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Encyclopedia > Pope Gregory XVI
Gregory XVI
Birth name Bartolomeo Alberto Mauro Cappellari
Papacy began February 2, 1831
Papacy ended June 1, 1846
Predecessor Pius VIII
Successor Pius IX
Born September 18, 1765
Belluno, Italy
Died June 1, 1846
Rome, Italy
Other Popes named Gregory

Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765June 1, 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. Strongly conservative and traditionalist, he opposed democratic and modernizing reforms in the Papal States and throughout Europe, seeking to strengthen the religious and political authority of the papacy (see Ultramontanism). Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Pius VIII, born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni (November 20, 1761 – December 1, 1830), was Pope from 1829 to 1830. ... Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was Pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The River Piave next to Belluno. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Pope Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes: Pope Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great Pope Gregory II Pope Gregory III Pope Gregory IV Pope Gregory V Pope Gregory VI Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VIII Pope Gregory IX Pope Gregory X Pope Gregory XI Pope... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Monasticism. ... Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic orders founded by St. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Conservatism is a political philosophy that generally favors free markets, traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... Map of the Papal States. ... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is, beyond the Alps—generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ...

Contents

Early life

Image:Gregorio 16.jpg
Coat of Arms of Pope Gregory XVI

Cappellari was born at Belluno on September 18, 1765, to a noble family. At an early age he joined the order of the Camaldolese (part of the Benedictine monastic family) and entered the Monastery of San Michele di Murano, near Venice. As a Camaldolese monk, Cappellari rapidly gained distinction for his theological and linguistic skills. His first appearance before a wider public was in 1799, when he published against the Italian Jansenists a controversial work entitled II Trionfo della Santa Sede, which, besides passing through several editions in Italy, has been translated into several European languages. In 1800 he became a member of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, founded by Pope Pius VII (1800–23), to which he contributed a number of memoirs on theological and philosophical questions, and in 1805 was made abbot of San Gregorio on the Caelian Hill. The River Piave next to Belluno. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic orders founded by St. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... Monastery of St. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jansenism was a branch of Christian philosophy founded by Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), a Flemish theologian. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... Pius VII, O.S.B., born Barnaba Nicolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti (August 14, 1740 – August 20, 1823), was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


When Pius VII was carried off from Rome in 1809, Cappellari withdrew to Murano, near Venice, and in 1814, with some other members of his order, he moved again, this time to Padua; but soon after the restoration of the Pope in 1814 he was recalled to Rome, where he received successive appointments as vicar-general of the Camaldolese Order, councillor of the Inquisition, prefect of the Propaganda, and examiner of bishops. In March 1825 he was created Cardinal by Pope Leo XII (1823–29), and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Walloon in the Protestant dominated Netherlands. He negotiated peace on behalf of Armenian Catholics with the Ottoman Empire. He discouraged Polish revolutionaries who undermined Tsar Nicholas I's efforts to support the Catholic royalist cause in France, by the necessity of diverting troops to Poland. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Catholic Church. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Leo XII, born Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola della Genga (August 22, 1760 – February 10, 1829), was Pope from 1823 to 1829. ... A concordat is an agreement between the pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ...


Election as Pope

Styles of
Pope Gregory XVI
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none

On February 2, 1831, he was, after sixty-four days of conclave, unexpectedly chosen to succeed Pope Pius VIII (1829–30) in the papal chair. Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, (born 1927) His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Pius VIII, born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni (November 20, 1761 – December 1, 1830), was Pope from 1829 to 1830. ...


His election was influenced by the fact that the cardinal considered the most likely papabile, Giacomo Cardinal Giustiniani was vetoed by King Fernando VII of Spain. The other major candidates, Emmanuele De Gregorio and Bartolomeo Pacca, had been candidates in the previous conclave. When a deadlock arose between them, the cardinals turned to Cappellari but it took as many as eight-three ballots for a decisive result to be obtained. Gregory XVI was the last man (thus far) elected Pope who was not already a bishop. In fact, of subsequent Popes only Pius XII was never the bishop of a diocese. Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Emmanuele de Gregorio (born December 18, 1758, at sea while his mother was travelling to Spain; died November 7, 1839, Rome), was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the early nineteenth century. ... Bartolommeo Pacca was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, scholar and statesman as papal Secretary of state. ... The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ...


