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Encyclopedia > Pope Eugenius IV
Eugene IV
Image:Eugene IV.PNG
Birth name Gabriele Condulmer
Papacy began 3 March 1431
Papacy ended 23 February 1447
Predecessor Martin V
Successor Nicholas V
Born 1383
Venice, Italy
Died 23 February 1447
Rome
{{{footnotes}}}

Eugene IV, Gabriele Condulmer (1383February 23, 1447) was Pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... {{| English name=Nicholas V| image= | birth_name=Tomaso Parentucelli| term_start=6 March 1447| term_end=24 March 1455| predecessor=Eugenius IV| successor=Callixtus III| birth_date=15 November 1397| birthplace= Sarzana, Liguria, Italy | dead=dead|death_date=24 March 1455| deathplace=Rome|}} Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... The French word née (feminine) or né (masculine) (or the English word nee) is still commonly used in some newspapers when mentioning the maiden name of a woman in engagement or wedding announcements. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the successor of St. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ...


He was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, a Correr on his mother's side. Condulmer entered the Celestine order and came into prominence during the pontificate of his uncle, Pope Gregory XII (1406–15), by whom he was appointed bishop of Siena, where the political class objected to a 24-year old bishop who was a foreigner. So the issue was not pressed and he resigned the appointment, becoming instead his uncle's papal treasurer, protonotary, Cardinal Priest of St Marco and St Clemente, and later Cardinal Priest of Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere. Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Celestines, a branch of the great Benedictine monastic order. ... Gregory XII, né Angelo Correr or Corraro (died October 18, 1417), Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII (1404–06) on November 30, 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423... This page is not about the form of limonite clay called sienna. ... The prothonotary is the chief court clerk in certain courts of law in certain Anglo-American jurisdictions, including Pennsylvania and Prince Edward Island. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Basilica of San Clemente is a complex of buildings in Rome, Italy centered around a 12th century Roman Catholic church dedicated to Pope Clement I. The site is notable as being an archeological record of Roman architectural, political and religious history from the early Christian era to the Middle... Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches in Rome. ...


He made himself useful to Pope Martin V (1417–31) and was quickly elected to succeed him, and was crowned as Eugene IV at St. Peter's, March 11, 1431. By a written agreement made before his election he agreed with the cardinals to distribute to them one-half of all the revenues of the Church and promised to consult with them on all questions of importance, both spiritual and temporal. Upon taking the Papal Chair, Eugene IV's violent measures against the numerous Colonna relations of his predecessor, Pope Martin V (Otto di Colonna), who had rewarded his numerous clan with castles and lands, at once involved him in a serious contest with the powerful house of Colonna that nominally supported the local rights of Rome against the interests of the Papacy. A truce was soon arranged. Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Basilica in the back St. ... 11 March is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ...

Enlarge
Portrait of Pope Eugene IV, by Jean Fouquet

But by far the most important feature of Eugene IV's pontificate was the great struggle between the Pope and the Council of Basel (1431–39), part of the historic Conciliar movement. On July 23, 1431, his legate, Ambrogio Traversari, opened the council, which had been convoked by Martin V, but, distrustful of its purposes and emboldened by the small attendance, the pope issued a bull on December 18, 1431, dissolving the council and calling a new one to meet in eighteen months at Bologna. The council resisted this premature expression of papal prerogative, as it appeared to the majority of them. Eugene IV's action gave some weight to the contention that the Curia was opposed to any authentic measures of reform. The council refused to dissolve; instead they renewed the revolutionary resolutions by which the Council of Constance had declared a council superior to the Pope, and cited Eugene IV to appear at Basel. A compromise was arranged by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who had been crowned emperor at Rome on May 31, 1433. By its terms the Pope recalled his bull of dissolution, and, reserving all the rights of the Holy See, acknowledged the council as ecumenical (December 15, 1433). Image File history File links Portrait_du_pape_Eugène_IV.jpg Portrait du pape Eugène IV Daprès Jean Fouquet Paris, BnF, Réserve des livres rares, Rés. ... Image File history File links Portrait_du_pape_Eugène_IV.jpg Portrait du pape Eugène IV Daprès Jean Fouquet Paris, BnF, Réserve des livres rares, Rés. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not with the pope. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... Ambrose the Camaldulian, (Ambrogio Traversari) (1386-1439), was a theologian, born near Florence at the village of Portico. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Bologna (from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The establishment of an insurrectionary republic at Rome drove him into exile in May 1434. Disguised in the robes of a monk, he was rowed down the center of the Tiber, pelted by stones from either bank, to a Florentine vessel waiting to pick him up at Ostia. Although the city was restored to obedience by Giovanni Vitelleschi, the militant Bishop of Recanati, in the following October, the Pope remained at Florence and Bologna. It has been suggested that The republican form of government be merged into this article or section. ... Events May 30, Battle of Lipany in the Hussite Wars Jan van Eyck paints the wedding of Giovanni Arnoflini The Honorable Passing of Arms at the bridge of Obrigo The Portuguese reach Cape Bojador in Western Sahara. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third-longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that... Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Ostia scale model The Temple of the goddess Roma on the Forum of Ostia Ostia, an ancient town on the coast facing the Tyrrhenian Sea, in Latium, Italy, was the harbour of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi (born at Corneto Tarquinia - died at Rome, April 1 or 2, 1440), the fighting bishop of Recanati (from 1431), afterwards made a cardinal, was the condottiere-bishop who was commander of the papal armies of Pope Eugenius IV when the Colonna faction at Rome, infuriated by the... Recanati is a town of about 20,650 inhabitants in the Marche region of Italy. ...


