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Encyclopedia > Pope Innocent III
Innocent III
Birth name Lotario de' Conti di Segni
Papacy began January 8, 1198
Papacy ended June 16, 1216
Predecessor Celestine III
Successor Honorius III
Born ca.1161
Gavignano, Italy
Died June 16, 1216
Perugia, Italy
Other popes named Innocent

Pope Innocent III (c. 1161 – June 16, 1216), born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was pope from January 8, 1198, until his death. Image File history File links Pope Innocent III from de:Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent III ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone (Rome, ca. ... Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (Rome, 1148 – March 18, 1227 in Rome), was Pope from 1216 to 1227. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Perugia is the capital city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ... There have been thirteen popes named Innocent. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ...


As pope, Innocent III asserted the absolute spiritual authority of his office, while still respecting the temporal authority of kings.

Contents

Biography

Early life and election to pope

Lotario de' Conti di Segni was born in Gavignano, near Anagni. His father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house that produced nine popes, including Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241), Pope Alexander IV (1254–1261) and Pope Innocent XIII (1721–1724). His uncle was Pope Clement III (1187–1191), and his mother, Claricia, belonged to the noble Roman family of Scotti. Gavignano is a town of 1,758 in habitants in the Province of Rome. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... Segni, in the Latin language called Signinsis, is an Italian city located in the Province of Rome. ... Papal Arms of Pope Gregory IX. Gregory IX, né Ugolino di Conti (Anagni, ca. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... Innocent XIII, né Michelangelo dei Conti (Poli, near Rome, May 13, 1655 – March 7, 1724 in Rome), pope from 1721 to 1724, became cardinal under Clement XI in 1706. ... Clement III, born Paulino Scolari (or Paolo) (b. ...


Lotario studied in Rome, Paris (theology, under Peter of Corbeil), and Bologna (canon law, under Huguccio). The latter's moderate doctrine on the relationship between spiritual and lay authorities were a constant influence in the future work of Innocent. He was considered an intellectual and one of the greatest canon lawyers of his time. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Peter of Corbeil (died June 3, 1222), born at Corbeil, was a preacher and canon of Nôtre Dame de Paris, a scholastic philosopher and master of theology at the University of Paris, ca 1189. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Huguccio (Hugh of Pisa) was an Italian canon lawyer (b. ... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ...


After the death of Pope Alexander III (1159–81), Lotario returned to Rome and held office during the short reigns of Lucius III (1181–1185), Urban III (1185–1187), Gregory VIII (1187), and Clement III (1187–1191, possibily a relative of the Segni), reaching the rank of Cardinal Deacon thorugh his uncle Pope Gregory VIII, who died four years after the begining of his papacy During the reign of Pope Celestine III (1191–1198), a member of the House of Orsini, who were enemies of his family, Lotario left Rome to live in Anagni. During this period he wrote a series of theological works, including On the Miserable Condition of Man and On the Mysteries of the Mass, both showing the ascetic-liturgical inspiration animating him. Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... Lucius III, né Ubaldo Allucingoli (b. ... Urban III, né Uberto Crivelli (d. ... Gregory VIII, né Albert de Mora ( 1100 - December 17, 1187) was Pope from October 25th, 1187 until his death. ... Clement III, né Paulino Scolari (d. ... The Cardinal Deacons are the lowest-ranked of the three orders of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone (Rome, ca. ... The Orsini family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying three popes and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals, the Colonna family, for influence. ...


On January 8, 1198, the day late Celestine III was buried, Lotario was unanimously elected pope after only two ballots. He took the name of Innocent III. He was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He was ordained on February 21 and consecrated bishop of Rome the following day (this is considered by some scholars as the first conclave). His election was held in the ruins of the ancient Septizodium (near the Circus Maximus in Rome). January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... con·clave (knklv, kng-) n. ... A fragment of the Septizonium is shown in this engraving dating to 1582 The Septicodium (also called Septizodium or Septizonium) was a building in ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ...


Reassertion of Papal power

An energetic personality, throughout all his career as Pope Innocent III sought to reassert and extend the prestige and plenitudo potestatis (plenitude of power) of the papacy, following the path of the process started by Gregory VII in the late 11th century, and which had gone largely lost during the reign of his predecessors. Gregory VII can refer to: Pope Gregory VII Gregory VII, Patriarch of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Even before his coronation, he thwarted the power of the aristocracy of Rome by obliging the senators of the city to swear allegiance to the popes. The Prefect of Rome, who reigned over the city as the Emperor's representative, had to do the same. Innocent reigned in Rome with the support of the oligarchic class, until a popular uprising in 1203, backed by the Orsinis, forced him to move to Palestrina. He returned to the pacified city the following year. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Orsini family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying three popes and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals, the Colonna family, for influence. ... Palestrina (ancient Praeneste) was and is a very ancient city of Latium (modern Lazio) 23 miles (37 km) east of Rome, and was reached by the Via Praenestina (see below). ...


