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Encyclopedia > Pope Gregory I
Pope Saint Gregory I
Birth name Gregorius
Papacy began September 3, 590
Papacy ended March 12, 604
Predecessor Pelagius II
Successor Sabinian
Born c. 540
Rome, Italy
Died March 12, 604
Rome, Italy
Other popes named Gregory
Styles of
Pope Gregory I
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint

Saint Gregory I the Great or Pope Saint Gregory I (c. 540March 12, 604) was pope from September 3, 590 until his death. Saraceni painting of Pope Gregory I, also known as Pope Gregory the Great. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 3 - St. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Pelagius II was pope from 579 to 590. ... Sabinian (died February 22, 606) was pope from 604 to 606. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes: Pope Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great Pope Gregory II Pope Gregory III Pope Gregory IV Pope Gregory V Pope Gregory VI Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VIII Pope Gregory IX Pope Gregory X Pope Gregory XI Pope... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Saints redirects here. ... Saint Gregory usually refers to Pope Gregory I. Saint Gregory can also refer to: Gregory the Illuminator, an Armenian saint Gregory of Nyssa, bishop of Nyssa Category: ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 3 - St. ...


He is also known as Gregory the Dialogist (Gregorios Dialogos) in Eastern Orthodoxy because of the Dialogues he wrote. For this reason, English translations of Orthodox texts will sometimes list him as "Gregory Dialogus". He was the first of the Popes from a monastic background. Gregory is a Doctor of the Church and one of the four great Latin Fathers of the Church (the others being Ambrose, Augustine, and Jerome). Of all popes, Gregory I had the most influence on the early medieval church.[1] ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Frankish ruler Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 in Rome. ...


Immediately after his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim.[2] He is seen as a patron of England.[3]

Contents

Biography

Early life

The exact date of St. Gregory's birth is uncertain, but is usually estimated to be around the year 540. He was born into a wealthy noble Roman family, in a period, however, when the city of Rome was facing a serious decline in population, wealth, and influence. His family seems to have been devout. Gregory's great-great-grandfather had been Pope Felix III. Gregory's father, Gordianus, worked for the Roman Church and his father's three sisters were nuns. Gregory's mother Silvia herself is a saint. While his father lived, Gregory took part in Roman political life and at one point was Prefect of the City. However, on his father's death, he converted his family home, located on a hill just opposite the Circus Maximus, into a monastery dedicated to the apostle Saint Andrew. Gregory himself entered as a monk. Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Felix III was pope from March 13, 483 to 492. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... Saint Silvia (Sylvia) (c. ... Saints redirects here. ... Praefectus urbanus, or praefectus urbi, prefect of the city of Rome. ... , For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


Eventually, Pope Pelagius II ordained him a deacon and solicited his help in trying to heal the schism of the Three Chapters in northern Italy. In 579, Pelagius II chose Gregory as his apocrisiarius or ambassador to the imperial court in Constantinople. Pelagius II was pope from 579 to 590. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... The Three Chapters (trîa kephálaia), a phase in the Monophysite controversy, was an attempt to reconcile the Christians of Syria and Egypt with Western Christendom, following the failure of the Henotikon. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Introduction of Celibacy

In Constantinople, Gregory first gained attention by starting a controversy with Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople, who had published a treatise on the corporeality of the imminent General Resurrection, in which bodies would be incorporeal, to which Gregory contrasted the corporeality of the risen Christ. The heat of argument drew the Roman emperor in as judge. Eutychius' treatise was condemned, and it suffered the normal fate of all heterodox texts, of being publicly burnt. On his return to Rome, Gregory served as secretary to Pelagius II, and was elected Pope to succeed him. For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... Waces Eutychius saint, was a patriarch of Constantinople. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Heterodox literally means pertaining to other doctrines or other worship. ... Book burning is the practice of destroying by fire, often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material. ...


This was a positive light shed upon Pope or "Papa Gregory" as he was then called, after his favor was acknowledged in the eye of the emperor. Accounted between 590 and 604, Gregory I first introduced the edict of celibacy. This is now widely believed amongst historians to have had an ulterior motive, this being, to prevent property and material wealth of the Papacy from passing from church to possible wives, families or mistresses of the clergymen.[citation needed] Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ...


Gregory as Pope

Pope Gregory the Great wearing the pallium and the camelaucum, an early form of the Papal Tiara.

