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Encyclopedia > Pope Julius III
Julius III
Birth name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte
Papacy began February 22, 1550
Papacy ended March 23, 1555
Predecessor Paul III
Successor Marcellus II
Born September 10, 1487
Rome, Italy
Died March 23, 1555 (age 67)
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Other popes named Julius

Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 22, 1550 to 1555. Image File history File links Julius_III.jpg‎ Pope Julius III (Giovan Maria Ciocci) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Julius III ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Marcellus II, né Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi (May 6, 1501 – May 1, 1555), cardinal of Santa Croce, a native of the area of Ancona, Italy, was elected pope to succeed Julius III on April 9, 1555. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Pope Julius is a gambling card game of the 16th century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ...

Contents

Biography

The last of the High Renaissance Popes, he was born in Rome, the son of a famous jurist. He succeeded his uncle as archbishop of Siponto (Manfredonia) in Apulia in 1512, and added the diocese of Pavia in 1520. At the Sack of Rome (1527), he was one of the hostages given by Pope Clement VII (1523–34) to the Emperor's forces, and might have been killed in the Campo de' Fiori as others were, had he not been secretly liberated by Cardinal Pompeo Colonna. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Siponto (Latin: Sipontum) was an ancient city and port in Apulia, Italy, located c. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... A view of Campo de Fiori with the monument to Giordano Bruno in the centre Campo de Fiori is a square in Rome, on the edge of rione Parione. ... Pompeo Colonna (May 12, 1479 - June 28, 1532) was an Italian Cardinal, politician and condottiero. ...


In 1536 he was created cardinal-bishop of Palestrina by Pope Paul III (1534–49), by whom he was employed on several important legations; he was the first president of the Council of Trent, opening its first session at Trent, December 13, 1545, with a brief oration. At the council, he was the leader of the papal party against Emperor Charles V (1519–56), with whom he came into conflict on various occasions, especially when, on March 26, 1547, he transferred the Council to Bologna. Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Bishopric of Palestrina is a Roman Catholic suburbicarian diocese in Italy. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ...


Elected Pope

Main article: Papal conclave, 1549-1550

In the conclave after the death of Paul III (November 10, 1549) the forty-eight cardinals were divided into three factions: the Imperials, the French, and the adherents of the Farnese. The French cardinals were able to prevent the election of the other two factions, and Cardinal del Monte was duly elected Pope Julius III on February 7, 1550, as a compromise, after a conclave of ten weeks, although the Emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of acceptable candidates. Ottavio Farnese, Paul III's grandson, was immediately confirmed as Duke of Parma. As Pope, Julius III is better remembered by architectural historians and lovers of art than by theologians. He had a musical ear too: he immediately brought the great Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina to Rome and made him maestro di cappella. Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson, Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma The papal conclave from November 29, 1549 to February 7, 1550, which was convened after the death of Pope Paul III, was the second-longest papal conclave of the 16th... con·clave (knklv, kng-) n. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. ... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (4 March 1525 - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of Renaissance music. ...

Bronze statue in Perugia, 1555.

In 1551, at the request of the Emperor Emperor Charles V, Julius consented to the reopening of the council of Trent. He also entered into a league with Charles against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France (1547–59), but soon afterwards he deemed it advisable to make terms with his enemies, and in 1553 he again suspended the meetings of the council. (For the history of papal conflicts with councils, see conciliar movement). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 2948 KB) it: Perugia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 2948 KB) it: Perugia. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: Country Italy Region Umbria Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617. ... Year 1551 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not with the pope. ...


As Pope, Julius III lost interest both in political and in ecclesiastical affairs; formerly he had acquired a reputation for impetuous energy in pressing the papal position, but he now could fully express his love of luxurious ease, in the entertainments given by him especially at the Villa Giulia, which Vignola created for him, in a manner fitted to shock later ideas of ecclesiastical propriety. Julius stood by his choice, and in the Villa Giulia the ceiling fresco of a portico depicts a vine-covered trellis, where putti play with one another's genitals. Joachim du Bellay the French poet in the retinue of Cardinal du Bellay, expressed his scandalized opinion in two sonnets in his series Les regrets (published after the Pope's death, in 1558). Sarcofago degli Sposi : the sarcophagus of the married couple The Villa Giulia is a magnificent villa built by Pope Julius II on the edge of the city of Rome, 1550–1555. ... The five orders, engraving from Vignolas Regole delle cinque ordini darchitettura set the standards Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi da Vignola (Vignola, near Modena, October 1, 1507 - July 7, 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism, also known as Vignola. ... It has been suggested that Cupid (holiday character) be merged into this article or section. ... Joachim du Bellay (c. ... Jean du Bellay (c. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...


