duke of Urbino from 1508 until 1538. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 &#8211; September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, also called the Archdiocese of Firenze, is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... A Vice-Chancellor (commonly called the VC) of a university in the United Kingdom, other Commonwealth countries, and some universities in Hong Kong, is the de facto head of the university. ... Lorenzo di Piero de Medici (September 9, 1492 - May 4, 1519), Duke of Urbino, grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent; he was ruler of Florence from 1513 to his untimely death in 1519. ... This is an article about the privileged class in ancient Rome. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Cesare Borgia. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...


The war lasted from February to September 1517 and ended with the expulsion of the duke and the triumph of Lorenzo; but it revived the allegedly nefarious policy of Alexander VI, increased brigandage and anarchy in the Papal States, hindered the preparations for a crusade and wrecked the papal finances. Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the prodigious sum of 800,000 ducats. The new duke of Urbino was the Lorenzo de' Medici to whom Machiavelli addressed The Prince. His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope with Madeleine la Tour d'Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de' Medici celebrated in French history. Brigandage refers to the life and practice of brigands; highway robbery and plunder. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Guicciardini Francesco Guicciardini (March 6, 1483 - May 22, 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469&#8212;June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ...


The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals. The sacred college had allegedly grown especially worldly and troublesome since the time of Sixtus IV, and Leo took advantage of a plot of several of its members to poison him, not only to inflict exemplary punishments by executing one and imprisoning several others, but also to make a radical change in the college. On 3 July 1517 he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy. Among the nominations were notables such as Lorenzo Campeggio, Giambattista Pallavicini, Adrian of Utrecht (the future Pope Adrian VI), Thomas Cajetan, Cristoforo Numai and Egidio Canisio. The naming of seven members of prominent Roman families, however, reversed the policy of his predecessor which had kept the political factions of the city out of the curia. Other promotions were for political or family considerations or to secure money for the war against Urbino. The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear to be unsubstantiated. Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Lorenzo Cardinal Campeggio (1471 or 1472 - 1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician. ... Pope Adrian VI (Utrecht, March 2, 1459 – September 14, 1523), born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Floris Boeyens, served as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1522 until his death. ... Thomas Cardinal Cajetan (Cajê-tan or Caje-tan, also known as Gaetanus) (February 20, 1469 - August 9, 1534) was an Italian cardinal best known for his opposition to the teachings of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. ... Christopher Numar of Forli (date of birth uncertain; d. ... Aegidius of Viterbo[1] (1470 - November 12, 1532) was an Italian cardinal, theologian, orator, humanist and poet. ...


Leo, meanwhile, felt the need of staying the advance of the warlike Ottoman sultan, Selim I, who was threatening western Europe, and made elaborate plans for a crusade. A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople. Papal diplomacy in the interests of peace failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England, not the pope, the arbiter between France and the Empire; and much of the money collected for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was spent in other ways. In 1519 Hungary concluded a three years' truce with Selim I, but the succeeding sultan, Suleyman the Magnificent, renewed the war in June 1521 and on 28 August captured the citadel of Belgrade. The pope was greatly alarmed, and although he was then involved in war with France he sent about 30,000 ducats to the Hungarians. Leo treated the Uniate Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of 18 May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy. Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about negotiations. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 &#8211; September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ...


These provisions were later strengthened by Clement VII and Paul III and went far to settle the chronic disputes between the Latins and Uniate Greeks. Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


Reformation and last years

Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by alleged heresy and schisms, especially the kulturkampf touched off by Martin Luther. For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Schism between Reuchlin and Pfefferkorn regarding the banning of Hebrew books

The dispute between the Hebraist Johann Reuchlin and Johannes Pfefferkorn relative to the Talmud and other Jewish books, as well as censorship of such books, was referred to the pope in September 1513. He in turn referred it to the bishops of Spires and Worms, who gave decision in March 1514 in favour of Reuchlin. After the appeal of the inquisitor-general, Hochstraten, and the appearance of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum, however, Leo annulled the decision (June 1520) and imposed silence on Reuchlin. In the end he allowed the Talmud to be printed. A Hebraist is a specialist in Hebrew and Hebraic studies. ... Johann Reuchlin (January 29, 1455 - 1522) was a German humanist and Hebrew scholar. ... Johannes (Josef) Pfefferkorn (1469-1523) was a German Christian theologian writer who converted from Judaism and actively preached against the Jews. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Jacob van Hoogstraten[1] was a theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, Belgium; died in Cologne, 24 January 1527. ...