When he became Pope in 590, among his first acts were writing a series of letters disavowing any ambition to the throne of Peter and praising the contemplative life of the monks. At that time the Holy See had not exerted effective leadership in the West since the pontificate of Gelasius I. The episcopacy in Gaul was drawn from the great territorial families, and identified with them: the parochial horizon of Gregory's contemporary, Gregory of Tours, may be considered typical; in Visigothic Spain the bishops had little contact with Rome; in Italy the papacy was beset by the violent Lombard dukes and the rivalry of the Jews in the Exarchate of Ravenna and in the south. The scholarship and culture of Celtic Christianity had developed utterly unconnected with Rome, and it was from Ireland that Britain and Germany were likely to become Christianized, or so it seemed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... now. ... The coronation of Pope Pius XII in 1939. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Pope Gelasius I was the third pope of African origin (more exactly from Kabylie) in Catholic history. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Servus servorum Dei

Pope Gregory I, by Francisco de Zurbarán.

In line with his predecessors such as Dionysius, Damasus, and St. Leo the Great, St. Gregory asserted the primacy of the office of the Bishop of Rome. Although he did not employ the term "Pope", he summed up the responsibilities of the papacy in his official appellation, as "servant of the servants of God". As Benedict of Nursia had justified the absolute authority of the abbot over the souls in his charge, so Gregory expressed the hieratic principle that he was responsible directly to God for his ministry. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2499, 212 KB) Description: Title: de: Hl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2499, 212 KB) Description: Title: de: Hl. ... Francisco Zurbarán (November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664), was a Spanish painter, born at Fuente de Cantos in Extremadura. ... Pope Dionysius was pope from July 22, 259 to December 26, 268. ... Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


St. Gregory's pontificate saw the development of the notion of private penance as parallel to the institution of public penance. He explicitly taught a doctrine of Purgatory where a soul destined to undergo purification after death because of certain sins, could begin its purification in this earthly life, through good works, obedience and Christian conduct, making the travails to come lighter and shorter. For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


St. Gregory's relations with the Emperor in the East were a cautious diplomatic stand-off. He concentrated his energies in the West, where many of his letters are concerned with the management of papal estates. His relations with the Merovingian kings, encapsulated in his deferential correspondence with Childebert II, laid the foundations for the papal alliance with the Franks that would transform the Germanic kingship into an agency for the Christianization of the heart of Europe — consequences that remained in the future. For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Childebert II (570-595) was the king of Austrasia from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


More immediately, Gregory undertook the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, where inaction might have encouraged the Celtic missionaries already active in the north of Britain. Sending Augustine of Canterbury to convert the Kingdom of Kent was prepared by the marriage of the king to a Merovingian princess who had brought her chaplains with her. By the time of Gregory's death, the conversion of the king and the Kentish nobles and the establishment of a Christian toehold at Canterbury were established. A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


St. Gregory's chief acts as Pope include his long letter issued in the matter of the schism of the Three Chapters of the bishops of Venetia and Istria. He is also known in the East as a tireless worker for communication and understanding between East and West. He is also credited with increasing the power of the papacy. The Three Chapters (trîa kephálaia), a phase in the Monophysite controversy, was an attempt to reconcile the Christians of Syria and Egypt with Western Christiandom, following the failure of the Henotikon. ... Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he was declared a saint immediately after his death by "popular acclamation". Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


Liturgical reforms

In letters, St. Gregory remarks that he moved the Pater Noster (Our Father) to immediately after the Roman Canon and immediately before the Fraction. This position is still maintained today in the Roman Liturgy. The pre-Gregorian position is evident in the Ambrosian Rite. Gregory added material to the Hanc Igitur of the Roman Canon and established the nine Kyries (a vestigial remnant of the litany which was originally at that place) at the beginning of Mass. He also reduced the role of deacons in the Roman Liturgy. Pater Noster may refer to: The Lords Prayer, a Christian prayer paternoster lift, a kind of elevator This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Before the 1970 revision of the Roman Missal, the Mass had, in the Roman Rite, only one Anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer, which was referred to as the Canon of the Mass, and which, in the present text of the Roman Missal, is called Eucharistic Prayer I or the Roman Canon. ... In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... Before the 1970 revision of the Roman Missal, the Mass had, in the Roman Rite, only one Anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer, which was referred to as the Canon of the Mass, and which, in the present text of the Roman Missal, is called Eucharistic Prayer I or the Roman Canon. ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


