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Encyclopedia > Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
Birth name Karol Józef Wojtyła
Papacy began 16 October 1978
Papacy ended 2 April 2005
Predecessor John Paul I
Successor Benedict XVI
Born 18 May 1920(1920-05-18)
Wadowice, Poland
Died 2 April 2005 (aged 84)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Styles of
Pope John Paul II
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Servant of God


John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Paweł II) born Karol Józef Wojtyła  IPA[ˈkaɾɔl ˈjuzεf vɔi̯ˈtɨwa]; 18 May 19202 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. His was the second-longest pontificate after Pius IX's 32-year reign. He has been the only Polish pope, and was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Adrian VI in the 1520s. Image File history File links JohannesPaulII.jpg Description: en: Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado), shortcut of Image:Johannes Paul II - Bill Clinton. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada Miasta w Wadowicach Mayor Ewa Filipiak Area km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 19. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View across St. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (born 1927) His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... Servant of God is the title given to a person of the Roman Catholic Church upon whom a pope has opened a cause of sainthood. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Pius IX reigned for 31 years, 7 months, and 23 days (11,560 days) from 1846 to 1878. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Pope Adrian VI (Utrecht, March 2, 1459 – September 14, 1523), born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Floris Boeyens, served as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1522 until his death. ...


John Paul II was Pope during a period in which the Catholic Church's influence declined in developed countries but expanded in the Third World. During his reign, the pope traveled extensively, visiting over 100 countries, more than any of his predecessors. He remains one of the most-traveled world leaders in history. He was fluent in numerous languages: his native Polish and also Italian, French, German, English, Spanish, Croatian, Portuguese, Russian and Latin.[1] As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he canonized a great number of people. Catholic Church redirects here. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Universal Call to Holiness and Apostolate is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


He beatified 1,340 people (some listed here), more people than any previous pope. The Vatican asserts he canonized more people than the combined tally of his predecessors during the last five centuries, and from a far greater variety of cultures.[2] Whether he had canonized more saints than all previous popes put together, as is sometimes also claimed, is difficult to prove, as the records of many early canonizations are incomplete, missing, or inaccurate. However, it is known that his abolition of the office of Promotor Fidei ("Promoter of the Faith" and the origin of the term Devil's advocate) streamlined the process. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Devils advocate (disambiguation). ...

Biography

Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years. ...

Early life

Main article: Early life of Pope John Paul II

Karol Józef Wojtyła was born on 18 May 1920 in the Polish town of Wadowice and was the youngest of three children of Karol Wojtyła and Emilia Kaczorowska.[3] His mother died on April 13, 1929, [4] when he was just nine years old, and his father supported him so that he could study. His brother, who worked as a doctor, died when Wojtyła was twelve. He lost everyone in his family - a sister, brother, mother, and father - before he became a priest. His youth was marked by extensive contacts with the then thriving Jewish community of Wadowice. He played sports during his youth, and was particularly interested in football (soccer)[5] as a goalkeeper.[6] is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada Miasta w Wadowicach Mayor Ewa Filipiak Area km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 19. ... Soccer redirects here. ... A football goalkeeper leaves the ground to parry a shot on goal In many team sports, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player that is charged with directly preventing the opposite team from scoring by defending the goal. ...

Karol Wojtyła at 12 years old

After completing his studies at the Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, in 1938 Wojtyła enrolled at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and in a school for drama.[3] He worked as a volunteer librarian and did compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but refused to hold or fire a weapon. In his youth he was an athlete, actor and playwright and he learned as many as ten languages during his lifetime, including Latin, Ukrainian, Greek, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, German, English as well as his native Polish. He also had some facility with Russian. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Marcin Wadowita (also known as Wadovius or Campius) (1567 - 27 January 1641) was a Polish priest, theologian, professor and chancellor of the Jagiellonian University. ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In 1939, Nazi occupation forces closed the Jagiellonian University. All able-bodied males had to have a job. From 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant and a manual labourer in a limestone quarry, and then as a salesman for the Solvay chemical factory to avoid being deported to Germany.[3] His father died of a heart attack in 1941. B'nai B'rith and other authorities have said he helped Jews find refuge from the Nazis. National Socialism redirects here. ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... This article deals with the company named Solvay. ... Bnai Brith Membership Certificate, 1876. ...


On 29 February 1944, Wojtyła was knocked down by a German truck. In sharp contrast to the harshness normally expected from the occupiers, German officers tended him and commandeered a passing truck to get him to a hospital. He spent two weeks there with a severe concussion and a shoulder injury. This accident and his survival seemed to Wojtyła a confirmation of his priestly vocation. On 6 August 1944, "Black Sunday", just after the Warsaw uprising began, the Gestapo rounded up young men in Kraków to avoid a similar uprising. Wojtyła escaped by hiding in the basement of his home as it was searched, then escaped to the Archbishop's residence, where he stayed until after the war. February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ...


On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans quit the city, and the seminarians reclaimed the ruined seminary. Wojtyła and another seminarian volunteered for the odious task of chopping up and carting away piles of frozen excrement from the lavatories. That month, Wojtyła personally helped a 14-year-old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer[7] who had run away from a Nazi labor camp in Częstochowa. Zierer was attempting to reach her family in Kraków but had collapsed from cold and exhaustion on a train platform in Jędrzejów. No one helped but Wojtyła, who gave her some hot tea and food, personally carried her to a train and accompanied her to Kraków. Zierer credits Wojtyła for saving her life that day. She would not hear of her benefactor again until she read that he was elected as the Pope in 1978.[8][9][10] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto: CzÄ™stochowa to dobre miasto (CzÄ™stochowa is a good city) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina CzÄ™stochowa Established 11th century City Rights 1356 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Wrona Area  - City 162. ... JÄ™drzejów is a town in Poland. ...


Priest

Karol Wojtyła as a priest in Niegowić, Poland, 1948

In 1942 he entered the underground seminary run by the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha. Karol Wojtyła was ordained a priest on 1 November 1946, by Cardinal Sapieha. Not long after, he was sent to study theology at the Pontifical Athenaeum of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome, Italy, commonly known as the Angelicum, where he earned a licentiate and later a doctorate in sacred theology. This doctorate, the first of two, was based on the Latin dissertation Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce (The Doctrine of Faith According to Saint John of the Cross). Even though his doctoral work was unanimously approved in June 1948, he was denied the degree because he could not afford to print the text of his dissertation (an Angelicum rule). In December of that year, a revised text of his dissertation was approved by the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and Wojtyła was finally awarded the degree. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1316x904, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Biography of Pope John Paul II ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1316x904, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Biography of Pope John Paul II ... This article covers the topic of underground education in Poland (Polish Tajne szkolnictwo) during World War II. After the Polish defeat in the Polish Defence War of 1939 and the subsequent German occupation of most Polish territory, Poland was divided into the areas directly incorporated into the Reich and the... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Noble Family Sapieha Coat of Arms Lis Parents Adam Stanisław Sapieha Jadwiga Klementyna Sanguszko Consorts none Children none Date of Birth May 14, 1867 Place of Birth Krasiczyn Date of Death July 23, 1951 Place of Death Kraków Prince Adam Stefan Stanisław Bonifacy Józef Sapieha (1867-1951) was a Polish... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... This article is about religious workers. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Facade of the main entrance of the Pontifical University of St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Facade of the main entrance of the Pontifical University of St. ... Licentiate (from Latin licentia doctorandi = permission/right to teach) is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...


Returning to Poland in the summer of 1948, with his first pastoral assignment in the village of Niegowić, fifteen miles from Kraków. In March 1949, he was transferred to Saint Florian's parish in Kraków. He taught ethics at the Jagiellonian University in there and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. Wojtyła gathered a group of fewer than 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family", who met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. Eventually there were some 200 people in his circle, which came to be called Środowisko, meaning roughly "milieu". The group went on both skiing and kayaking trips annually. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... Saint Florian, 1473 painting by Francesco del Cossa. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... The Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fr Wojtyła wrote a series of articles in Kraków's Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Powszechny ("Universal Weekly") dealing with contemporary church issues, and his literary work blossomed in his first dozen years as a priest. The war, life under communism, and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poems and plays. These were published under two pseudonyms-Andrzej Jawień, and Stanisław Andrzej Gruda. He used these pseudonyms firstly to distinguish his literary from his religious writings, which were published under his own name, and also so that his literary work would be considered on their own merits rather than as clerical curiosities. Tygodnik Powszechny (translates as Universal Weekly), is a Roman Catholic weekly newspaper, published in Kraków, Poland. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about the art form. ...


He earned a second doctorate, based on an evaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of phenomenologist Max Scheler (An Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethics on the Basis of the System of Max Scheler), in 1954. As was the case with the first degree, he was not granted the degree upon earning it. This time, the faculty at Jagiellonian University was forbidden by communist authorities from granting the degree. In conjunction with his habilitation at Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, he finally obtained the doctorate of philosophy in 1957 from that institution, where he had assumed the Chair of Ethics in 1956. In philosophy and sociology a phenomenologist applies the method termed phenomenology by Edmund Husserl to analyze nature, reality or social interactions. ... Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... The Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Bishop and cardinal

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II with the Marian Cross. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion

On 4 July 1958 Pope Pius XII named him titular bishop of Ombi and auxiliary to Archbishop Baziak, apostolic administrator of the Archdiocese of Kraków. He was consecrated to the Episcopate by Arcbishop Baziak on September 28, 1958. At 38 Karol Wojtyła was the youngest bishop in Poland. Pope John Paul II recounts in his book Rise, Let us be on our Way how he entered a room a full of priests, after news had been received of his appointment as auxiliary Bishop, when Archbishop Baziak called out "Habemus papam" ("We have a Pope"). Baziak died in June 1962 and on July 16 Karol Wojtyła was elected as Vicar Capitular, or temporary administrator, of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Marian Cross The Marian Cross is an informal name applied to a Roman Catholic cross design. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... Bishop Richard Pates, current auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis and the Titular Bishop of Suacia. ... Ombi is a Christian diocese in Poland, guided by Bishop Karol Josef Wojtyla in 1958. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Starting in October 1962 Bishop Wojtyła took part in the Second Vatican Council, and in December 1963 Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Kraków. On 26 June 1967, Paul VI announced Archbishop Wojtyła's promotion to the Sacred College of Cardinals with the title of Cardinal Priest of San Cesareo in Palatio. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... San Cesareo in Palatio San Cesareo in Palatio, or San Caesareo de Appia, titular church in Rome. ...