On the foreign side, the throne of the Holy Roman Empire had become vacant by the death of Henry VI in 1197, and no successor had yet been elected. Innocent III took advantage of the confusion to lessen imperial (German) influence in Italy. The pope demanded the restoration to the Church of the Romagna, the March of Ancona, and the Duchy of Spoleto from imperial vicar Markward of Anweiler; he used papal troops to bring this about, but failed to regain Romagna. In a similar way, the Duchies of Spoleto, Assisi and the Sora were taken from the German Conrad von Uerslingen. Innocent could not, however, regain the former possessions of Mathilda of Canossa in Tuscany. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... Markward von Annweiler in an illustration from the Liber ad honorem Augusti by Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... The Duchy of Sora was a sovereign state of Italy, created in 1443 by King Alfonso V of Naples and dissolved in 1796. ... Conrad of Urslingen (died 1202) was the Duke of Spoleto on two occasions: first from 1183 to 1190 and then from 1195 to 1198. ... Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), called La Gran Contessa, was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ...


The pope also made use of the weakness of Henry's son, King Frederick II of Sicily (who was only four years old), to reassert papal power in Sicily. Taking advantage of the last will of Frederick's mother, Constance of Sicily, which had named him as tutor of the young king, Innocent acknowledged Frederick as king only after the surrender of the privileges of the Four Chapters, which William I of Sicily had previously extorted from Pope Adrian IV (1154–59). The Pope then invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198. He also later induced Frederick II to marry the widow of King Emeric of Hungary in 1209. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Constance of Sicily ( 1154 - November 27, 1198) was in her own right Queen of Sicily, became German Empress as the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, and was the mother of the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II. She was the posthumous daughter of Roger II of... William I (d. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Emeric (or Imre) was a Hungarian king (1174–1204), who ruled from 1196 to 1204. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ...


However, not all his temporal affairs were successful. When acting as the guardian to the young Frederick II of Sicily he derailed much of the carefully constructed government created by the Norman kings. This reflects what Barraclough calls the "failure to consider the executive" — that is, the inability to exert sufficient temporal authority over governed areas. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ...


Encroachment in Empire's affairs

After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in 1197, two princely parties had elected competing kings: Philip of Swabia of the Hohenstaufen family, and Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor of the Welf family. Since Philip had been excommunicated by Celestine III and not crowned in Aachen, in 1201 the pope openly supported Otto IV; he threatened with excommunication all those who refused to acknowledge him. By the decree Venerabilem in May 1202 Innocent III made clear to the German princes his view of the relationship between the Empire and the papacy (this decree was afterwards embodied in the Corpus Juris Canonici). The decree asserted the papal rights to decide whether a king is worthy of the imperial crown and to arbitrate or to pronounce in favour of one of the claimants in case of a double election, as was the current situation with the Empire. He argued this bull on the grounds that the transition of the Roman Empire from Byzantium to the Holy Roman Emperor had taken place only under papal blessing, and therefore all blessing, coronation, and investiture of the emperor was dependent upon the pope. Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Otto IV of Brunswick (died 1218) was King of Germany (1208-1215) and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 - 1215. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... // Events The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... Corpus Iuris Canonici is the Roman Catholic Churchs revised and authenticated versions of the libri legales. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


Philip, however, gained increasing steam at the expense of Otto, and in 1205 received a more regular coronation at Aachen from the Archbishop of Cologne, Germany's main religious authority. Considering Otto the losing party, in 1207 Innocent III changed his mind and declared in favour of Philip, sending cardinals to Germany to induce Otto to renounce his claims to the throne. But Philip was murdered on June 21, 1208 (probably by Otto's agents), and, at the Diet of Frankfurt of November 11, 1208, Otto IV was acknowledged as emperor. The pope invited him to Rome and the two met at Viterbo, with Otto swearing to renounce to any claim to the Mathilda's heritage and the former exarchate of Ravenna (Romagna). He was then crowned as Emperor Otto IV, in St. Peter's Basilica, on October 4, 1209. Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ... Country Italy Region Lazio Province Viterbo (VT) Mayor Giampiero Gabbianelli Elevation 326 m Area 406,28 km² Population  - Total 60,537  - Density 148. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ...


Otto IV had also promised to leave the Church in possession of Spoleto and Ancona and to grant the freedom of ecclesiastical elections, unlimited right of appeal to the Pope, and the exclusive competency of the hierarchy in spiritual matters. He had also promised to assist in the destruction of heresy (in what is known as the stipulation of Neuss, a promise that he repeated at Speyer in 1209). But soon after being crowned, Otto IV seized Ancona, Spoleto, and other territories claimed by the Church, giving them to his vassals. He also invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result, Otto IV was excommunicated on November 18, 1210. The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births...