Sacramentaries directly influenced by Gregorian reforms are referred to as Sacrementaria Gregoriana. With the appearance of these sacramentaries, the Western liturgy begins to show a characteristic that distinguishes it from Eastern liturgical traditions. In contrast to the mostly invariable Eastern liturgical texts, Roman and other Western liturgies since this era have a number of prayers that change to reflect the feast or liturgical season; These variations are visible in the collects and prefaces as well as in the Roman Canon itself. Sacramentary was a musical service book, containing the prayers that were recited by the celebrant during the mass. ... Latin liturgical rites used within that area of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin language once dominated (the Latin Rite or Western Catholic Church) were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. ... In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. ... A preface is an introduction to a book written by the author of the book. ...


A system of writing down reminders of chant melodies was probably devised by monks around 800 to aid in unifying the church service throughout the Frankish empire. Charlemagne brought cantors from the Papal chapel in Rome to instruct his clerics in the “authentic” liturgy. A program of propaganda spread the idea that the chant used in Rome came directly from Gregory the Great, who had died two centuries earlier and was universally venerated. Pictures were made to depict the dove of the Holy Spirit perched on Gregory's shoulder, singing God's authentic form of chant into his ear. This gave rise to calling the music "Gregorian chant". A more accurate term is plainsong or plainchant. For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Broadly speaking, plainsong is the name given to the body of traditional songs used in the liturgies of the Catholic Church. ...


Sometimes the establishment of the Gregorian Calendar is erroneously attributed to Gregory the Great; however, that calendar was actually instituted by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 by way of a papal bull entitled, Inter gravissimas. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ...


Feast Day

The current Roman Catholic calendar of saints, revised in 1969 as instructed by the Second Vatican Council,[4] celebrates St. Gregory the Great on 3 September. The General Roman Calendar of 1962, whose use is permitted under the conditions indicated in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum assigns his feast to 12 March. The reason why his feast was moved from the date of his death to that of his episcopal consecration was to transfer it outside of Lent, within which it would otherwise always fall, reducing his celebration in the Roman Rite to at most a mere commemoration. For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A motu proprio is a papal rescript in which the clause motu proprio (Latin, of his own motion) is used, signifying that the provisions of the rescript were decided by the Pope personally and not by a cardinal or other advisors. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. Summorum Pontificum (English: ) is the Apostolic Letter motu proprio data of Pope Benedict XVI, which formulates the canonical rules to be respected in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church for the celebration of Mass according to the Missal promulgated by John XXIII in... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ...


The Eastern Orthodox Church and the associated Eastern Catholic Churches continue to commemorate St. Gregory on 12 March. The occurrence of this date during Great Lent is considered appropriate in the Byzantine Rite, which traditionally associates Saint Gregory with the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, celebrated only during that liturgical season. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...


Other Churches too honour Saint Gregory: the Church of England on 3 September, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal Church in the United States on 12 March. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the nations capital is the national cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A traditional procession is held in Żejtun, Malta in honour of Saint Gregory on Easter Wednesday, which most often falls in April, the range of possible dates being 25 March to 28 April. A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ... Chapel of St. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Works

Illumination in a twelfth century manuscript of a letter of Gregory's to Saint Leander, bishop of Seville (Bibl. Municipale, MS 2, Dijon).

Gregory is the only Pope between the fifth and the eleventh centuries whose correspondence and writings have survived enough to form a comprehensive corpus. "His character strikes us as an ambiguous and enigmatic one," Norman F. Cantor observed. "On the one hand he was an able and determined administrator, a skilled and clever diplomat, a leader of the greatest sophistication and vision; but on the other hand, he appears in his writings as a superstitious and credulous monk, hostile to learning, crudely limited as a theologian, and excessively devoted to saints, miracles, and relics".[5] Image File history File links The Dijon, Bibl. ... Image File history File links The Dijon, Bibl. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Leander of Seville. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French commune. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada in 1930, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ...

For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Saint Gregorys Commentary on Job, or Moralia, sive Expositio in Job, sometimes called Magna Moralia, but not to be confused with Aristotles Great Ethics known by the same title, was written between 578 and 595, begun when Gregory was at the court of Tiberius II at Constantinople, but... Pastoral care is the ministry of care and counseling provided by pastors, chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their group (church, congregation, etc). ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, or simply (if ungrammatically) Presanctified Liturgy, is an Eastern Orthodox liturgical service for the celebration of the Eucharist on the weekdays of Great Lent. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ...