He made contributions to two of the most historic and influential products of the council, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis Humanae) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes). Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ...


In 1960, Wojtyła had published the influential book Love and Responsibility, a defense of the traditional Church teachings on sex and marriage from a new philosophical standpoint. In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae Vitae which deals with those same issues and forbids abortion and artificial birth control. An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ...


A Pope from Poland

Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square (1985).

In August 1978 following Paul's death, he voted in the Papal conclave that elected Pope John Paul I, who at 65 was considered young by papal standards. However, John Paul I was in poor health[citation needed] and he died after only 33 days as pope, thereby precipitating another conclave. Subject: Pope John Paul II Source: Vatican City official site [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Subject: Pope John Paul II Source: Vatican City official site [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) The winner of the October 1978 conclave. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ...


Voting in the second conclave was divided between two particularly strong candidates: Giuseppe Siri, the Archbishop of Genoa; and Giovanni Benelli, the Archbishop of Florence and a close associate of Pope John Paul I. In early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of victory. However, Wojtyła secured election as a compromise candidate, in part through the support of Franz Cardinal König and others who had previously supported Cardinal Siri. Giuseppe Siri (20 May 1906 - 2 May 1989) was an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Giovanni Cardinal Benelli (Poggiole di Vernio, diocese of Pistoia, May 12, 1921-October 26, 1982) was one of many Italian cardinals believed to be among the papabili, those considered especially electable to the Pontificate, at the two Papal conclaves of 1978. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Franz Cardinal König (center) His Eminence Franz Cardinal König (August 3, 1905 – March 13, 2004) was Archbishop of Vienna (1956 - 1985), and a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


He became the 264th Pope according to the chronological List of popes. At only 58 years of age, he was the youngest pope elected since Pope Pius IX in 1846. Like his immediate predecessor, Pope John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with the simplified Papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish prelate Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring and hugged him (SABC2 "The Greatest souls" documentary 2005). As Bishop of Rome he took possession of his Cathedral Church, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, on 12 November 1978. Popes buried in St. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Pope John XXIII blesses the crowds moments after his coronation in 1958. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ... Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski was the known as the primate of Poland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Assassination attempts

On 13 May 1981 John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Ağca, a Turkish gunman, as he entered St. Peter's Square to address an audience. He was rushed into the Vatican complex, then to the Gemelli Hospital, where Dr. Francesco Crucitti, a noted surgeon, had just arrived by police escort after hearing of the incident. The Pope had lost almost three-quarters of his blood, a near-exsanguination, despite the fact that the bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his massive blood loss and abdominal wounds. En route to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Ağca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas 1983, John Paul II visited the prison where his would-be assassin was being held. The two spoke privately for 20 minutes. John Paul II said, "What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust." The pope also stated that Our Lady of Fatima helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal. An attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II occurred on May 13, 1981. ... Juan María Fernández y Krohn (born in Spain in 1950) was ordained a Catholic priest in 1978, though known for his extreme right wing political and religious views. ... The Bojinka Plot was a planned large-scale terrorist attack on airliners in 1995. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Mehmet Ali AÄŸca (born January 9, 1958) is a Turkish assassin, who shot and wounded Pope John Paul II on May 13, 1981. ... Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... The Gemelli Hospital, named after Agostino Gemelli, is a university hospital in Rome, Italy. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ... Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminals remaining life, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 7 to 50 years... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ...

Could I forget that the event [Ali Ağca's assassination attempt] in St. Peter’s Square took place on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Fátima, Portugal? For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.

—Pope John Paul II -Memory & Identity, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, p.184

Pope John Paul II visiting with Turkish President Fahri Koruturk in Ankara, Turkey

On 2 March 2006, an Italian parliamentary commission concluded that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt, in retaliation for John Paul II's support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic Polish workers' movement, a theory which had already been supported by Michael Ledeen and the United States Central Intelligence Agency at the time. The report stated that certain Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilized to prevent the Soviet Union's role from being uncovered.[11] Although the Pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that this country had nothing to do with the assassination attempt, his secretary, Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, alleges in his book A Life with Karol that the pope was convinced privately that the KGB was behind the assassination attempt.[12] Bulgaria and Russia disputed the Italian commission's conclusions, pointing out that the Pope denied the Bulgarian connection. This theory was also central to Tom Clancy's novel Red Rabbit, published in 2002. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... Michael Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. ... CIA redirects here. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... Red Rabbit (2002) is a novel by Tom Clancy. ...


Another assassination attempt took place on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the last attempt on his life, in Fatima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet, but was stopped by security guards. The assailant, a right wing Spanish ex-priest named Juan María Fernández y Krohn, a former priest of the Diocese of Madrid, reportedly opposed the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and called the pope an agent of Communist Moscow. Fernández y Krohn subsequently left the Roman Catholic priesthood and served a six-year sentence. He was treated for mental illness and was expelled from Portugal afterwards, only to become a lawyer in Belgium, where he would try to assassinate King Juan Carlos I of Spain. is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Fatima basilica Fatima esplanade, 13/05/2003 Religious articles, 13/05/2003 Fátima is a town in Portugal famous for the religious visions that are said to have taken place there in 1917. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Juan María Fernández y Krohn (born in Spain in 1950) was ordained a Catholic priest in 1978, though known for his extreme right wing political and religious views. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ...


Pope John Paul II was also one of the targets of the Al-Qaeda-funded Operation Bojinka during a visit to the Philippines in 1995. The first plan was to kill Pope John Paul II when he visited the Philippines during the World Youth Day 1995 celebrations. On January 15, 1995, a suicide bomber would dress up as a priest, while John Paul II passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City. The assassin planned to get close to the Pope, and detonate the bomb. The planned assassination of the Pope was intended to divert attention from the next part of the phase. However, a chemical fire inadvertently started by the would-be assassins alerted police to their whereabouts, and they were arrested nearly a week before the Pope's visit. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September... World Youth Day 2000 in Rome World Youth Day (It. ... The 1995 World Youth Day was held in Manila, Philippines. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


Health

The ailing Pope John Paul II riding in the Popemobile on September 22, 2004

When he became pope in 1978, John Paul II was already an avid sportsman, and he traveled extensively during his papacy. At the time, the 58-year old was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens, weightlifting, swimming and hiking in the mountains. He was also fond of football and played for Poland in his youth. John Paul II during a general audience on 29 September 2004 Pope John Paul II entered the papacy as an avid sportsman, enjoying hiking and swimming. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1633x1090, 333 KB) Summary Der kränkliche Papst Johannes Paul II. am 22. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1633x1090, 333 KB) Summary Der kränkliche Papst Johannes Paul II. am 22. ... Pope Benedict XVI in a popemobile as he passes the White House in Washington DC. i love pope ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Swimmer redirects here. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ...


John Paul's obvious physical fitness and athletic good-looks earned much comment in the media following his election, which compared his health and trim figure to the poor health of John Paul I and Paul VI, the portliness of John XXIII and the constant claims of ailments of Pius XII. The only modern pope with a keep-fit regime had been Pope Pius XI (1922–1939) who was an avid mountain climber. An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labeled John Paul the "the keep-fit pope." Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling daily newspaper. ...


In 1981, John Paul II's health suffered a major blow after the first failed assassination attempt. He went on to a full recovery, and sported an impressive physical condition throughout the 1980s. Starting about 1992, however, his health slowly declined. He rarely walked in public and began to suffer from an increasingly slurred speech and difficulty in hearing. Most experts agreed that the frail pontiff suffered from Parkinson's disease, although it wasn't until 2003 that the Vatican finally confirmed it. From being strikingly fitter than his predecessors, he had declined physically to far more ill health than was the norm among more elderly popes. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


In February 2005 John Paul II was taken to the Gemelli hospital with inflammation and spasm of the larynx, the result of influenza. He was released from the hospital, then taken back after a few days because of difficulty breathing. A tracheotomy was performed, which improved the Pope's breathing but limited his speaking abilities, to his visible frustration. In March 2005, speculation was high that the Pope was near death; this was confirmed by the Vatican a few days before John Paul II died. The Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic (Italian: Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli) is a large general hospital in Rome, Italy. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Flu redirects here. ... Completed tracheotomy: 1 - Vocal cords 2 - Thyroid cartilage 3 - Cricoid cartilage 4 - Tracheal cartilages 5 - Balloon cuff A tracheotomy is a procedure performed by paramedics, emergency physicians and surgeons in order to secure an airway. ...


Death

(l-r): U.S. President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former Presidents Bush and Clinton, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, pay their respects to John Paul II lying in state at St. Peter's Basilica, 6 April 2005.

On 31 March 2005 the Pope developed a very high fever and profoundly low blood pressure, but was neither rushed to the hospital nor offered life support. Instead, he was offered medical monitoring by a team of consultants at his private residence. This was taken as an indication that the pope and those close to him believed that he was nearing death; it would have been in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican.[13] Later that day Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick by his friend and secretary Stanisław Dziwisz. During the final days of the Pope's life, the lights were kept burning through the night where he lay in the Papal apartment on the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. Image File history File links Pictured from left, US President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former President George H. W. Bush, former President Bill Clinton, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card pay their respects to Pope John Paul II as he... Image File history File links Pictured from left, US President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former President George H. W. Bush, former President Bill Clinton, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card pay their respects to Pope John Paul II as he... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born Laura Welch on November 4, 1946 in Midland, Texas) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush, murderess, and current First Lady of the United States. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ... View across St. ...


Tens of thousands of people rushed to the Vatican, filling St. Peter's Square and beyond with a vast multitude, and held vigil for two days. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: "I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you." Berninis piazza was extended by the Via della Conciliazione, Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ...