Bulla Contra errores Martini Lutheri of 1521.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 800 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Papst Leo X, „Bulla contra errores Martini Lutheri et sequacium“ Deutsch: „Bulle gegen die Irrtümer Luthers und seiner Anhänger“, Rom: Jacobus Mazochius 1520. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 800 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Papst Leo X, „Bulla contra errores Martini Lutheri et sequacium“ Deutsch: „Bulle gegen die Irrtümer Luthers und seiner Anhänger“, Rom: Jacobus Mazochius 1520. ...

The Protestant Schism

Against the misconduct from some servants of the church, the Augustinian monk Martin Luther posted (31 October 1517) his famous ninety-five theses on the church door at Wittenberg, which successively escalated to a widespread revolt against the church. Although Leo did not fully comprehend the importance of the movement, he directed (3 February 1518) the vicar-general of the Augustinians to impose silence on the monks. On 30 May Luther sent an explanation of his theses to the pope; on 7 August he was summoned to appear at Rome. An arrangement was effected, however, whereby that summons was cancelled, and Luther went to Augsburg in October 1518 to meet the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan, who was attending the imperial diet convened by the emperor Maximilian to impose the tithes for the Turkish war and to elect a king of the Romans; but neither the arguments of the educated cardinal, nor the dogmatic papal bull of the 9th of November requiring all Christians to believe in the pope's power to grant indulgences, moved Luther to retract. A year of fruitless negotiation followed, during which controversy over the pamphlets of the reformer set all Germany on fire. A papal bull of 15 June 1520, which condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther's teachings, was taken to Germany by Eck in his capacity of apostolic nuncio, published by him and the legates Alexander and Caracciolo, and burned by Luther on 10 December at Wittenberg. Leo then formally excommunicated Luther by bull of the 3 January 1521; in a brief the Pope also directed the emperor to take energetic measures against heresy. On 26 May 1521 the emperor signed the edict of the diet of Worms, which placed Luther under the ban of the Empire; on 21 of the same month Henry VIII of England (who was later to split from Catholicism himself) sent to Leo his book against Luther on the seven sacraments. The pope, after careful consideration, conferred on the king of England the title "Defender of the Faith" by bull of 11 October 1521. Neither the imperial edict nor the work of Henry VIII halted the Lutheran movement, and Luther himself, safe in the solitude of the Wartburg, survived Leo X. “Reformation” redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Detail of St. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... The name Greco-Turkish War is given to two armed conflicts between Greece and Turkey or its predecessor the Ottoman Empire: The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 (also called the Thirty Days War) The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 (also called the War in Asia Minor, and in Turkey... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Karl-Josef Rauber; Nuncio for Belgium Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Defenders of the Faith. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...


It was under Leo X also that the Protestant movement emerged in Scandinavia. The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's. King Christian II took advantage of the growing dissatisfaction on the part of the native clergy toward the papal government, and of Arcimboldi's interference in the Swedish revolt, in order to expel the nuncio and summon (1520) Lutheran theologians to Copenhagen. Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes. Leo sent a new nuncio to Copenhagen (1521) in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, who readily absolved the king and received the rich bishopric of Skara. The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches. (Some Scandinavian countries still have Protestant state churches.) Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... See also civil religion. ...


Italian politics

Statue of Leo X in the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

That Leo did not do more to check the anti-papal rebellion in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with papal and Medicean politics in Italy. The death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 had seriously affected the situation. Leo vacillated between the powerful candidates for the succession, allowing it to appear at first that he favoured Francis I while really working for the election of some minor German prince. He finally accepted Charles V of Spain as inevitable; and the election of Charles (28 June 1519) revealed Leo's desertion of his French alliance, a step facilitated by the death at about the same time of Lorenzo de' Medici and his French wife. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Monumento a papa Leone X nella chiesa di Santa Maria in Aracoeli a Roma. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Monumento a papa Leone X nella chiesa di Santa Maria in Aracoeli a Roma. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ...


Leo was now anxious to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church. An attempt late in 1519 to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope recognized the need of foreign aid. In May 1521 a treaty of alliance was signed at Rome between him and the emperor. Milan and Genoa were to be taken from France and restored to the Empire, and Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French. The expense of enlisting 10,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor. Charles took Florence and the Medici family under his protection and promised to punish all enemies of the Catholic faith. Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crown him emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice. It was provided that England and the Swiss might join the league. Henry VIII announced his adherence in August. Francis I had already begun war with Charles in Navarre, and in Italy, too, the French made the first hostile movement (23 June 1521). Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza. The pope lived to hear the joyful news of the capture of Milan from the French and of the occupation by papal troops of the long-coveted provinces (November 1521). For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...