At the Diet of Nuremberg in September 1211, the pope convinced some imperial princes to renounce the excommunicated emperor and to elect Frederick II of Sicily. Frederick II made the same promises as Otto IV had done; he was reelected by most of the princes on December 5, 1212, and, his election being ratified by Innocent III, he was crowned at Aachen on July 12, 1215. The Diet of Nuremberg is often called the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ...


Feudal power over Europe

Innocent's personal strength and personality made him the most prominent political figure in Europe: he had John "Lackland" of England declare himself vassal of the Church (1213); received the feudal homage of Peter II of Aragon, Ottokar I of Bohemia, Alfonso IX of Leon and Sancho I of Portugal; and forced Philip II Augustus of France (1180–1223) to be reconciled with his wife, Ingeborg of Denmark. Philip II thereby became Innocent III's ally in the struggle over Otto IV. Otto allied himself with England (he was the nephew of John "Lackland") to fight Philip II Augustus, but he was defeated in the Battle of Bouvines in what is now Belgium, on July 27, 1214. Thereafter Otto IV lost all influence and died on May 19, 1218, leaving Frederick II the undisputed emperor. Innocent III played further roles in the politics of France, Sweden, Bulgaria, Spain, and especially England. John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... Alfonso IX of León (August 15, 1171 â€“ September 23 or 24, 1230; ruled from 1188–1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile, and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, is said by Ibn Khaldun to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer... Sancho I of Portugal, known as the Populator (Port. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ...


In England, there was controversy over the appointment of Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, a decision that had been made in Rome (without consultation) by Innocent himself and which was opposed by King John and by the majority of the monks of Christ Church Canterbury. The king was eventually forced to acknowledge the pope as his feudal lord and accept Langton, after Innocent stirred up John's former enemy, the French king, to invade England. Innocent III also declared the Magna Carta invalid at King John's request, on the ground that it had been obtained by force. This papal tampering in the internal affairs of a sovereign state was to have significant consequences later in English history: at the time of the Henrician Reformation in the early sixteenth century this case was cited by the king's men of law as evidence of unwarranted papal interference in English affairs and helped to bolster the popular case for casting off Rome. Stephen Langton (c. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... King Henry VIII of England. ...


Innocent interevened regularly in the affairs of Sardinia, sometimes at the invitation of the local giudicati and sometimes as part of his own agendum. At the beginning of his pontificate, he recognised the suzerainty of the Archdiocese of Pisa over Sardinia. Innocent intervened in the wars between Cagliari and Logudoro to establish a peace and tried to sort out the accusations William I of Cagliari and Comita III of Torres levelled at one another. He ordered the island prelates to investigate the legality of the marriages of the giudici (probably to gather ammunition against them if necessary) and even called William and Comita to Rome, but the Republic of Pisa, of which they were both citizens, refused to allow them to appear before a "foreign" tribunal. This sparked a conflict with Pisa. Innocent threatened to deprive the Pisan Archbishop Ubaldo of his legatine rights on the basis that "he who abuses his power, deserves to lose his privilege." Innocent tried to extract an oath of homage from William to the Holy See, but the Pisan archbishop refused to absolve William from previous oaths to himself. Innocent also tried to verify the accusations made against Giusto, Archbishop of Arborea, who had been removed from his see by Ubaldo and William, but failed to have him reinstated. Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Giudicati were Sardinian medieval autochtonous regions which existed from about 900 AD. Originally they were Byzantine districts that became independent during the Arab war against Byzantium. ... The giudicati of Sardinia. ... The giudicati of Sardinia. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... Comita III (circa 1160 – 1218) was the giudice of Logudoro, with its capital at Torres, from 1198 until 1218. ... Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Arno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


In 1202, when the Archdiocese of Torres became vacant, Innocent appointed a member of his own curia, Biagio, archbishop to carry out his personal orders on the island. In 1203, Barisone II of Gallura died, leaving his widow and heiress, Elena, in the care of Innocent, who charged the other giudici with her protection and gave Biagio the job of finding her a suitable marriage. The pope tried to arrange a marriage with his relative Trasimondo, but Elena rebuffed this attempt and instead married a Pisan, Lamberto Visconti. Innocent's policies in Sardinia were stiffly opposed and when he died the island was under Pisan hegemony. Biagio was the Archbishop of Torres from 1 December 1202 to his death late 1214 or early 1215. ... Barisone II (died 1203) was the Judge of Gallura from about 1170 to his death. ... Elena (died 1218) was the daughter and successor of Barisone II of Gallura and was named after her mother of the Lacon family. ... Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio was the Judge of Gallura from 1206, when he married the heiress Elena, to his own death. ...