On Saturday 2 April, at about 15:30 CEST, John Paul II spoke his final words, "Let me go to the house of the Father," to his aides in his native Polish and fell into a coma about four hours later.[14] He died in his private apartment, at 21:37 CEST (19:37 UTC), 46 days short of his 85th birthday. The mass of the vigil of the Second Sunday of Easter, that is, Divine Mercy Sunday which was put into the Church's calendar by him on the occasion of the canonization of St. Faustina on 30 April 2000,[15] had just been celebrated at his bedside. Several aides were present, along with several Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal household. is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... ... The Feast of the Divine Mercy or Divine Mercy Sunday is the second Sunday of Easter (formerly designated Low Sunday), and dedicated to the devotion to the Divine Mercy promoted by St. ... Saint Faustina Saint Maria Faustina Kowalska of the Most Blessed Sacrament (born Helena Kowalska) (August 25, 1905, Głogowiec, Poland - October 5, 1938, Kraków, Poland) - a Polish Catholic saint and mystic. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

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A crowd of over two million present in Vatican City mourned the death of John Paul II. The public viewing of his body in St. Peter's Basilica drew over four million people to Vatican City and was one of the largest pilgrimages in the history of Christianity. Many world leaders expressed their condolences and ordered flags in their countries lowered to half-staff. Numerous countries with a Catholic majority, and even some with only a small Catholic population, declared mourning for John Paul II. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ...


On his death certificate, (refractory) septic shock was listed as a primary cause of death along with profound arterial hypotension leading to complete circulatory collapse. In cases of fatal sepsis, the normal cause of death is complete circulatory collapse. Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ...


Funeral

The tomb of John Paul II

The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took place from 4 April to 7 April at St. Peter's Basilica. The Mass of Requiem on 8 April was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral[citation needed]. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Ratzinger, who would become the next pope, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a tomb created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of Blessed Pope John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since Pope John's remains had been moved into the main body of the basilica after his beatification. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (676x1040, 45 KB) Summary Crypt of Pope John Paul II. Taken by ProhibitOnions, December 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (676x1040, 45 KB) Summary Crypt of Pope John Paul II. Taken by ProhibitOnions, December 2005. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... The body of Pope John Paul II. April 5, 2005. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Titles

His title was: Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of Saint Peter, Head of the College of Bishops, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West (this title was recently removed from the papal list of titles by the reigning pope, Benedict XVI), Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God, Pope John Paul II. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Vicariate redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... St Peter redirects here. ... The term College of Bishops is used in Catholic theology to describe the bishops, as the successors of the Apostles in communion with the Pope, who is the Bishop of Rome, as a body. ... This article is about the office of the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ...


Posthumous recognition and cause for canonization

Statue of John Paul II in Caracas, Venezuela

Since the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen throughout the world have been referring to the late pontiff as "John Paul the Great" — only the third pope to be so acclaimed, and the first since the first millennium.[16][17] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ...


His successor, Pope Benedict XVI, referred to him as "the great Pope John Paul II" in his first address from the loggia of St Peter's Church. Pope Benedict XVI, then Cardinal Ratzinger, stirred excitement by some devotees of the pope when in his published written homily for the Mass of Repose, he referred to Pope John Paul II as "the Great." Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... For the surname, see Loggia (surname). ...


Since giving his homily at the funeral of Pope John Paul, Pope Benedict XVI has continued to refer to John Paul II as "the Great." At the 2005 World Youth Day in Germany, Pope Benedict XVI, speaking in Polish, John Paul's native language, said, "As the great Pope John Paul II would say: keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people." In May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI visited John Paul's native Poland. During that visit he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor."


In addition to the Vatican calling him "the great," numerous newspapers have also done so. For example the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera called him "the Greatest" and the South African Catholic newspaper, The Southern Cross, has called him "John Paul II The Great." The headquarters in Milan. ...


Scholars of Canon Law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title establishes itself through popular, and continued, usage. The three popes who today commonly are known as "Great" are Leo I, who reigned from 440461 and persuaded Attila the Hun to withdraw from Rome; Gregory I, 590604, after whom the Gregorian Chant is named; and Pope Nicholas I, 858-867. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... Events August 2 - Majorian resigns as Western Roman Emperor; shortly afterwards Libius Severus is declared western Roman emperor by Ricimer November 19 - Hilarius succeeds Leo as Pope Saint Patrick returns to Ireland as a Christian missionary. ... Attila redirects here. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ...

One of many John Paul II statues

On May 9, 2005, Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his predecessor, John Paul II. Normally five years must pass after a person's death before the beatification process can begin. However, in an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome and the one responsible for promoting the cause for canonization of any person who dies within that diocese, cited "exceptional circumstances" which suggested that the waiting period could be waived. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (582x1046, 572 KB) Description: Statue of Johannes Paulus II. in Tschenstochau Source: self-made Photographer: Langec File links The following pages link to this file: Pope John Paul II ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (582x1046, 572 KB) Description: Statue of Johannes Paulus II. in Tschenstochau Source: self-made Photographer: Langec File links The following pages link to this file: Pope John Paul II ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Camillo Cardinal Ruini (born February 19, 1931) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. ... A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


The "exceptional circumstances" presumably refer to the people's cries of "Santo Subito!" ("Saint now!") during the late pontiff's funeral. Therefore the new Pope waived the five year rule "so that the cause of Beatification and Canonization of the same Servant of God can begin immediately."[18] The decision was announced on May 13, 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Fatima and the 24th anniversary of the assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter's Square.[19] John Paul II often credited Our Lady of Fatima for preserving him on that day. Cardinal Ruini inaugurated the diocesan phase of the cause for beatification in the Lateran Basilica on 28 June 2005.[20] is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early 2006, it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. A French nun, confined to her bed by Parkinson's Disease, is reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II".[21][22] The nun was later identified as Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, a member of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards from Puyricard, near Aix-en-Provence.[23] For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... Parkinsons disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferers motor skills and speech, as well as other functions. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ...


On May 28, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI said Mass before an estimated 900,000 people in John Paul II's native Poland. During his homily he encouraged prayers for the early canonization of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonization would happen "in the near future." is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 2007, it was announced by Stanislaw Cardinal Dziwisz of Krakow, his former secretary, that the key interviewing phase in Italy and Poland of the beatification process was nearing completion. Cardinal Dziwisz had been giving an interview that featured the introduction of his new book in Polish and Italian, Living With Karol, when he made the announcement. In February 2007, the website of the late pope's sainthood cause has stated that relics of Pope John Paul II — pieces of white papal cassocks he used to wear — were being freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause to interested parties; this distribution and prayerful use of relics is a typical praiseworthy pious practice after a saintly Catholic's death. StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ...


On 8 March 2007 it was announced that the Vicariate of Rome announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul's cause for beatification is at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007 — the second anniversary of the Pontiff's death — the cause proceeded to the scrutiny of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who will conduct an investigation of their own. is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Cardinal Vicar is the title of the the vicar general of the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, known in Latin as Vicarius Urbis. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ...


Not all Catholic theologians agree with the call for beatification. Eleven dissident theologians, including Jesuit professor Jose Maria Castillo and Italian theologian Giovanni Franzoni raised seven points, including his stance against contraception and the ordination of women (despite the fact his position was reaffirmation of what already had been Catholic teaching) as well as the Church scandals that allegedly presented "facts which according to their consciences and convictions should be an obstacle to beatification."[24]


Life's work

Teachings

As pope, one of John Paul II's most important roles was to teach people about Christianity. He wrote 14 papal encyclicals (List of Encyclicals of Pope John Paul II) that many observers believe will have long-lasting influence on the church.[citation needed] Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II wrote a number of documents that may have a long-lasting influence on the Church. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II issued 14 Papal Encyclicals during his reign as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for over 26 years, from his election on 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005. ...


In his Apostolic Letter At the beginning of the third millennium (Novo Millennio Ineunte), he emphasized the importance of "starting afresh from Christ": "No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person." In what he calls a "program for all times," he placed "sanctity" as the single most important priority of all pastoral activities in the entire Catholic Church. He canonized many saints around the world as exemplars for his vision and he supported the prelature of Opus Dei, whose aim is to spread the message of the universal call to holiness and the sanctification of secular activities, which he said is a "great ideal" and a "characteristic mark" of the Second Vatican Council. Novo Millennio Ineunte is an apostolic letter of John Paul II, addressed to the the Bishops Clergy and Lay Faithful, At the Close of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... Universal Call to Holiness and Apostolate is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy. ...

John Paul II‘s statue in Košice, Slovakia. The statue was unveiled by Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, a former private secretary to Pope John Paul II.

In The Splendour of the Truth (Veritatis Splendor) he emphasized the dependence of man on God and his law ("Without the Creator, the creature disappears") and the "dependence of freedom on the truth". He warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and skepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2136x2848, 1333 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2136x2848, 1333 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ... Veritatis Splendor (Latin: The Splendor of Truth) is the name of an encyclical by Pope John Paul II. It expresses the position of the Catholic Church regarding fundamentals of the Churchs role in moral teaching. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... This article is about the psychological term. ...


In Fides et Ratio (On the Relationship between Faith and Reason) John Paul promotes a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit for Truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources (such as Thomism), he describes the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason, and emphasizes why it is important that theologians should focus on the relationship. John Paul proposes that philosophy has lost its meaning (e.g., the pursuit for objective truth), and that restoring it will ultimately help cure the nihilistic condition of our current age; and, moreover, lead to the Truth of sacred scripture. Fides et Ratio (Latin: faith and reason) is an encyclical promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 1988-09-15. ...


John Paul II also wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals. Through his encyclicals, John Paul also talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of mankind, and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations. For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ...