Sermon on Mary Magdalene

In a sermon whose text is given in Patrologia Latina, 76:1238‑1246, Gregory stated that he believed "that the woman Luke called a sinner and John called Mary was the Mary out of whom Mark declared that seven demons were cast" (Hanc vero quam Lucas peccatricem mulierem, Joannes Mariam nominat, illam else Mariam credimus de qua Marcus septem damonia ejecta fuisse testatur), thus identifying the sinner of Luke 7:37, the Mary of John 11:2 and 12:3 (the sister of Lazarus and Martha of Bethany), and Mary Magdalene, from whom Jesus had cast out seven demons (Mark 16:9). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... The Patrologia Latina is an enormous work published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ...


While most Western writers shared this view, it was not seen as a Church teaching, but as an opinion, the pros and cons of which were discussed (see, for instance, the 1910 article on St. Mary Magdalen in The Catholic Encyclopedia). With the liturgical changes made in 1969, there is no longer mention of Mary Magdalene as a sinner in Roman Catholic liturgical materials.[6] The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide...


The Eastern Orthodox Church has never accepted Gregory's identification of Mary Magdalene with the sinful woman.


Iconography

Gregory and his Dove, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Ms 389

In art Gregory is usually shown in full pontifical robes with the tiara and double cross, despite his actual habit of dress. Earlier depictions are more likely to show a monastic tonsure and plainer dress. Orthodox icons traditionally show St. Gregory vested as a bishop, holding a Gospel Book and blessing with his right hand. It is recorded that he permitted his depiction with a square halo, then used for the living. [7] A dove is his attribute, from the well-known story recorded by his friend Peter the Deacon,[8] who tells that when the pope was dictating his homilies on Ezechiel a curtain was drawn between his secretary and himself. As, however, the pope remained silent for long periods at a time, the servant made a hole in the curtain and, looking through, beheld a dove seated upon Gregory's head with its beak between his lips. When the dove withdrew its beak the pope spoke and the secretary took down his words; but when he became silent the servant again applied his eye to the hole and saw the dove had replaced its beak between his lips.[9] Image File history File links Beda_Venerabilis. ... Image File history File links Beda_Venerabilis. ... College name The College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cambridge Motto There is a toast, Floreat antiqua domus (Latin: May the old house flourish), from which the college’s nickname, ‘Old House’, is derived Founders The Guild of Corpus Christi The Guild of the Blessed Virgin... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... Look up attribute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peter the Deacon or Petrus Diaconus may refer to: One of the Scythian monks who appeared in 519 before Pope Hormisdas in connexion with the Theopaschite controversy. ... This article is about the prophet Ezekiel. ...


This scene is shown as a version of the traditional Evangelist portrait (where the Evangelists' symbols are also sometimes shown dictating) from the tenth century onwards.[10] Usually the dove is shown whispering in Gregory's ear for a clearer composition. Evangelist portraits are a specific type of picture included in ancient and mediæval Bibles. ...


The imaginative and anachronistic example at the top of this article is from the studio of Carlo Saraceni or by a close follower, ca 1610. From the Giustiniani collection, the painting is conserved in the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome [2]. Carlo Saraceni (c. ... The Galleria Nazionale dArte Antica, or National Gallery of Ancient Art, is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, located on two sites: the Palazzo Barberini and the Palazzo Corsini. ...


Alms

Gregory was famous for his charity works. He had a hospital built next to his house on the Caelian Hill to host poor people for dinner, at his expense. He also built a monastery and several oratories on the site. Today, the namesake church of San Gregorio al Celio (largely rebuilt from the original edifices during the 17th-18th centuries) remembers his work. One of the three oratories annexed, the oratory of St. Silvia, is said to lie over the tomb of Gregory's mother. The Caelian Hill (Latin Collis Caelius, Italian Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome. ... Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... Painted ceilig of San Gregorio, by Placido Costanzi. ...