Suppression of heresies and crusades

Innocent III was considered a vigorous opponent of heresy, and had campaigns to force the heretics to convert. Under his authority, measures were taken against the Manichean heretics and under the leadership of Simon de Montfort, against the Albigenses (Cathars), the Albigensian Crusade (1209–29). The latter, strongly supported by Innocent, was one of the most controversial moves of the medieval church, being mostly directed against other Christians and soon turning into a mere conquest campaign by the northern French barons against the more tolerant Midi. This was a prelude to the legitimisation of the Inquisition in 1233, wherein heresy was said to be punished for the spiritual good of the individual as well as for the preservation of the Church. The pope supported two new holy orders: the Franciscans and the Dominicans, as well as smaller ones like the Holy Spirit Order. Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, also Simon IV de Montfort (1160 – June 25, 1218) was a French nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204) and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ... Le Midi is a colloquial name for southern France. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... // Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...


Innocent III had also decreed the Fourth Crusade in 1198, which was intended to recapture the Holy Land. The pope directed his call towards the knights and nobles of Europe rather than to the kings; he wished that neither Richard I of England (1189–99) nor Philip II of France, who were still engaged in war, nor especially his German enemies, should participate in the crusade. Innocent III's call was generally ignored until 1200, when a crusade was finally organized in Champagne. The Venetians then redirected it into the sacking of Zara in 1202 and of Constantinople in 1204. Innocent III was horrified by the attack on the Byzantines. Prior to the launching of the Crusade he had insisted that no Christian cities be attacked. He sharply denounced Boniface of Montferrat, commander of the so-called "Fourth Crusade" (1202–04) for his actions: The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... The expression The Holy Land (Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreá¹£ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta; Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah) generally refers to the Land of Israel. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Zadar (disambiguation). ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... Map of Constantinople. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ...

You rashly violated the purity of your vows; and turning your arms not against Saracens but against Christians, you applied yourselves not to the recovery of Jerusalem, but to seize Constantinople, preferring earthly to heavenly riches . . .

These 'soldiers of Christ' who should have turned their swords against the infidel have steeped them in Christian blood, sparing neither religion, nor age, nor sex . . .. They stripped the altars of silver, violated the sanctuaries, robbed icons and crosses and relics . . .. The Latins have given example only of perversity and works of darkness. No wonder the Greeks call them dogs!

(quoted by Warren Carroll in The Glory of Christendom)

Innocent III also summoned the Fourth Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council), which opened on 11 November 1215. It decided on another crusade to the Holy Land (the Fifth Crusade) and issued some seventy reformatory decrees. Among other things, it encouraged creating schools and holding clergy to a higher standard than the laity. It also required Jews to wear distinctive clothing, making it a milestone in the history of anti-Semitism. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Death and legacy

The Council had set the beginning of the Fifth Crusade for 1217, under the direct leadership of the Church. After the Council, in the spring of 1216, Innocent moved to northern Italy in an attempt to reconcile the mariner cities of Pisa and Genoa, whose ships were necessary to new enterprise, but also to imbue them of more religious and commercial motivations. This article discusses the Italian city. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ...


Innocent III, however, died at Perugia in July of that year, from one of his frequent attacks of fever, probably due to malaria. He was buried in the cathedral there, where his body remained until Pope Leo XIII had it transferred to the Lateran in December 1890. Although the papal power over kings that Innocent III established would be shortlived, he sincerely attempted to turn theological principles into actual powers. Two of his Latin works are still widely read: De Miseria Humanae Conditionis, a tract on asceticism that Innocent III wrote before becoming pope, and De Sacro Altaris Mysterio, which is a description and exegesis of the liturgy. Perugia is the capital city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, completed after a competition for the design by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several architectural projects throughout Rome and Vatican City. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


References

  • Lavergne, Félix Jr. (1993). The Glory of Christendom. Christendom Press. 
  • Rendina, Claudio (1983). I papi - Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton Compton. 
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey (1968). The Medieval Papacy. London: Thames and Hudson. 
  • Moore, John C. "Pope Innocent III, Sardinia, and the Papal State." Speculum, Vol. 62, No. 1. (Jan., 1987), pp 81–101.

External links

Preceded by
Celestine III
Pope
1198–1216
Succeeded by
Honorius III
Persondata
NAME de' Conti di Segni, Lotario
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Innocent III (English); Innocentius III (Latin
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pope, r. 1198-1216: height of mediaeval church's power
DATE OF BIRTH ca. 1161
PLACE OF BIRTH Gavignano, near Anagni, modern Italy
DATE OF DEATH 16 June 1216
PLACE OF DEATH Perugia, modern Italy

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