Other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life (Evangelium Vitae) and Orientale Lumen (Light of the East). Often accused of inflexibility through misunderstanding of the office of the papacy in asserting Church Teaching, he explicitly reiterated and asserted unchanged 2,000-year old Catholic teaching on moral matters like murder, euthanasia and abortion. These, like all statements on faith and morals, according to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, when asserted in the official papal capacity possess the quality referred to as infallibility. An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


John Paul II, who was present and very influential at the Vatican II (1962–65), affirmed the teachings of that Council and did much to implement them. Nevertheless, his critics often wished aloud that he would embrace the so-called "progressive" agenda that some hoped would evolve as a result of the Council. In fact, the Council did not advocate "progressive" changes in these areas, e.g., still condemning the taking of unborn human life through abortion as an "unspeakable crime". John Paul II continued to declare that contraception, abortion, and homosexual acts were gravely sinful, and, with Cardinal Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI), opposed Liberation theology. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


He believed in the Church's exaltation of the marital act of sexual intercourse between a baptized man and woman within sacramental marriage as proper and exclusive to the sacrament of marriage that was, in every instance, profaned by contraception, abortion, divorce followed by a 'second' marriage, and by homosexual acts. Often mistakenly assumed to be a rejection against women[citation needed], he definitively explained and asserted in 1994 for all time the Church's lack of authority to ordain women to the priesthood, without such authority such ordination is not legitimately compatible with fidelity to Christ. This was also deemed a repudiation of calls to break with the constant tradition of the Church by ordaining women to the priesthood. (Apostolic Letter 'Ordinatio Sacerdotalis') In addition, John Paul II chose not to end the discipline of mandatory priestly celibacy, although in a small number of unusual circumstances, he did allow certain married clergymen of other Christian traditions who later became Catholic to be ordained as Catholic priests. It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


John Paul II, as a writer of philosophical and theological thought, was characterized by his explorations in phenomenology and personalism. He is also known for his development of the Theology of the Body. Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles, and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism : Only people are real (in the ontological sense), Only people have value, and Only people have free will. ... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September 1979 and November 1984. ...


Philosophers and theologians influenced by him include[citation needed]-among countless others: his successor, Pope Benedict XVI, Jurgen Habermas, John Haas, Andrew Greeley, Rocco Buttiglione, Hans Köchler, George Weigel, Scott Hahn, Mary Beth Bonacci, Deirdre McQuade, Antoinette Bosco, Hans Küng, Yves Congar, Avery Dulles, SJ, John J. Myers, Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke, Joseph Bernardin, Francis Cardinal George, O.M.I., Timothy M. Dolan, Edward Egan, John O'Connor, Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz, Christoph Schonborn, Stanisław Dziwisz, Franciszek Macharski, Józef Glemp, Peter Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., Paolo Dezza, Pedro Arrupe, S.J., Oscar Romero, Mother Teresa, Walter Kasper, Michael Fitzgerald, Jean-Marie Lustiger, André Vingt-Trois, Jarosław Gowin, and Elio Sgreccia. Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (born June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf, Germany) is a philosopher and social theorist in the tradition of critical theory. ... The Rev. ... Rocco Buttiglione. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... George Weigel (Baltimore, 1951 - ) is an American Catholic author, and political and social activist. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Hans Küng (born March 19, 1928 in Sursee, Canton of Lucerne), is a Catholic priest, a Swiss theologian, and a prolific author. ... Yves Marie Joseph Cardinal Congar (April 8, 1904-June 22, 1995) was a French Dominican priest and theologian. ... Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (born August 24, 1918) is currently the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University, a position he has held since 1988. ... Archbishop John Joseph Myers STL, JCD (b. ... Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, served as Archbishop of Chicago from 1982 till his death in 1996. ... Cardinal George is the current Archbishop of Chicago. ... Seal of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Archbishop Dolans homily at the Installation Mass. ... Edward Michael Egan, later Edward Cardinal Egan (born April 2, 1932) is the twelfth bishop (ninth archbishop) of the Roman Catholic diocese of New York. ... John Cardinal OConnor His Eminence John Cardinal OConnor, (January 15, 1920 – May 3, 2000) was the eleventh bishop (eighth archbishop) of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of New York, serving from 1984 until his death in 2000. ... Christoph Cardinal Schönborn His Eminence Christoph Cardinal Schönborn OP (who would have been Count Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert von Schönborn if Austrian law on nobility were not in place), born on January 22, 1945 at Skalken castle west of Leitmeritz, in Bohemia, which is... StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ... Franciszek Cardinal Macharski His Eminence Franciszek Cardinal Macharski (born May 20, 1927 in Krakow, Poland) is the current archbishop of Krakow, Poland, (since 29 December 1978 - becoming the successor of Karol Wojtyła to the chair of St. ... Józef Cardinal Glemp Józef Cardinal Glemp (born December 18, 1929) is Cardinal Archbishop Emeritus of Warsaw and Primate of Poland and former Ordinary for the faithful of the Oriental Rite residing in Poland. ... Peter Hans Kolvenbach, current Superior-General of the Catholic order or the Jesuits, in Goa, India, Nov 9, 2006. ... The Society of Jesus — also known by its Latin name Societas Iesu or its English variant Jesuit Order — is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... Fr. ... The Society of Jesus — also known by its Latin name Societas Iesu or its English variant Jesuit Order — is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... His Eminence Walter Cardinal Kasper (born March 5, 1933) is a Cardinal Deacon and President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in the Roman Curia. ... Michael Louis Fitzgerald (17 August 1937-) is a Roman Catholic archbishop. ... Aaron Jean-Marie Cardinal Lustiger (French pronunciation: ) (September 17, 1926 – August 5, 2007)[1] [2] was a French prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... ... JarosÅ‚aw Gowin is a Polish politician, representing of Platforma Obywatelska. ...


Pastoral trips

Map indicating countries Pope John Paul II visited.
Millions cheer Pope John Paul II during his first visit to Poland as pontiff in 1979
The Pope meets with President Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan of the United States, 1982

During his pontificate, Pope John Paul II made trips to 117 countries.[25] In total he logged more than 1.1 million km (725,000 miles). He consistently attracted large crowds on his travels, some amongst the largest ever assembled in human history. All these travels were paid by the money of the countries he visited and not by the Vatican. Map indicating countries which were visited by John Paul II. During his reign, Pope John Paul II (The Pilgrim Pope) made over 100 foreign trips, more than all previous popes put together. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 29 KB) Summary Key: 9 trips - blue 8 trips - green 7 trips - yellow 5 trips - brown 4 trips - purple 3 trips - light blue 2 trips - red 1 trip - black See also: Foreign trips of John Paul II.png Licensing I... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 29 KB) Summary Key: 9 trips - blue 8 trips - green 7 trips - yellow 5 trips - brown 4 trips - purple 3 trips - light blue 2 trips - red 1 trip - black See also: Foreign trips of John Paul II.png Licensing I... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ...


One of John Paul II's earliest official visits was to Poland, in June 1979, where he was constantly surrounded by ecstatic crowds.[26] The first trip to Poland was sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980 which brought freedom and human rights to his troubled country. On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the organization. Successive trips reinforced this message and Poland began the process that would finally defeat the domination of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe in 1989. Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


While some of his trips (such as to the United States and the Holy Land) were to places previously visited by Pope Paul VI (the first pope to travel widely), many others were to places that no pope had ever visited before, including Mexico in February, (1979) for a Bishops Synod, even before going to Poland for the first time, Ireland later that year in September 1979, Japan (in 1982), South Korea and Puerto Rico (both in 1984). He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. In the first visit by a pontiff to Cuba (1998), he sharply criticized Cuba's stance on religious expression, as well as US sanctions against Cuba. In 2000, the first modern Catholic pope to visit Egypt met with the Coptic pope and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. He was the first Catholic Pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria in 2001. He visited Umayyad Mosque, where John the Baptist is believed to be interred. For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States embargo against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for the blockade) is an economic, commercial, and financial embargo imposed on Cuba on February 7, 1962. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Patriarch and Pope of Alexandria and all Africa. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...


In 1988 he made a trip to Lesotho to beatify Joseph Gerrad.[27] On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of between four and eight million in Luneta Park, Manila, Philippines, considered the largest single event in Christian history. In September 2001 amid post-September 11 concerns, he traveled to Kazakhstan, with an audience of largely Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of the 1700 years of Christianity in that nation. He fluently said Mass in local languages during some visits, including Kiswahili at a Mass in Nairobi, Kenya in 1995 and in an Indonesian language in East Timor. is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The 1995 World Youth Day was held in Manila, Philippines. ... Luneta Park is situated in the heart of the city of Manila, Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the 1928 unifying language declaration in the Indonesian Youth Pledge. ...


Throughout his trips, he stressed his devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary through visits to various shrines to the Virgin Mary, notably Knock in Ireland, Licheń Stary in Poland, Fátima in Portugal, Guadalupe in Mexico and Lourdes in France. Our Lady redirects here. ... In the culture and practice of some Christian Churches - mainly, but not solely, the Roman Catholic Church - a shrine to the Virgin Mary or Marian shrine is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or a site on which is centered a historically... This article refers to Knock in County Mayo, Ireland. ... Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lichen. ... District or region Santarém Municipality Ourém Area 71. ... An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ...


Relations with other religions and denominations

Pope John Paul II traveled extensively and came into contact with believers from many divergent faiths. He constantly attempted to find common ground, both doctrinal and dogmatic. At the World Day of Prayer for Peace, held in Assisi on October 27, 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and Christian denominations spent a day together with fasting and praying.[28] World Day of Prayer for Peace, held in Assisi on October 27, 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and Christian denominations spent a day together with fasting and praying. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Anglicanism

Pope John Paul II had good relations with the Anglican Church, referred to by Paul VI as "our beloved Sister Church". He preached in Canterbury Cathedral during his visit to Britain, and received Archbishops of Canterbury with friendship and courtesy. However, John Paul II was greatly disappointed by the Anglican Church's decision to offer the sacrament of priestly ordination to women and saw it as a step in the opposite direction from unity between the Anglican Church and Roman Catholicism. Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Judaism

Pope John Paul II visiting the Great Synagogue of Rome, April 1986

Relations between Catholicism and Judaism improved during the pontificate of John Paul II. He spoke frequently about the Church's relationship with Jews. Image File history File links Jp2synogogue. ... Image File history File links Jp2synogogue. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded...


