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Encyclopedia > Pope Gregory XIII
Gregory XIII
Birth name Ugo Boncompagni
Papacy began May 13, 1572
Papacy ended April 10, 1585
Predecessor Pius V
Successor Sixtus V
Born January 7, 1502(1502-01-07)
Bologna, Italy
Died April 10, 1585 (aged 83)
Rome, Italy
Other popes named Gregory

Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Pope St. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes: Pope Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great Pope Gregory II Pope Gregory III Pope Gregory IV Pope Gregory V Pope Gregory VI Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VIII Pope Gregory IX Pope Gregory X Pope Gregory XI Pope... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Early biography

Youth

He was born in Bologna, where he studied law and graduated in 1530. Afterwards, he taught jurisprudence for some years; his students included notable figures such as Alexander Farnese, Reginald Pole and Charles Borromeo. For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Categories: Families | Farnese | Italian history | Italian nobility | Political families ... Reginald Pole, cardinal Reginald Pole (1500 - 1558) Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, was the son of Margaret Pole who was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence. ... Saint Charles Borromeo (Italian: ) (October 2, 1538 – November 4, 1584) was an Italian saint and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Career before Papacy

At the age of thirty-six he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III (1534–1549), under whom he held successive appointments as first judge of the capital, abbreviator, and vice-chancellor of the Campagna; by Pope Paul IV (1555–1559) he was attached as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carafa; and by Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) he was created cardinal priest and sent to the council of Trent. Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Abbreviators, a body of writers in the papal chancery, whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the popes bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are written out in extenso by the scriptores. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Pope Paul IV (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559), né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... The Apostolic dataria was one of the five Ufficii di Curia (curial offices) which were part of the Roman Curia until its abolition in the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


He also served as a legate to Philip II of Spain (1556–1598), being sent by the Pope to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. It was here that he formed a lasting and close relationship with the Spanish King, which was to become a very important during his foreign policy as Pope. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ...


Election as Pope

Upon the death of Pope Pius V (1566–1572), the conclave chose Cardinal Boncompagni, who assumed the name of Gregory XIII, in homage to the great reforming Pope, Gregory I (590–604), surnamed the Great. It was a very brief conclave, lasting less than 24 hours, presumed by many historians to have been due to the influence and backing of the Spanish King. His character seemed to be perfect for the needs of the church at the time. Unlike some of his predecessors, Gregory XIII was to lead a faultless personal life, becoming a model for his simplicity of life. Additionally, his legal brilliance and management abilities meant that he was able to respond and deal with the major problems quickly and decisively, although not always successfully. con·clave (knklv, kng-) n. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ...


Pontificate

Reform of the Church

Once in the chair of Saint Peter, Gregory XIII's rather worldly concerns became secondary and he dedicated himself to reform of the Catholic Church. He committed himself to putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent. He allowed no exceptions for cardinals to the rule that bishops must take up residence in their sees, and designated a committee to update the Index of Forbidden Books. A new and greatly improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici was also due to his concerned patronage. In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, and appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on. He was renowned for having a fierce independence; with the few confidants noting there were interventions that were not always welcomed nor advice sought for. The power of the papacy increased under him, whereas the influence and power of the Cardinals substantially decreased. “St Peter” redirects here. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Look up see in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Index of Prohibited Books)—also called Index Expurgatorius—is a list of publications which Roman Catholics were banned from reading, pernicious books, and also the rules of the Church relating to books. ... // Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (of which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ...


Formation of clergy and promotion of the arts and sciences

A central part of the strategy of Gregory XIII's reform was to apply the recommendations of Trent. He was a liberal patron of the recently formed Society of Jesus throughout Europe, for which he founded many new colleges. The Roman College, of the Jesuits, grew substantially under his patronage, and became the most important centre of learning in Europe for a time, a University of the Nations. It is now named the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pope Gregory XIII also founded numerous seminaries for training priests, beginning with the German College at Rome, and put them in the charge of the Jesuits. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Pontifical Gregorian University (Italian: Pontificia Università Gregoriana) is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. ... A seminary is a specialised university-like institution for the purpose of training candidates for positions within a religious context. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...

Coat of arms of Pope Gregory XIII.