Famous quotes

  • Gregory himself wanted to go to England as a missionary. However, one day while praying about this and reading Sacred Scripture a locust landed upon his text. He shouted out locusta, Latin for locust, but reflecting on it he saw it as a sign from Heaven since the similar sounding loco sta means "stay in place (i.e. in Rome)."
  • Pro cuius amore in eius eloquio nec mihi parco (For the love of it (referring back to uerbi = the Word = the Gospel, cf. Cod. Sang. 211 p. 193 col. 1, line 5), I do not spare myself from communicating it. (i.e. the Word = the Gospel), 'Homilies on Ezekiel', Bk 1.11.6 (cf. Cod. Sang. 211 p. 193 col. 2, lines 1-3).

When Augustine asked whether to use Roman or Gallican customs in the mass in England, Gregory said, in effect, whatever advances the Faith, for "...things are not to be loved for the sake of a place, but places are to be loved for the sake of their good things." (Bede, Ecclesiastical History, i 27 III, ed McClure, Collins, Oxford 1994). White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ...


Reception

In Britain, appreciation for Gregory remained strong even after his death, with him being called Gregorius noster ("our Gregory") by the British.[3][4] It was in Britain, at a monastery in Whitby, that the first full length life of Gregory was written, in c.713[5]. Appreciation of Gregory in Rome and Italy itself, however, came later, with his successor Sabinian (a secular cleric rather than a monk) rejecting his charitable moves towards the poor of Rome. In contrast to Britain, the first early vita of Gregory written in Italy was produced by John the Deacon in the 9th century. The ruins of Whitby Abbey Illustration of the ruins of Whitby Abbey Whitby Abbey from pond Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine abbey sited on Whitbys East Cliff in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... Vita or VITA can refer to any of a number of things: Vita (Latin for life) can also refer to a brief biography, often that of a saint (i. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Sabinian (died February 22, 606) was pope from 604 to 606. ... The restored abbey at Monte Cassino Johannes Hymonides, known as John, deacon of Rome (d. ...


References

  1. ^ Pope St. Gregory I at about.com
  2. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Gregory I
  3. ^ Gregory the Great. Catholic Culture. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  4. ^ Sacrosanctum Concilium, 108-111
  5. ^ Cantor, 1993, p. 157 (see Bibliography, below).
  6. ^ Filteau, Jerry (2006), “Scholars seek to correct Christian tradition, fiction of Mary Magdalene”, <http://www.catholic.org/national/national_story.php?id=19680>. Retrieved on 1 October 2007 
  7. ^ Gietmann, G. (1911), “Nimbus”, The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XI, New York: Robert Appleton Company 
  8. ^ Peter the Deacon, Vita, xxviii
  9. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia article - see links, below.
  10. ^ An early example is the dedication miniature from the an eleventh century manuscript of St. Gregory's Moralia in Job (Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, MS Msc. Bibl. 84). The miniature shows the scribe, Bebo of Seeon Abbey, presenting the manuscript to the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II. In the upper left the author is seen writing the text under divine inspiration.[1]

Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ...

Bibliography

  • Norman F. Cantor. The Civilization of the Middle Ages New York: Harper, 1993.
  • Cavadini, John, ed., Gregory the Great: A Symposium. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.
  • Dudden, Frederick H., Gregory the Great. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1905.
  • Richards, Jeffrey, Consul of God. Routelege & Keatland Paul, London: 1980.
  • Straw, Carole E., Gregory the Great: Perfection in Imperfection. University of California Press, Berkeley: 1988.
  • Leyser, Conrad. Authority and Asceticism from Augustine to Gregory the Great. Clarendon Press, Oxford: 2000.
  • Markus, R.A.. Gregory the Great and His World. Cambridge: University Press, 1997.
  • Cristina Ricci, Mysterium dispensationis. Tracce di una teologia della storia in Gregorio Magno (Rome: Centro Studi S. Anselmo, 2002), (Studia Anselmiana, vol. 135).
  • Vincenzo Recchia, Lettera e profezia nell'esegesi di Gregorio Magno (Bari: Edipuglia, 2003), Pp. 157 (Quaderni di "Invigilata Lucernis," Dipartamento di Studi Classici e Cristiani, Universita degli Studi di Bari, vol. 20).
  • George Demacopoulos, Five Models of Spiritual Direction in the Early Church (Notre Dame (IN), University of Notre Dame Press, 2007).
  • Hester, Kevin L., Eschatology and Pain in St. Gregory the Great. The Christological Synthesis of Gregory's Morals on the Book of Job (Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2007), Pp. xv, 155 (Studies in Christian History and Thought).

External links

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Pope Gregory I
Roman Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pelagius II
Pope
590–604
Succeeded by
Sabinian

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