As a child, Karol Wojtyła had played sports with his many Jewish neighbors. In 1979 he became the first Pope to visit the Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, where many of his countrymen (mostly Polish Jews) had perished during the German Nazi occupation. In 1998 he issued "We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah" which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust.[1] He also became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue, when he visited the Synagogue of Rome on April 13, 1986. Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Great Synagogue in Rome The Great Synagogue of Rome (called Tempio Maggiore in Italian) was built shortly after the unification of Italy in 1807. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1994, in honor of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, Pope John Paul II hosted "The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust." This concert, which was conceived and conducted by American Maestro Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome, the President of Italy, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the world. The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sir Gilbert Levine KCSG (b. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


In March 2000, John Paul II visited Yad Vashem, (the Israeli national Holocaust memorial) in Israel and later made history by touching the holiest site in Judaism, the Western Wall in Jerusalem, placing a letter inside it (in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews in the past).[29] In October 2003 the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued a statement congratulating John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy. The Hall of Names containing books of all those who perished in the Holocaust. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Western Wall by night. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...


Immediately after the pope's death, the ADL issued a statement that Pope John Paul II had revolutionized Catholic-Jewish relations, saying that "more change for the better took place in his 27 year Papacy than in the nearly 2,000 years before." (Pope John Paul II: An Appreciation: A Visionary Remembered).


Eastern Orthodox Church

In May 1999, John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from Patriarch Teoctist of the Romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first time a pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054. On his arrival, the Patriarch and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the Pope. The Patriarch stated, "The second millennium of Christian history began with a painful wounding of the unity of the Church; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring Christian unity." In May 1999, Pope John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from His Beatitude Patriarch Teoctist of the Romanian Orthodox Church. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


John Paul II visited other heavily Orthodox areas such as Ukraine, despite lack of welcome at times, and he said that an end to the Schism was one of his fondest wishes.


The Pope had also said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He had made several attempts to solve the problems which arose over a period of centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, such as giving back the icon of Our Lady of Kazan in August 2004. However, the Russian Orthodox Church never expressed much enthusiasm, making statements to the effect of: "The question of the visit of the Pope in Russia is not connected by the journalists with the problems between the Churches, which are now unreal to solve, but with giving back one of many sacred things, which were illegally stolen from Russia." (Vsevolod Chaplin). The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Our Lady of Kazan (16th century). ...


Buddhism

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama and the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism, visited Pope John Paul II eight times, more than any other single dignitary. The Pope and the Dalai Lama often shared similar views and understood similar plights, both coming from peoples affected by communism and both being heads of religious bodies. Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Llhamo Döndrub (Tibetan: ; Wylie: Lha-mo Don-grub) 6 July 1935 in Qinghai [1]), is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Islam

On 6 May 2001, Pope John Paul II became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in an Islamic mosque. He visited Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria, where John the Baptist is believed to be interred, and gave a speech including the statement: "For all the times that Muslims and Christians have offended one another, we need to seek forgiveness from the Almighty and to offer each other forgiveness."[30] He kissed the Quran in Syria [2], an act which made him popular amongst Muslims and more unpopular amongst traditional Catholics. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...


In 2005, Pope John Paul II hosted the "Papal Concert of Reconciliation," which brought together leaders of Islam with leaders of the Jewish community and of the Catholic Church at the Vatican for a concert by choirs from Poland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Turkey with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. The event was conceived and conducted by Sir Gilbert Levine, KCSG and was broadcast throughout the world. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra is one of the major orchestras in the United States. ... Sir Gilbert Levine KCSG (b. ... Insignia of the Pontifical Equestrian Order of St. ...


The Pope for youth

Father Karol Wojtyła on kayak trip

John Paul II had a special relationship also with Catholic youth and is known by some as The Pope for Youth. Before he was pope he used to camp and mountain hike with the youth. He still went mountain hiking when he was pope. He was a hero to many of them. Indeed, at gatherings, young Catholics, and conceivably non-Catholics, were often fond of chanting the phrase "JP Two, We Love You", and occasionally John Paul would reply "JP too, He Loves YOU!" He was particularly concerned with the education of young future Priests, and made many early visits to Roman seminaries, including to the Venerable English College in 1979. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (838x984, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Biography of Pope John Paul II ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (838x984, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope John Paul II Biography of Pope John Paul II ... The Venerable English College is a seminary based in Rome for the training of priests for the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales. ...


He established World Youth Day in 1984 with the intention of bringing young Catholics from all parts of the world together to celebrate their faith. These week-long meetings of youth occur every two or three years, attracting hundreds of thousands of young people, who go there to sing, party, have a good time and deepen their faith. Some of his most faithful youths gathered themselves in two organizations: "papaboys" and "papagirls." World Youth Day 2000 in Rome World Youth Day (It. ...


Apologies

Over the later parts of his reign, John Paul II made several apologies to various peoples who had been wronged by the Catholic Church through the years. Even before he became the Pope, he was a prominent editor and supporter of initiatives like the Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops from 1965. During his reign as a Pope, he publicly made apologies for over 100 of these wrongdoings, including: The Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops (Polish: ; German: ) was a letter sent on 18 November 1965 by Polish bishops of the Roman Catholic Church to their German counterparts. ...

  • The conquest of Mesoamerica by Spain in the name of the Church
  • The legal process on the Italian scientist and philosopher Galileo Galilei, himself a devout Catholic, around 1633 (31 October 1992).
  • Catholics' involvement with the African slave trade (9 August 1993).
  • The Church Hierarchy's role in burnings at the stake and the religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation (May 1995, in the Czech Republic).
  • The injustices committed against women, the violation of women's rights and for the historical denigration of women (10 July 1995, in a letter to "every woman").
  • The inactivity and silence of many Catholics during the Holocaust (see the article Religion in Nazi Germany) (16 March 1998)
  • For the execution of Jan Hus in 1415 (18 December 1999 in Prague). When John Paul II visited Prague in 1990s, he requested experts in this matter "to define with greater clarity the position held by Jan Hus among the Church's reformers, and acknowledged that "independently of the theological convictions he defended, Hus cannot be denied integrity in his personal life and commitment to the nation's moral education." It was another step in building a bridge between Catholics and Protestants.
  • For the sins of Catholics throughout the ages for violating "the rights of ethnic groups and peoples, and [for showing] contempt for their cultures and religious traditions". (12 March 2000, during a public Mass of Pardons).
  • For the sins of the Crusader attack on Constantinople in 1204. (4 May 2001, to the Patriarch of Constantinople).

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Social and political stances

John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to reproduction and the ordination of women. No pope, however, has strayed from the Catholic Church's unbroken moral teachings on artificial contraception and the ordination of women. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ...


A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September 1979 and November 1984 were later compiled and published as a single work entitled "Theology of the Body," an extended meditation on the nature of human sexuality. He also extended it to condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all uses of capital punishment, calling them all a part of the "culture of death" that is pervasive in the modern world. He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice. Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September 1979 and November 1984. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Culture of death has two distinct meanings: A term used in Colonial Europe to describe barbaric cultures that glorified or worshipped death. ... Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ...


Relations with dictatorships

Illegal "postage stamps" with Pope John Paul II of Solidarność Walcząca ("Fighting Solidarity") - underground anticommunistic organization in Poland (est. 1982). Used not for letters, but as shares sold to financially support the organization.

In 1984 and 1986, through the voice of Cardinal Ratzinger, leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned the Liberation theology which had many followers in South America. Oscar Romero's attempt, during his visit to Europe, to obtain a Vatican condemnation of El Salvador's regime, denounced for violations of human rights and its support of death squads, was a failure. In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua in 1983, John Paul II harshly condemned what he dubbed the "popular Church" (i.e. "ecclesial base communities" (CEBs) supported by the CELAM), and the Nicaraguan clergy's tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1667x784, 192 KB) Illegal postage stamps of Solidarność Walcząca (Fighting Solidarność) - underground anticommunistic organization in Poland (est. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1667x784, 192 KB) Illegal postage stamps of Solidarność Walcząca (Fighting Solidarność) - underground anticommunistic organization in Poland (est. ... Figting Solidarity Poster Fighting Solidarity Polish: was a Polish anti-communist underground organization, founded in 1982 by Kornel Morawiecki in Wrocław in responce to delegalization of Solidarity and governement repressions of opposition after martial law in Poland. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ... The concept of Basic ecclesial community (BEC) has its origin in neo-Marxist liberation theology, but has been appropriated in other locations and strands of the Roman Catholic Church world wide. ... CELAM (Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano - Latin American Episcopal Conference) was created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). ... Sandinista redirects here. ...


John Paul II was criticized for visiting Augusto Pinochet in Chile. He invited him to restore democracy, but, critics claim, not in as firm terms as the ones he used against communist countries. John Paul also allegedly endorsed Pío Cardinal Laghi, who critics say supported the "Dirty War" in Argentina and was on friendly terms with the Argentinean generals of the military dictatorship, allegedly playing regular tennis matches with general Jorge Rafael Videla. However, the Pope has been linked to the fall of Jean-Claude Duvalier's dictatorship in Haiti. He was also critical of the Chinese government and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association running the church and appointing bishops without the consent of the Holy See, and maintained strong ties with underground Catholic groups. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Pío Cardinal Laghi (born May 21, 1922) is a Roman Catholic Cardinal who has served in the diplomatic service of the Holy See and in the Roman Curia. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc) (born July 3, 1951) succeeded his father, François Papa Doc Duvalier as the ruler of Haiti from his fathers death in 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986. ... The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (Chinese: 中国天主教爱国会, pinyin: Zhōngguó TiānzhÇ”jiào Àiguó Huì), abbreviated CPA, CPCA, or CCPA, is a division, established in 1957, of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland Chinas Catholics. ...


The pope, who began his papacy when the Soviets controlled his native country of Poland, as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, was a harsh critic of communism, and supported the Polish Solidarity movement. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev once said the collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II.[31] CCCP redirects here. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ...