Julius also aroused much scandal by creating as his first Cardinal Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, a youth of seventeen whom he had picked up on the streets of Parma.[1] Julius met the boy two years previously and named him to the post of cathedral provost. The Venetian ambassador reported that Innocenzo shared the pope's bedroom and bed.[1] Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte (1532 - 2 November 1577) was a Cardinal of the Catholic Church, and a figure of notoriety in his age. ...


The imprudence of Pope Julius III in entrusting the office of Cardinal Nephew to Innocenzo Del Monte eventually led to an upgrading of the Secretary's job, as the incumbent had to take over the duties that Innocenzo was unfit for. The first man to fill the newly-created position of cardinal-secretary of state, and, therefore, the man who was to manage Innocent X,[clarify] was the newly created Cardinal Girolamo Dandini. By the time of Pope Innocent X (1644–55) the Secretary of State was always himself a Cardinal, and Pope Innocent XII (1691–1700) abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew in 1692. From then onwards the Secretary of State has been the most important of the officials of the Holy See. Pietro Ottoboni, the last Cardinal Nephew, painted by Francesco Trevisani A cardinal-nephew (Latin: cardinalis nepos;[1] Italian: cardinale nipote;[2] Spanish: valido de su tío; French: le prince de la fortune)[3] is a cardinal elevated by a pope who is his uncle, or more generally, his relative. ... Pope Innocent X (May 6, 1574 – January 7, 1655), born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (or Pamphili), was Pope from 1644 to 1655[1]. Born in Rome of a family from Gubbio in Umbria who had come to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent IX, he graduated from the Collegio Romano... Innocent XII, né Antonio Pignatelli (March 13, 1615 - September 27, 1700) pope from 1691 to 1700, was the successor of Alexander VIII. He came of a distinguished Naples family and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


Julius III was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550, and he appointed Ippolito II d'Este as governor of Tivoli, where Ippolito immediately set about creating the Villa d'Este. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Ippolito (II) dEste (1509 - December 2, 1572) was an Italian cardinal. ... Park of the Villa dEste, Carl Blechen, 1830 The gardens at the Villa dEste The Villa dEste is a masterpiece of Italian architecture and garden design. ...


Literature

  • Bayle, Pierre. "Jules III." Dictionnaire historique et critique. Vol. 15. Paris: Desoer, 1820.
  • Burkle-Young, Francis A., and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. The Life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte: A Scandal in Scarlet. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1997.
  • Dall'Orto, Giovanni. "Julius III." Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History from Antiquity to World War II. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon, eds. London: Routledge, 2001. 234-35.
  • Kelly, J. N. D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

References

  1. ^ Crompton, Louis (2004). Julius III. glbtq.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  • "Del Monte, Innocenzo", Dizionario biografico degli italiani. 

glbtq. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Julius III at Find-A-Grave
  • Career of Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Paul III
Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Peter (deprecated A.D. 495), Vicar of Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles
Supreme Pontiff (Pontifex Maximus)
Patriarch of the West (deprecated 2006), Primate of Italy,
Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province
Servant of the Servants of God
Pope

1550–55
Succeeded by
Marcellus II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Julius III (0 words)
Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate to England with extensive faculties to be used at his discretion in the interests of the Catholic restoration.
In February, 1555, an embassy was sent by the English Parliament to Julius III to inform him of its unreserved submission to the papal supremacy, but the embassy was still on its journey when the pope died.
At the beginning of his pontificate Julius III had the earnest desire to bring about a reform in the Church and with this intent he reopened the Council of Trent.
Pope Julius II (746 words)
The warrior pope who commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Raphael to paint the Stanze di Raffaello in the Vatican, and Bramante to begin the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Julius, who was of warlike bent, first proceeded to extend the papacy's temporal power.
Julius, who himself laid the cornerstone, had wished to be buried there, and had even commissioned an imposing tomb from Michelangelo.
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