In 1575 he gave official status to the Congregation of the Oratory a community of priests without vows, dedicated to prayer and preaching (founded by Saint Filippo Neri). Image File history File links Gregorio_13. ... Image File history File links Gregorio_13. ...


The Gregorian Calendar

Gregory XIII is best known for his reformation of the calendar, producing the Gregorian calendar with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius.It was invented in Rome, Italy. The reason for the reform is that the average length of the year in the Julian Calendar was too long, and the date of the actual Vernal Equinox had slowly slipped to March 10, whereas the computus (calculation) of the Easter date of Easter still followed the traditional date of March 21. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Christopher Clavius, (March 25, 1538 – February 12, 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...


This was rectified by following the observations of Clavius and Johannes Kepler, and the calendar was changed when Pope Gregory XIII decreed that the day after October 4, 1582 would be October 15, 1582. He issued the papal bull Inter gravissimas to promulgate the new calendar on February 24, 1582. On October 15, 1582, this calendar replaced the Julian calendar, in use since 45 BC, and has become universally used today. Kepler redirects here. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


The switchover was bitterly opposed by much of the populace, who feared it was an attempt by landlords to cheat them out of a week and a half's rent. However, the Catholic countries of Spain, Portugal, Poland, and Italy complied. France, some states of the Dutch Republic and various Catholic states in Germany and Switzerland (both countries were religiously split) followed suit within a year or two, and Hungary followed in 1587. Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Because of the Pope's decree, the reform of the Julian calendar came to be known as the Gregorian calendar. However, the rest of Europe did not follow suit for more than a century. Denmark, the remaining states of the Dutch Republic, and the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire and Switzerland adopted the Gregorian reform in 1700-1701. By this time, the calendar trailed the seasons by 11 days. Great Britain (and its American colonies) finally followed suit in 1752, and Wednesday, September 2, 1752 was immediately followed by Thursday, September 14, 1752; they were joined by the last Protestant holdout, Sweden, on March 1, 1753. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Gregorian Calendar was not accepted in eastern Christendom for several hundred years, and then only as the civil calendar. The Gregorian Calendar was instituted in Russia by the communists in 1917, and the last Eastern Orthodox country to accept the calendar was Greece in 1923. This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...


While some Eastern Orthodox national churches have accepted the Gregorian Calendar dates for "fixed" feasts (feasts that occur on the same date every year), the dates of all movable feasts (such as Easter) are still calculated in the Eastern Orthodox Churches by reference to the Julian Calendar. This article is about the Christian festival. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Foreign policy

Though he expressed the conventional fears of the danger from the Turks, Gregory XIII's attentions were more consistently directed to the dangers from the Protestants. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


He encouraged the plans of Phillip II to dethrone Elizabeth I of England (1558–1603) thus succeeded in developing an atmosphere of subversion and imminent danger among English Protestants, who looked on any Roman Catholic as a potential traitor. This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


In 1578, to further the plans of exiled English and Irish catholics such as Nicholas Sanders William Cardinal Allen and James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, Gregory outfitted adventurer Thomas Stukeley with a ship and an army of 800 men to land in Ireland to aid the Desmond Rebellions of Fitzmaurice. To his dismay Stukeley joined his forces with those of King Sebastian of Portugal against Emperor Abdul Malik of Morocco instead. Another papal expedition sailed to Ireland in 1579 under the command of Fitzmaurice, accompanied by Sanders as papal legate. The resulting Second Desmond Rebellion was equally unsuccessful. Gregory XIII had no connection with the plot of Henry, Duke of Guise, and his brother, Charles, Duke of Mayenne, to assassinate Elizabeth I in 1582, and most probably knew nothing about it beforehand. Nicholas Sanders (also spelled Sander) (c. ... William Allen (1532 - October 16, 1594) was an English cardinal. ... James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, a member of the sixteenth century ruling Geraldine dynasty in the province of Munster in Ireland, rebelled against the crown authority of Queen Elizabeth I of England in response to the onset of the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland and was deemed an archtraitor. ... Thomas Stukley (or Stucley, Stukely, Stukeley) (c. ... The Desmond Rebellions occurred in the 1569- 1573 and 1579-1583 in Munster in southern Ireland. ... Sebastian I, King of Portugal the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I, pron. ... Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I was the King of Morocco of the Saadi Dynasty from 1576 until his death at the Battle of Alcazarquivir against Portugal in 1578. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The Second Desmond rebellion was the more significant and widespread of the two Desmond Rebellions launched by the Fitzgerald dynasty of the Desmond area of Munster, Ireland in the 1560s. ... Henry, 3rd Duke of Guise (January 31, 1550 - December 23, 1588) was the son of Francis, Duke of Guise. ... Charles de Lorraine, duc de Mayenne, (March 26, 1554 - October 3, 1611), or Charles de Guise, was a French nobleman and military leader. ...