In later years, after having harshly condemned Liberation theology, John Paul II criticized some of the more extreme versions of capitalism. "Unfortunately, not everything the West proposes as a theoretical vision or as a concrete lifestyle reflects Gospel values." He saw in capitalism certain "viruses": secularism, indifferentism, hedonistic consumerism, practical materialism, and also formal atheism. Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ...


Jubilee 2000 campaign

In 2000 he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof and Bono. It was reported that during this period, U2's recording sessions were repeatedly interrupted by phone calls from the Pope, wanting to discuss the campaign with Bono.[citation needed] Logo of Jubilee 2000 Jubilee 2000 was an international coalition movement in over 40 countries calling for cancellation of unpayable third world debt by the year 2000. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations. ... Robert Frederick Xenon Geldof[1], KBE[2], known as Bob Geldof (born 5 October 1951) [3], is an Irish singer, songwriter, actor and political activist. ... For other uses, see Bono (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ...


Iraq war

In 2003 John Paul II also became a prominent critic of the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq. In his 2003 State of the World address the Pope declared his opposition to the invasion by stating, "No to war! War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity."[32] He sent former Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States Pío Cardinal Laghi to talk with American President George W. Bush to express opposition to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The flag of Vatican City and the Holy See flies above the Nunciature to the United States. ... Pío Cardinal Laghi (born May 21, 1922) is a Roman Catholic Cardinal who has served in the diplomatic service of the Holy See and in the Roman Curia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems...


European Constitutional Treaty

In European Union negotiations for a new European Constitutional Treaty in 2003 and 2004, the Vatican's representatives failed to secure any mention of Europe's "Christian heritage"—one of the Pope's cherished goals. The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...


Sexuality

See also: Homosexuality and Roman Catholicism and Theology of the Body

While taking a traditional position on sexuality, defending the Church's moral opposition to marriage for same-sex couples, the pope asserted that persons with homosexual inclinations possess the same inherent dignity as everybody else. In his last book, Memory and Identity, he referred to the "pressures" on the European Parliament to permit "homosexual 'marriage'". In the book, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote: "It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, perhaps more insidious and hidden, which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man." The Roman Catholic Church considers human sexual behavior that it sees as properly expressed to be sacred, almost sacramental in nature. ... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September 1979 and November 1984. ... Recognized in some regions Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Same-sex marriage debated, recognition granted United States (CT, DC, HI, ME, NH, NJ, OR, VT, WA) See also This box:      Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay... Memory and Identity was a book written by the late Pope John Paul II. Category: ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The Pope also reaffirmed the Church's existing teaching on gender in relation to transsexuals, as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which he supervised, made clear that transsexuals could not serve in church positions. A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


Theory of evolution and the interpretation of Genesis

See also: Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church.

In an 22 October 1996 address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Pope John Paul II reaffirmed the Church's openness to the theory of evolution: The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 under its current name by Pope Pius XI and is placed under the protection of the reigning Supreme Pontiff (the current Pope). ...

"In his encyclical Humani Generis (1950), my predecessor Pius XII has already affirmed that there is no conflict between evolution and the doctrine of the faith regarding man and his vocation, provided that we do not lose sight of certain fixed points....Today, more than a half-century after the appearance of that encyclical, some new findings lead us toward the recognition of evolution as more than an hypothesis. In fact it is remarkable that this theory has had progressively greater influence on the spirit of researchers, following a series of discoveries in different scholarly disciplines. The convergence in the results of these independent studies -- which was neither planned nor sought -- constitutes in itself a significant argument in favor of the theory." (John Paul II, Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on Evolution)

In the same address, the Pope rejected any theory of evolution that provides a materialistic explanation for the human soul: This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...

"Theories of evolution which, because of the philosophies which inspire them, regard the spirit either as emerging from the forces of living matter, or as a simple epiphenomenon of that matter, are incompatible with the truth about man."

John Paul II also wrote to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on the subject of cosmology and how to interpret Genesis:

"Cosmogony and cosmology have always aroused great interest among peoples and religions. The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its make-up, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise, but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe. Sacred Scripture wishes simply to declare that the world was created by God, and in order to teach this truth it expresses itself in the terms of the cosmology in use at the time of the writer. The Sacred Book likewise wishes to tell men that the world was not created as the seat of the gods, as was taught by other cosmogonies and cosmologies, but was rather created for the service of man and the glory of God. Any other teaching about the origin and make-up of the universe is alien to the intentions of the Bible, which does not wish to teach how heaven was made but how one goes to heaven." (Pope John Paul II, October 3, 1981 to the Pontifical Academy of Science, "Cosmology and Fundamental Physics")

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

On February 10, 2005, Pope John Paul II elevated the Archdiocese of Trivandrum to a Major Archdiocese, elevating the Archbishop to Major Archbishop (called Catholicos by Syro-Malankara Catholics). As a major archiepiscopal church, the Syro-Malankaras are granted the greatest level of self-government (autonomy) under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, governed by the major archbishop and the general synod of all bishops of the church, subject to papal oversight. There are two Archdioceses of Trivandrum in the Catholic Church, both based in the city of Trivandrum, India. ...


Criticisms

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Roman Catholicism

Pope
Vatican City
Roman Curia
The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


Foundations
Primacy of Simon Peter
Papal supremacy
Papal authority
Papal infallibility · Dogma
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Matthew A number of Christian denominations hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favoured by Jesus of Nazareth with the first place of honour and authority. ... The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope (Bishop of Rome), from the Holy See, over the several churches that comprise the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...


Doctrine
Scripture · Apocrypha
Encyclical · Papal bulls
Council of Trent
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The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Practices & beliefs
Mass · Liturgy
Purgatory · Penance
Transubstantiation
Intercession of saints
Prayer for the dead
Monasticism · Asceticism
Ritualism · Veneration
For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Intercession of the saints is a Christian doctrine common to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. ... Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of mans personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Ascetic redirects here. ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ...


Mariology
Mariology overview
Veneration of Mary
Immaculate Conception
Assumption of Mary
Perpetual virginity of Mary
Mariology of the saints Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is...


History
Early Church
Councils · Creeds
Great Schism
Crusades · Indulgences
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// Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...


Controversy
Legalism
Ecumenism
Prophecy
Antichrist
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Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... A 1800s Russian engraving depicting the Whore of Babylon riding the seven-headed Beast. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ... The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ...


Important figures
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Constantine
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Pope John Paul II Pope Pius XII Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ...

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John Paul II was criticized for his support of the Opus Dei prelature and the canonization of its founder, Jose María Escrivá. Escrivá's detractors call him an admirer of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. Other movements and religious organizations of the Church went decidedly under his wing (Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the Charismatic Movement etc.) and he was accused repeatedly of waving a soft hand on them, especially in the case of Rev. Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ.[33] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer (Thursday, January 9, 1902 – Thursday, June 26, 1975) (also known as José María or Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás, born José María Mariano Escrivá y Albás) was a Spanish Catholic priest and founder of the Prelature of the... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The Legion of Christ is a Catholic religious congregation established in 1941 in Mexico by Fr. ... Painting of Kiko Argüello, most used in the Neocatechumenal Way. ... The Schoenstatt Movement was founded in 1914 by Father Joseph Kentenich as a means of spiritual renewal in the Catholic Church. ... Charismatic is an umbrella term used to describe those Christians who believe that the manifestations of the Holy Spirit seen in the first century Christian Church, such as healing, miracles and glossolalia, are available to contemporary Christians and ought to be experienced and practiced today. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Legion of Christ is a Catholic religious congregation established in 1941 in Mexico by Fr. ...


John Paul II's defense of traditional moral teachings of the Catholic Church regarding gender roles, sexuality, euthanasia and artificial contraception came under attack. Some feminists criticized his traditional positions on the roles of women, which included rejecting women priests. Many gay-rights activists and others criticized him for maintaining the Church's unbroken opposition to homosexuality and same-sex marriage. Critics have also claimed that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World poverty and problems such as street children in South America. In 2007, TIME magazine reported that the manner of John Paul II's death may have contravened his own position on using medical means to prolong life.[34] A bagpiper in military uniform. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... Recognized in some regions Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Same-sex marriage debated, recognition granted United States (CT, DC, HI, ME, NH, NJ, OR, VT, WA) See also This box:      Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... TIME redirects here. ...


In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernization, traditional Catholics sometimes denounced him from the right, demanding a return to the Tridentine Mass and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the Second Vatican Council, such as the use of the vernacular language in the formerly Latin rite Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious liberty. He was also accused by these critics for allowing and appointing liberal bishops in their sees and thus silently promoting Modernism, which was firmly condemned as the "synthesis of all heresies" by his predecessor Pope St. Pius X. In 1988, the controversial traditionalist Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of the Society of St. Pius X (1970), was excommunicated under John Paul II because of the unapproved ordination of four bishops, which was called by the Holy See a "schismatic act". The International Peace Prayer Conference John Paul II held in Assisi, Italy, in 1986 was heavily criticized as giving the impression that syncretism and/or indifferentism were openly embraced by the papal magisterium. When the second instance the Conference was held, in 2002, it was condemned as confusing the laity and compromising to "false religions". Likewise criticized were his kissing of the Quran in Damascus, Syria, on one of his travels on 6 May 2001 - (a thorough analysis). His call for religious freedom was not always supported; bishops like Antônio de Castro Mayer promoted religious tolerance, but at the same time rejected the Vatican II principle of religious liberty as being liberalist and already condemned by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus errorum (1864) and at the First Vatican Council. Traditional Catholic is a broad term used to describe many groups of Roman Catholics who follow more traditional aspects of the Catholic Faith. ... A pre-1969 Latin Rite altar with reredos: A main altar was usually preceded by three steps, below which were said the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Illustration depicting Modernism as the descent from Christianity to atheism. ... Pope St. ... The Most Reverend Dr. Marcel-François Lefebvre (November 29, 1905–March 25, 1991), better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French Roman Catholic bishop. ... The Society of St. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer (° 1904 Campinas, São Paulo – † April 25, 1991 Campos, Rio de Janeiro) was a Roman Catholic bishop and bishop of the diocese of Campos, Brazil. ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, ( May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878) was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... The Syllabus of Errors (Latin: Syllabus Errorum) was a document issued by Pope Pius IX in 1864 as an appendix to his encyclical Quanta Cura. ... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ...