Meanwhile the struggle with the council sitting at Basel broke out anew. Eugene IV at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on January 8, 1438, and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel. The result was that the Council of Basel suspended him on January 24, 1438, then formally deposed him as a heretic on June 25, 1439, and in the following November elected the ambitious Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1416–40), antipope under the title of Felix V (1439–39). The conduct of France and Germany seemed to warrant this action, for Charles VII of France (1422–61) had introduced the decrees of the council of Basel, with slight changes, into France through the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (July 7, 1438), and the Diet of Mainz had deprived the Pope of most of his rights in the Empire (March 26, 1439). Ferrara is a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway loses direct control of Sweden. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... A prelate is a member of the clergy who either has ordinary jurisdiction over a group of people or ranks in precedence with ordinaries. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the catholic or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Antipope Felix V, the last historical Antipope. ... Antipope Felix V, the last historical Antipope. ... Amadeus VIII (1383 - November 7, 1451), surnamed the Peaceful was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and the 1st Duke of Savoy from 1416 to 1440. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, issued by King Charles VII of France, on July 7, 1438, required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every ten years, required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical offices, prohibited the pope from bestowing, and profiting... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ...


At Florence, where the council of Ferrara had been transferred on account of an outbreak of the plague, was effected in July 1439 a union with the Eastern Orthodox Church, which, as the result of political necessities, proved but a temporary bolster to the papacy's prestige. The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ...


This union was followed by others of even less stability. Eugene IV signed an agreement with the Armenians on November 22, 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443, and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites. He did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to the crusade which set out in 1443, but which met with overwhelming defeat. November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


His rival, Felix V, meanwhile, obtained small recognition, and the latter's ablest adviser, the humanist Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, who was later to be Pope Pius II (1458–64), made peace with Eugene IV in 1442. The Pope's recognition of the claims to Naples of King Alfonso V of Aragon (1416–58) withdrew the last important support from the divided council of Basel, and enabled Eugene IV to make a victorious entry into Rome on the 28th of September 1443, after an exile of nearly ten years. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 until his death. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Naples panorama Naples (Italian Nàpoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ...


His protests against the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges were ineffectual, but by means of the Concordat of the Princes, negotiated by Piccolomini with the electors in February 1447, the whole of Germany declared against the antipope.


Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his deathbed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugene IV's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts on behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the dominant position it had held before the Great Schism (1378–1417). The Tikse monastery in Ladakh, India A monastery is the habitation of monks, derived from the Greek word for a hermits cell. ... Historical map of the Western Schism The Western Schism or Papal Schism (Also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. ...


Eugene IV was dignified in demeanour, but inexperienced and vacillating in action and excitable in temper. Bitter in his hatred of heresy, he nevertheless displayed great kindness to the poor. He laboured to reform the monastic orders, especially the Franciscan, and was never guilty of nepotism. Although austere in his private life, he was a sincere friend of art and learning, and in 1431 he re-established the university at Rome. Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the catholic or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Nepotism means favoring relatives or personal friends because of their relationship rather than because of their abilities. ... For other uses, see Art (disambiguation). ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ...


References

Preceded by:
Martin V
Pope
1431–47
Succeeded by:
Nicholas V

 
 

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