A shameful moment for the Papacy was the Massacre of Huguenots in France, although it is commonly held that the Pope was ignorant of this at the time. He celebrated the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacres in 1572 with a Te Deum, three frescoes depicting the events in the Sala Regia of the Vatican Palace commended to painter Giorgio Vasari and a commemorative medal, with his portrait and on the obverse a chastising angel, sword in hand and the legend UGONOTTORUM STRAGES ("Slaughter of the Huguenots ") Note 53. From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy) The St. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


Cultural patronage

In Rome Gregory XIII built the magnificent Gregorian chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter, and extended the Quirinal Palace in 1580. He also turned the Baths of Diocletian into a granary in 1575. Interior view, with the Nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... The Quirinal Palace once housed popes, then kings, and now presidents. ... The basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, built in the tepidarium of the baths The church of San Bernardo alle Terme recycled an old circular tower at the southwestern corner of the perimeter wall of the baths, one of four towers defining its grounds. ...


He appointed his illegitimate son Giacomo[1], born to his mistress at Bologna before his papacy, castellan of St. Angelo and gonfalonier of the Church; Venice, anxious to please, enrolled him among its nobles. Philip II of Spain appointed him general in his army. Gregory also helped his son to become a powerful feudatary through the acquisition of the Duchy of Sora, on the border between the Papal States and te Kingdom of Naples. Giacomo Boncompagni (also Jacopo Boncompagni; May 8, 1548 - August 18, 1612) was an Italian powerful feudatory of the 16th century, the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni). ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... The Gonfaloniere was a highly prestigious communal post in medieval and Renaissance Italy, notably in Florence. ... The Duchy of Sora was a sovereign state of Italy, created in 1443 by King Alfonso V of Naples and dissolved in 1796. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession...


In order to raise funds for these and similar objects, he confiscated a large proportion of the houses and properties throughout the states of the Church – a measure which enriched his treasury, indeed, for a time, but by alienating the great body of the nobility and gentry, revived old factions, created new ones, and ultimately plunged his temporal dominions into a state bordering upon anarchy. Such was the position of matters at the time of Gregory XIII's death, which took place on April 10, 1585. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ...


Gregory XIII was succeeded by Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590). Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ...


The oldest Papal tiara still in existence dates from the reign of Gregory XIII. The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ...


Sources and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pope Gregory XIII

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ugo Boncompagni had Giacomo legitimated on July 5, 1548 by the bishop of Feltre.
Preceded by
Pius V
Pope
1572–85
Succeeded by
Sixtus V

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Gregory XIII - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1227 words)
Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585.
The work with which the name of Gregory XIII is most honourably associated is that of the reformation of the calendar, producing the Gregorian calendar with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius.
Gregory XIII had no connection with the plot of Henry, Duke of Guise, and his brother, Charles, Duke of Mayenne, to assassinate Elizabeth in 1582, and most probably knew nothing about it beforehand.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Gregory XIII (2534 words)
Thus Gregory XIII at least partly restored the old faith in England and the northern countries of Europe, supplied the Catholics in those countries with their necessary priests, and introduced Christianity into the pagan countries of Eastern Asia.
In 1581, Gregory XIII dispatched the Jesuit Antonio Possevino as nuncio to Russia, to mediate between Tsar Ivan IV and King Bathory of Poland.
The medal which Gregory XIII had struck in memory of the event bears his effigy on the obverse, which ion the reverse under the legend Vgonotiorum Strages (overthrow of the Huguenots) stands an angel with cross and drawn sword, killing the Huguenots.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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