John Paul II took an absolutist position against artificial birth control, including the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV.[35] This position was harshly criticized by doctors and AIDS activists, who said that it led to countless deaths and millions of AIDS orphans.[36] It also led to an unusually public debate among senior figures in the Church. The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development published a paper stating, "Any strategy that enables a person to move from a higher-risk towards the lower end of the continuum, [we] believe, is a valid risk reduction strategy."[37] CAFOD (full name: Catholic Agency For Overseas Development) is a United Kingdom_based international aid agency, working to alleviate poverty and suffering in Catholic community in England and Wales, the UK government and the general public. ...


John Paul II was also criticized for failing to respond quickly enough to the sex abuse crisis, and for recentralizing power back to the Vatican following what some viewed as a decentralization by Pope John XXIII. As such he was regarded by some as a strict authoritarian. Conversely, he was also criticized for spending far too much time preparing for and undertaking foreign travel. The frequency of his trips, it was said, not only undermined the "specialness" of papal visits, but took him away from important business at the Vatican and allowed the Church, administratively speaking, to drift. The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ...


There was strong criticism of the pope for the controversy surrounding the alleged use of charitable social programs as a means of converting people in the Third World to Catholicism.[38][39] The Pope created an uproar in the Indian subcontinent when he suggested that a great harvest of faith would be witnessed on the subcontinent in the third Christian millennium.[40] For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Further reading

Books by John Paul II

In chronological order: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sorting. ...


Meditations and philosophy

  • Memory and Identity - Conversations at the Dawn of a Millennium, published by Rizzoli (22 March 2005) ISBN 0-8478-2761-5, conversational presentation of John Paul II's views on many secular topics, such as evil, freedom, contemporary Europe, nationalism, and democracy. Included in the book is also a transcript of the Pope's discussion on his assassination attempt in 1981.
  • Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way, Warner Books (September 28, 2004), ISBN 0-446-57781-2, mostly addressed to his bishops, although it has been used as source of inspiration for others having knowledge of Christianity.
  • Roman Triptych (Meditation) - 6 March (2003), in Italy published by Libreria Editrice Vaticana ISBN 88-209-7451-7
  • Pope John Paul II - In My Own Words, Gramercy (6 August 2002) ISBN 0-517-22084-9, best-seller, a carefully selected compilation of words and prayers of John Paul II, compiled by Anthony F. Chiffolo.
  • Gift and Mystery - On the Fiftieth Anniversary of My Priestly Ordination, Image (20 April 1999) ISBN 0-385-49371-1, about being a priest.
  • The Theology Of The Body; Human Love In The Divine Plan, Pauline Books and Media, 1997, ISBN 0-8198-7394-2, a compilation of weekly lectures from 1979 to 1984 to married couples about the deep meaning of human love and sexuality.
  • Crossing the Threshold of Hope, Knopf (19 September 1995), ISBN 0-679-76561-1, edited by Vittorio Messori. John Paul II expounds upon many of his teachings and ideas.
  • The Way to Christ - Spiritual Exercises, HarperSanFrancisco (7 October 1994) ISBN 0-06-064216-5, conversational presentation of two retreats Karol Wojtyła gave 10 years apart before becoming pope. In that time he served in Kraków as bishop and cardinal.
  • Person and Act, by Karol Wojtyła; before his papacy, (28 February 1979). In depth phenomenological work tied to Thomistic Ethics; the title is sometimes mistranslated into English as The Acting Person, (2002), ISBN 90-277-0985-8.
  • Love and Responsibility, by Karol Wojtyła before his papacy, Ignatius Press; Rev. edition (1 April 1993) ISBN 0-89870-445-6, in depth philosophical analysis of human love and sexuality.
  • Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body [John Paul II; Translated by Dr. Michael Waldstein] Pauline Books & Media, 2006. ISBN 0-8198-7421-3, a new translation in English created from the newly-discovered original Polish work written by John Paul II
  • (Promulgated by Pope John Paul II), Catecismo de la Iglesia Catolica, Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 978-0385-51650-1

Memory and Identity was a book written by the late Pope John Paul II. Category: ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transcript can have several meanings depending on the context used. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Roman Triptych. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September 1979 and November 1984. ... Cover of Crossing the Threshold of Hope Crossing the Threshold of Hope was the first book-length interview with Pope John Paul II. It was largely written by the Pope and edited by the Italian journalist and writer Vittorio Messori in 1994. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Vittorio Messori is an Italian journalist and writer. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ...

Plays by John Paul II

  • David - according to Pope John Paul II’s translator Boleslaw Taborski, no copy has been found.[41]
  • Job
  • Jeremiah
  • Our God's Brother, Ave Maria Press (September 1995) ISBN 0-87793-870-9, play written by Karol Wojtyła in Poland during World War II at a time when Nazis were suppressing Polish culture (1944).
  • The Jeweller's Shop: A Meditation on the Sacrament of Matrimony, Passing on Occasion into a Drama, Arrow, (17 March 1980) ISBN 0-09-140861-X.

Both of these plays were filmed: Born August 20, 1845 at Igoalomia (Aigolonija), Poland as Adam Hilary Bernard Chmielowski. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... The Culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1000 year history. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Our God's brother (in Polish: Brat naszego Boga), 123 min, 1997, color, directed by Krzysztof Zanussi. IMDb entry.
  • La Bottega dell'orefice (English: The Jeweller's Shop), 88 min (Canada)/95 min (USA), 1988, color, directed by Michael Joseph Anderson. IMDb entry.

Krzysztof Zanussi, (b. ... Michael Joseph Anderson (b. ...

Poetry by John Paul II

Pope John Paul II with the Slovenian ambassador Ludvik Toplak in September 2002
  • Roman Triptych. Meditations, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, (Vatican) March 2003), ISBN 88-209-7451-7
  • The Poetry of Pope John Paul II, USCCB (September 1, 2003) ISBN 1-57455-556-1, poems written in the summer of 2002.
  • The Place Within: The Poetry of Pope John Paul II, Random House; 1st edition (25 October 1994) ISBN 0-679-76064-4, lyrical poetry

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pope John Paul II. and Jurij Toplak in Rome, September 2002. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pope John Paul II. and Jurij Toplak in Rome, September 2002. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

Biographies of Pope John Paul II

  • Witness to Hope, George Weigel, HarperCollins (1999, 2001) ISBN 0-06-018793-X.
  • Man of the Century: The Life and Times of Pope John Paul II, Jonathan Kwitny, Henry Holt and Company, 1997.
  • His Holiness: John Paul II and the History of Our Time, Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Doubleday, 1996.
  • Pope John Paul II: The Biography, Tad Szulc, Scribner, 1995.
  • Universal Father, Garry O'Connor, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2005, ISBN 91-37-12870-1
  • John Paul II: An Illustrated Biography, Andrzej Nowak, Kluszczynski, Kraków, 2005
  • Let Me Go to the Father's House: John Paul II's Strength in Weakness, Stanislaw Dziwisz, Czeslaw Drazek, SJ, Renato Buzzonetti, Angelo Comastri, Pauline Books & Media, 2006. ISBN 0-8198-4522-1
  • The Hidden Pope, Dacry O'Brien, Daybreak Books (1998) ISBN 0-87596-478-8

George Weigel (Baltimore, 1951 - ) is an American Catholic author, and political and social activist. ... Jonathan Kwitny is an American writer. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... Andrzej Nowak (1960-) is a Polish historian and publicist. ...

Literature about his thought

  • Buttiglione, Rocco, Karol Wojtyla: The Thought of the Man Who Became Pope John Paul II, Grand Rapids, Mich. & Cambridge, UK, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997. ISBN 0802838480
  • Köchler, Hans, The Phenomenology of Karol Wojtyla. On the Problem of the Phenomenological Foundation of Anthropology, in: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 42 (1982), pp. 326-334
  • Köchler, Hans, Karol Wojtyla's Notion of the Irreducible in Man and the Quest for a Just World Order (Saint Joseph College, USA, 2006)
  • Simpson, Peter, On Karol Wojtyła, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Publishing, 2000. ISBN 053458375X

Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...

Honors and namesakes

See also: List of places named for Pope John Paul II
Benedict XVI is shown a map of Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula in Antarctica.

The pontiff was celebrated during his lifetime and later posthumously with several honors and as the namesake of several places and institutions. Such places often bear the name John Paul II but newer institutions are using the name John Paul the Great. This is a partial list of places named in honor of Pope John Paul II: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Educational and cultural centers named in honor of the Pope include the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family whose largest campuses are located at the Lateran University in Rome, Italy and Catholic University of America in Washington, DC, United States. Affiliated campuses are found in Australia, Benin, Brazil, India, Mexico and Spain. There is also a Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in the United States capital. John Paul the Great Catholic University is a rededicated degree-granting institution in San Diego, California.[42] Several John Paul II Catholic Centers may be found on college and university campuses around the world, usually serving students and staff as Roman Catholic chapels.[43] Several elementary and secondary schools also use the name John Paul II or John Paul the Great, like John Paul the Great Catholic High School in Prince William County, Virginia,[44] administered by the Dominican Sisters of Saint Cecilia or "Nashville Dominicans." (The cornerstone and tabernacle of the school were blessed by Pope Benedict XVI during Mass at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. on April 17, 2008.) The Pontifical Lateran University (in Italian: Pontificia Università Lateranense) is a Pontifical University in Rome. ... The Catholic University of America The Catholic University of America (abbreviated CUA), located in Washington, DC, is unique as the national university of the Catholic Church and as the only higher education institution founded by the U.S. bishops. ... The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center is a museum and think tank in Washington, D.C. The Center displays art from the Vatican Museums and interactive museum exhibits about religious faith. ... John Paul the Great Catholic University is located in San Diego, CA. It currently offers two Bachelor of Science degree programs: one in Communications Media (with a concentration in Entertainment Media) and one in Business (with a concentration in Entrepreneurial Business). ... San Diego redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Prince William County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Nationals Ballpark (or Nationals Park) is the new ballpark for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Several national and municipal public projects were named in honor of the Pope. Rome's main railway station, the Roma Termini station, was dedicated to Pope John Paul II by a vote of the City Council, a first municipal public object in Rome bearing the name of a non Italian. International airports named after him are John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice — one of the principal airports of Poland — and the João Paulo II Airport in the Azores. The Juan Pablo II Bridge is located in Chile, while John Paul II Square in Bulgaria denotes the Pope's visit to Sofia in 2002. Parvis Notre-Dame - Place Jean-Paul II is a centerpiece of one of Paris' neighborhoods. Pope John Paul II Park is a feature of Boston, Massachusetts[45] while Pope John Paul II Drive serves residents of Chicago, Illinois.[46] Roma Termini station, as seen from the air Main concourse of Termini station seen from the side showing the sloping roof Station Roma Termini is the main train station of Rome. ... John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice (Polish: since 4 September 2007; earlier in Polish: ) (IATA: KRK, ICAO: EPKK) is an international airport located near Kraków, in the village of Balice, 11 km west of the city centre, in southern Poland. ... João Paulo II Airport (IATA: PDL, ICAO: LPPD), named for Pope John Paul II, is an airport located on the island of São Miguel, less than 3 km west of the city of Ponta Delgada on the Azores in Portugal. ... Motto:  (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem:  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Ethnic groups  Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,346 km² (n/a... The Juan Pablo II Bridge, also known as Puente Nuevo (New Bridge), is a major bridge in Chile, located in The Greater Concepción, the second largest metropolis (conurbation) in Chile (With Santiago being the largest). ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Boston redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ...