The choice of Gregory XVI as his regnal name was influenced by the fact that he had been abbott of San Gregorio monastery on the Coelian Hill for over twenty years. This was the same abbey from which Pope Gregory the Great had dispatched many bishops to England in 596. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... Abbott may refer to: A person Berenice Abbott, a American photographer. ... Gregory I Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (c. ...


Conservative policies

The progressive revolution of 1830 had just inflicted a severe blow on the Catholic royalist party in France, and almost the first act of the new government there was to seize Ancona, thus throwing Italy, and particularly the Papal States, into an excited condition which seemed to demand strongly defensive measures. In the course of the struggle which ensued, it was more than once necessary to call in Austrian defenders against red shirted republicans engaged in a terrorist campaign. The conservatives postponed their promised reforms after bombings and assassination attempts. Nor did the replacement of Bernetti by Luigi Lambruschini in 1836 mend matters. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Map of the Papal States. ... Luigi Cardinal Lambruschini (6 March 1776 – 12 May 1854) was a prominent Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the mid nineteenth century. ... October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ...

1834 papal tiara of Pope Gregory XVI
Enlarge
1834 papal tiara of Pope Gregory XVI

Pope Gregory and Cardinal Lambruschini opposed basic technological innovations such as gas lightning and railways, believing that they would promote commerce and increase the power of the bourgeoisie, leading to demands for liberal reforms which would undermine the monarchical power of the Pope over central Italy. Gregory in fact banned railways in the Papal States, calling them chemins d'enfer (literally "ways of hell," a play on the French for railroad, chemin de fer, literally "way of iron"). However, under pressure from the French, Gregory was liberal in forgiving imprisoned revolutionaries, a policy which might have aided the final overthrow of Gregory's successor, Pope Pius IX, as temporal ruler in 1870. This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the ruling class in a capitalist society. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is a place or a state of pain and suffering. ... Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was Pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ...


The financial condition in which Gregory XVI left the States of the Church makes it questionable how far his expenditures for defensive, architectural and engineering works, and his magnificent patronage of learning in the hands of Mai, Mezzofanti, Gaetano, Moroni and others, were for the real benefit of his subjects. Angelo Mai (March 7, 1782 - September 8, 1854), Italian cardinal and philologist, was born of humble parents at Schilpario in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy. ... Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (17 September 1774 – 15 March 1849) was an Italian cardinal and linguist. ... Gaetano Moroni (October 17, 1802 - November 3, 1883) was the author of the well-known Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica. ...


Ultramontane pontificate

The years of Gregory XVI's pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of ultramontane ideas dating back to Pope Innocent III, which were further developed under the guidance of his successor Pope Pius IX (1846–78), by the First Vatican Council. He canonized St Veronica Giuliani, an Italian mystic. He died on June 1, 1846. Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was Pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... Saint Veronica Giuliani (1660-July 9, 1727) was an Italian mystic. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Preceded by:
Pius VIII
Pope
1831–46
Succeeded by:
Pius IX

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Gregory XVI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (613 words)
Pope Gregory XVI, OSB (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846) born Bartolomeo Alberto Mauro Cappellari, was Pope from 1831 to 1846.
The financial condition in which Gregory XVI left the States of the Church makes it questionable how far his expenditures for defensive, architectural and engineering works, and his magnificent patronage of learning in the hands of Mai, Mezzofanti, Gaetano, Moroni and others, were for the real benefit of his subjects.
The years of Gregory XVI's pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of ultramontane ideas dating back to Pope Innocent III, which were further developed under the guidance of his successor Pope Pius IX (1846–78), by the First Vatican Council.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Gregory XVI (3206 words)
Gregory received them kindly, but caused them to be given more than one hint that the result of their appeal would not be favourable, and that they would be wise not to press for a decision.
Gregory XVI has been treated with but scant respect by later historians, but he has by no means deserved their contempt.
Gregory believed in autocracy, and neither his inclinations nor his experience was such as to make him favourable to increased political freedom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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