Death

Having fallen ill of malaria, Leo X died on 1 December 1521, so suddenly that the last sacraments could not be administered; but the contemporary suspicions of poison were unfounded. He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Facade of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. ...


Leo was followed as Pope by Adrian VI. The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle...


Several minor events of Leo's pontificate are worthy of mention. He was particularly friendly with King Manuel I of Portugal on account of the latter's missionary enterprises in Asia and Africa. His concordat with Florence (1516) guaranteed the free election of the clergy in that city. His constitution of 1 March 1519 condemned the king of Spain's claim to refuse the publication of papal bulls. He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights. His bull of 1 July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII. Leo showed special favours to the Jews and permitted them to erect a Hebrew printing-press at Rome. He approved the formation of the Oratory of Divine Love, a group of pious men at Rome which later became the Theatine Order, and he canonized Francis of Paola. Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Print. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, an oratory is a semi-public place of worship, other than a parish church, constructed for the benefit of a group of persons (Code of Canon law, canon 1223). ... Saint Francis of Paola (or: Francescus de Paula or Saint Francis the Fire Handler, 1416 – April 2, 1507) was an Italian mendicant friar and the founder of the Roman Catholic Order of the Minims. ...


Behavior as Pope and patron of arts

Leo X's pet elephant, Hanno

When he became Pope, Leo X is reported to have said to his brother Giuliano: "Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it." The Venetian ambassador who related this of him was not unbiased, nor was he in Rome at the time, nevertheless the phrase illustrates fairly the Pope's pleasure-loving nature and the lack of seriousness that characterized him. And enjoy he did, traveling around Rome at the head of a lavish parade featuring panthers, jesters, and Hanno, a white elephant. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sketch of Hanno and mahout, after Raphael, c. ... Sketch of Hanno and mahout, after Raphael, c. ...

Under his pontificate, Christianity assumed a pagan character, which, passing from art into manners, gives to this epoch a strange complexion. Crimes for the moment disappeared, to give place to vices; but to charming vices, vices in good taste, such as those indulged in by Alcibiades and sung by Catullus. Alexandre Dumas, père[1]

Leo X was also lavish in charity: retirement homes, hospitals, convents, discharged soldiers, pilgrims, poor students, exiles, cripples, the sick, and the unfortunate of every description were generously remembered, and more than 6,000 ducats were annually distributed in alms. “Alexandre Dumas” redirects here. ...


His extravagance offended not only people like Martin Luther, but also some cardinals, who, led by Alfonso Petrucci of Siena, plotted an assassination attempt. Eventually, Pope Leo found out who these people were, and had them followed. The conspirators died of "food poisoning." Some people argue that Leo X and his followers simply concocted the assassination charges in a moneymaking scheme to collect fines from the various wealthy cardinals Leo X detested. Alfonso Petrucci was an Italian nobleman, born into the Medici family in the early Renaisance. ...


As patron of learning Leo X deserves a prominent place among the popes. He raised the church to a high rank as the friend of whatever seemed to extend knowledge or to refine and embellish life. He made the capital of Christendom the center of culture. While yet a cardinal, he had restored the church of Santa Maria in Domnica after Raphael's designs; and as pope he had San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, on the Via Giulia, built, after designs by Jacopo Sansovino and pressed forward the work on St Peter's and the Vatican under Raphael and Agostino Chigi. San Giovanni dei Fiorentini San Giovanni dei Fiorentini (St John of the Florentines), church in Rome. ... Michelangelos bridge spanning Via Giulia, Rome The via Giulia, in the rione Regola, Rome, projected and only partly carried out for Pope Julius II, was the first attempt since Antiquity to pierce a new thoroughfare through the heart of Rome and the earliest example of urban renewal. ... Jacopo d&#8217;Antonio Sansovino (1486 - November 27, 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Details of the decorations of the Loggia di Psiche in the Villa Farnesina, Agostino Chigis villa in Rome. ...