Of international interest, Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands was named in honor of the Pope. The Antarctic landmark recognizes the his contribution to world peace and understanding among people. Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula (Poluostrov Yoan Pavel II po-lu-os-trov yo-an pa-vel vto-ri) is an ice-covered peninsula on the north coast of Livingston Island, Antarctica that is bounded by Hero Bay to the east and Barclay Bay to the west. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... Location of the South Shetlands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ...


The Pope was named Time Magazine's Person of the year in 1994. In 2000, he was also made an honorary Harlem Globetrotter.[47] In February 2004 Pope John Paul II was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize honoring his life's work in opposing Communist oppression and helping to reshape the world.[48] (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the animated television series, see Harlem Globetrotters (TV series). ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


See also

. ... This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II issued 14 Papal Encyclicals during his reign as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for over 26 years, from his election on 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005. ... This article contains a list of 104 pastoral visits of Pope John Paul II outside Italy. ... The diocese of Kraków was created in 1000 and was made the archdiocese of Kraków on October 28, 1925. ... The Papal conclave of 2005 began on April 18, 2005 and ended the next day after four ballots. ... Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles, and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism : Only people are real (in the ontological sense), Only people have value, and Only people have free will. ... Pope Benedict XVI in a popemobile as he passes the White House in Washington DC. i love pope ... Cover of The Incredible Popeman, depicting Pope John Paul II in anti-demon gloves, anti-sin shield, holy lycra, chastity underwear, and rubber boots as a shield from divine electricity, with staff of light and faith, holy bible, holy water, and holy wine. ... StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone is the Archbishop of Genoa and was considered papabile following the death of Pope John Paul II. His Eminence Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone (born 2 December 1934) is Archbishop of Genoa and a Cardinal Priest in the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/philosophy/denominations/catholic/history/johnpaul2.htm Pope John Paul II, The Robinson Library]
  2. ^ The Vatican News, Saints
  3. ^ a b c Holy See Press Office. "His Holiness John Paul II: Short Biography". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  4. ^ Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II) Timeline from [[[CBN]]
  5. ^ Pentin, Edward - National Catholic Register. "Faith and Football". Legion of Christ. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  6. ^ Christensen, John, "The early years: an unhappy childhood," CNN.
  7. ^ Profile of Edith Zierier (1946), Voices of the Holocaust, Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  8. ^ CNN Live event transcript, CNN.com, Aired 2005-04-08, Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  9. ^ Roberts, Genevieve., "THE DEATH OF POPE JOHN PAUL II: `He saved my life - with tea, bread'", The Independent, 2005-04-03, Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  10. ^ Cohen, Roger., " The Polish Seminary Student and the Jewish Girl He Saved", International Herald Tribune, 2005-04-06, Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  11. ^ Italian Panel: Soviets Behind Pope Attack By VICTOR L. SIMPSON Associated Press Writer
  12. ^ Late Pope 'thought of retiring' BBC News
  13. ^ "Frail Pope suffers heart failure," BBC News, 1 April 2005 (accessed 11 June 2005).
  14. ^ "John Paul's last words revealed, BBC News, 18 September 2005 (accessed 18 September 2005).
  15. ^ The Feast Of Mercy EWTN
  16. ^ O'Reilly, David. "Papal Legacy: Will history use name John Paul the Great?" Knight Ridder Newspapers (Detroit Free Press) April 4, 2005 "Pope John Paul the Great was a name suggested by many for Karol Józef Wojtyła. Through all its long history, the Catholic Church has conferred the posthumous title of "Great" on just two popes: Leo I and Gregory I, both of whom reigned in the first thousand years of Christianity."
  17. ^ Murphy, Brian. "Faithful hold key to 'the Great' honor for John Paul" Associated Press April 5, 2005
  18. ^ RESPONSE OF HIS HOLINESS BENEDICT XVI FOR THE EXAMINATION OF THE CAUSE FOR BEATIFICATION AND CANONIZATION OF THE SERVANT OF GOD JOHN PAUL II Vatican News
  19. ^ Waiting Period Waived for John Paul II Benedict XVI Opens Predecessor's Cause of Beatification ROME, May 13, 2005 ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome
  20. ^ John Paul II's Cause for Beatification Opens VATICAN CITY, June 28, 2005
  21. ^ Vatican may have found Pope John Paul's 'miracle' ABC News online
  22. ^ Miracle attributed to John Paul II involved Parkinson's disease, Rome, Jan. 30, 2006 Catholic World News
  23. ^ Nun Who Claims Cure by John Paul II Emerges to Make Her Case New York Times, Europe
  24. ^ Dissident theologians participate in the canonization process of Pope John Paul II Catholic News Agency, 6 December 2005 (accessed 26 June 2007)
  25. ^ CNN, the Pope's Legacy (1999)
  26. ^ "1979: Millions cheer as the Pope comes home," from "On This Day, 2 June 1979," BBC News (accessed 11 June 2005).
  27. ^ Beatifications During Pope John Paul II’s Pontificate, 1988.
  28. ^ Andrea Riccardi. La pace preventiva. Milan: San Paolo 2004.
  29. ^ 2000: Pope prays for Holocaust forgiveness
  30. ^ Address at Omayyad Mosque of Damascus - 6 May 2001
  31. ^ Ryan Chilcote, "Gorbachev: Pope was 'example to all of us'," CNN, 4 April 2005 (accessed 11 June 2005).
  32. ^ John Paul II, "Address to the Diplomatic Corps," Vatican, 13 January 2003 (accessed 7 February 2007).
  33. ^ Text of the accusation letter directed to John Paul II in Spanish (original language)
  34. ^ TIME, "Was John Paul II Euthanized?", retrieved 2007-09-22
  35. ^ Catholic Church to Ease Ban on Condom Use, Deitsche Welle
  36. ^ Top Catholics question condom ban, International Herald Tribune
  37. ^ Pope Rejects Condoms as a Counter to AIDS, Washington Post
  38. ^ INDIA Hindu extremists against grants to missionaries, "it's only money to convert" they say - Asia News
  39. ^ IndiaStar: "Mother Teresa's Hidden Mission in India: Conversion to Christianity"
  40. ^ National Catholic Reporter: Obituary of Pope John Paul II
  41. ^ Kadison, Dan. Holy Nights, New York Post, May 13, 2007. Accessed May 12, 2008.
  42. ^ John Paul the Great Catholic University
  43. ^ John Paul II Newman Center :: Home
  44. ^ Arlington Diocese:
  45. ^ Department of Conservation and Recreation
  46. ^ Google Maps
  47. ^ Boguslaw Kwasny: Pope John Paul II named Harlem Globetrotter, February 2001
  48. ^ Bush, pope, jailed Israeli among 2004 Nobel Peace Prize nominees USA Today World News

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrea Riccardi (born 1950 in Rome) is the founder of the Community of SantEgidio. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Vatican: the Holy See
  • The Holy See - The Holy Father - John Paul II
  • Link to collected tributes, writings and commentary on John Paul II
  • John Paul II's funeral April 8, 2005, the pictures
  • John Paul II Karol Wojtyla Papiez z Polski
  • John Paul II: text, concordances and frequency list
  • Quella parte di anima chiamata corpo, (Italian program Tv English subtitled about John Paul II)
  • John Paul II's Multilingual Opera Omnia
  • Tomb of John Paul II
  • Pope John Paul II Karol Wojtyla and Benedict XVI
  • Ascension of John Paul the Great. Serapis Bey announced on May 1, 2005: "John Paul II has entered into the Oneness of the Eternal Life with his own God Presence."
  • English website of the Cause for the Beatification and Canonization of John Paul II
  • Pope John Paul II at the Open Directory Project
Roman Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Eugeniusz Baziak
Archbishop of Kraków
1963 – 1978
Succeeded by
Franciszek Macharski
Preceded by
John Paul I
Pope
1978 – 2005
Succeeded by
Benedict XVI
Persondata
NAME Wojtyła, Karol Józef
ALTERNATIVE NAMES John Paul II (English); Ioannes Paulus II (Latin)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pope
DATE OF BIRTH May 18, 1920
PLACE OF BIRTH Wadowice, Poland
DATE OF DEATH April 2, 2005
PLACE OF DEATH Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada Miasta w Wadowicach Mayor Ewa Filipiak Area km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 19. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View across St. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope John Paul II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8655 words)
John Paul II was succeeded by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger of Germany, the former head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith who had led the Funeral Mass for John Paul II.
John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes.
John Paul II was a considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to reproduction and the ordination of women.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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