His constitution of 5 November 1513 reformed the Roman university, which had been neglected by Julius II. He restored all its faculties, gave larger salaries to the professors, and summoned distinguished teachers from afar; and, although it never attained to the importance of Padua or Bologna, it nevertheless possessed in 1514 a faculty (with a good reputation) of eighty-eight professors. Leo called Theodore Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and established a Greek printing-press from which the first Greek book printed at Rome appeared in 1515. He made Raphael custodian of the classical antiquities of Rome and the vicinity. The distinguished Latinists Pietro Bembo and Jacopo Sadoleto were papal secretaries, as well as the famous poet Bernardo Accolti. Other poets such as Marco Girolamo Vida, Gian Giorgio Trissino and Bibbiena, writers of novelle like Matteo Bandello, and a hundred other literati of the time were bishops, or papal scriptors or abbreviators, or in other papal employ. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... Jacopo Sadoleto (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession. ... Bernardo Accolti (1465 - 1536) was an Italian poet. ... Marco Girolamo Vida (1490?–1566) was an Italian poet. ... Gian Giorgio Trissino (Venezia, 1478 - Rome, 1550) was an Italian Renaissance humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat and grammarian. ... Matteo Bandello (c. ... Abbreviators, a body of writers in the papal chancery, whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the popes bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are written out in extenso by the scriptores. ...


Leo's lively interest in art and literature, to say nothing of his natural liberality, his alleged nepotism, his political ambitions and necessities, and his immoderate personal luxury, exhausted within two years the hard savings of Julius II, and precipitated a financial crisis from which he never emerged and which was a direct cause of most of what, from a papal point of view, were calamities of his pontificate. He created many new offices and sold them, a move seen by later Catholics as being "shameless". He sold cardinals' hats. He sold membership in the "Knights of Peter". He borrowed large sums from bankers, curials, princes and Jews. The Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the paying number of offices on Leo's death at 2,150, with a capital value of nearly 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly income of 328,000 ducats. Marino Giorgi reckoned the ordinary income of the pope for the year 1517 at about 580,000 ducats, of which 420,000 came from the States of the Church, 100,000 from annates, and 60,000 from the composition tax instituted by Sixtus IV. These sums, together with the considerable amounts accruing from indulgences, jubilees, and special fees, vanished as quickly as they were received. Then the pope resorted to pawning palace furniture, table plate, jewels, even statues of the apostles. Several banking firms and many individual creditors were ruined by the death of the pope. Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Annates is money paid by Catholic clergy to the pope, and is essentially a tax on the first years income from a benefice. ...


In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form. More recent studies have served to produce a reportedly fairer and more honest opinion of Leo X. A report of the Venetian ambassador Marino Giorgi bearing date of March 1517 indicates some of his predominant characteristics:

The pope is a good-natured and extremely free-hearted man, who avoids every difficult situation and above all wants peace; he would not undertake a war himself unless his own personal interests were involved; he loves learning; of canon law and literature he possesses remarkable knowledge; he is, moreover, a very excellent musician.

See also

The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... The Portrait of Pope Leo X with two Cardinals is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance master Raphael, circa 1518-1519. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
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Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Bibliography

  • Luther Martin. Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr.and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.I (1507-1521) and vol.2 (1521-1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0
  • Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages; Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources, 40 vols. St. Louis, B.Herder 1898
  • Vaughan, Herbert M. The Medici Popes. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1908.
  • Zophy, Jonathan W. A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation Europe Dances over Fire and Water. 1996. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.

// Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... Ludwig Pastor, created Freiherr von Campersfelden, (January 31, 1854, Aachen – September 30, 1928, Innsbruck), was the great Catholic historian of the Papacy, who published his Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters in sixteen volumes that appeared from 1886 to a last posthumous volume in 1933. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ...

External links

Pope Leo X
Born: 11 December 1475 Died: 1 December 1521
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Julius II
Pope Succeeded by
Adrian VI

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Leo X (4968 words)
The pope wished at first to remain neutral but such a course would have isolated him, so he decided to be faithful to the policy of his predecessors and sought accordingly to oppose the designs of France, but in doing so, to avoid severity.
The pope was either unwilling or not in a position to regulate the unworthy and immoral conduct of many of the Roman courtiers.
Leo's attitude towards the imperial succession was influenced primarily by his anxiety concerning the power and independence of the Holy See and the so-called freedom of Italy.
Popes (1806 words)
The election of Pope Alexander VI took him back to Rome for the conclave (assembly of cardinals to elect the pope); otherwise he lived in Florence until he was exiled in November 1494 with the other members of the Medici family on the charge of their betraying the republic.
Leo X, who inherited the council before it was a year old, was little inclined to preside over the sweeping reforms that the church so desperately needed on the eve of the Protestant Reformation.
Leo X was not only the head of the Christian Church, he was also the temporal ruler of the Papal States and head of the Medici family that ruled the Florentine republic.
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