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Encyclopedia > Pope Clement XIV
Clement XIV
Birth name Giovanni Vincenzo
Antonio Ganganelli
Papacy began May 19, 1769
Papacy ended September 22, 1774
Predecessor Clement XIII
Successor Pius VI
Born October 31, 1705
Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, Romagna
Died September 22, 1774
Rome, Italy
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Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, 31 October 170522 September 1774 in Rome), was Pope from 1769 to 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. Image File history File links Scan of out-of-copyright image of Pope Clement XIV; pic from http://www. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Clement XIII, born Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 – Rome, February 2, 1769), was Pope from 1758 to 1769. ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


He received his education from the Jesuits at Rimini and the Piarists of Urbino, and in 1724, at the age of nineteen, entered the Order of Friars Minor of St. Francis. In 1741 he was made definitor generalis of the order (Catholic Encyclopedia). Ganganelli became a friend of Pope Benedict XIV (1740–58), and Pope Clement XIII (1758–69) appointed him a cardinal in 1759, at the insistence of Father Ricci, the General of the Jesuits. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Rimini Province. ... The Pauline Congregation of the Mother of God or short Piarists is name of a Catholic educational order, the clerici regulares scholarum piarum, the , founded by Joseph Calasanza (Josephus a Matre Dei) at Rome in the beginning of the 16th century. ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Categories: Ecclesiastical Titles ... Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 – May 3, 1758 in Rome), was Pope from 17 August 1740 to 3 May 1758. ... Clement XIII, born Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 – Rome, February 2, 1769), was Pope from 1758 to 1769. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Ganganelli was elected Pope Clement XIV on 19 May 1769, after a conclave that had been sitting since 15 February, 1769, heavily influenced by the political manoeuvres of the ambassadors of Catholic sovereigns who were opposed to the Jesuits. Some of the pressure was subtle: for an unprecedented impromptu visit to the conclave by Emperor Joseph II (1765–90) and his brother the Grand Duke of Tuscany, officially incognito, the seals were broken, the Austrians inspected the proceedings with great interest and brought with them a festive banquet (Pirie 1965 p 269). During the previous pontificate the Jesuits had been expelled from Portugal and from all the Bourbon courts: France, Spain, Naples, and Parma; now the general suppression of the order was urged by the faction called the "court cardinals", who were opposed by the diminished pro-Jesuit faction, the Zelanti ("zealous"), who were generally opposed to the encroaching secularism of the Enlightenment. May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Joseph II may refer to either: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434_1531 Cosimo de Medici 1434_1464 Piero I de Medici 1464-1469 (The Gouty) Lorenzo I de Medici 1469-1492 (The Magnificent) Giuliano de Medici 1469-1478 Piero II de Medici 1492-1494 Republic restored 1494-1512 Cardinal Giovanni de Medici 1512_1513 Lorenzo II de Medici... Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Bourbon biscuits ÃŽle Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution A class of old garden roses first raised on ÃŽle Bourbon and called Bourbon roses. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... ...


King Louis XV's (1715–74) minister, the duc de Choiseul, had former experience of Rome as French ambassador, and was Europe's most skilled diplomat. "When one has a favour to ask of a Pope", he wrote, "and one is determined to obtain it, one must ask for two." Choiseul's suggestion, advanced to the other ambassadors, was that they should press, in addition to the Jesuit issue, territorial claims upon the Patrimony of Peter: the cession of Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin to France; to Spain the duchies of Benevento and Pontecorvo; for Naples an extension of territory adjoining the Papal States; and for Austria an immediate and final settlement of the vexed question of Parma and Piacenza that had occasioned a diplomatic rift with Pope Clement XIII. Louis XV King of France and Navarre Louis XV (February 15, 1710 - May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was king of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul, French diplomat and statesman Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French statesman. ... View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear Palais des papes Square below the Palace of the Popes Paul Vs coat-of-arms on the Palais des papes The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... Benevento is a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 32 miles northeast of Naples. ... Pontecorvo may refer to: Flavio Lucio Pontecorvo, a Mexican engineer Bruno Pontecorvo, an Italian physicist; Pontecorvo, a town in Italy. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ...

Styles of
Pope Clement XIV
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none

Choiseul pressured the French court's representative at the conclave, Cardinal de Bernis, for a written agreement from any Pope regarding the suppression of the Jesuits. The cardinal, however, refused. In a memorandum to Choiseul, dated 12 April 1769, he said, "To require from the future pope a promise made in writing or before witnesses, to destroy the Jesuits, would be a flagrant violation of the canon law and therefore a blot on the honour of the crowns." France and Spain, which retained rights of veto, excluded 23 of the 47 cardinals; nine or ten more, on account of their age or for some other reason, were not papabili; only four or five remained eligible. The arrival of Cardinal Solis from Spain gave strength to the court party, and the official history of the Jesuits gives the text of a carefully-worded paper signed by Cardinal Ganganelli, of which no original has been found (Catholic Encyclopedia). In the final ballot, the only vote not cast for Cardinal Ganganelli was his own. Image File history File links Clemente_XIV.jpg http://www. ... Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu (S.I. or S.J.) in Latin) is a Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ...


Clement XIV's policies were calculated from the outset to smooth the breaches with the Catholic Crowns that had developed during the previous pontificate. The dispute between the temporal and the spiritual Catholic authorities was perceived as a threat by Church authority, and Clement XIV worked towards the reconciliation of the European sovereigns. The arguing and fighting among the monarchs seemed poised to lead Europe towards heavy international competition – a situation which would have resembled the European situation in the late nineteenth century. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By yielding the Papal claims to Parma, Clement XIV obtained the restitution of Avignon and Benevento, and in general he succeeded in placing the relations of the spiritual and the temporal authorities on a friendlier footing. The Pope went on to engage in the suppression of the Jesuits, the decree to this effect being written in November 1772, and signed in July 1773. Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


This measure, to late nineteenth century Catholics, had covered Clement XIV's memory with infamy in his church, and was also quite controversial, with the Catholic Encyclopedia (?) supporting Clement XIV's suppression of the Jesuits as "abundantly justified".


His work was hardly accomplished, before Clement XIV, whose usual constitution was quite vigorous, fell into a languishing sickness, generally attributed to poison. No conclusive evidence of poisoning was ever produced. The claims that the Pope was poisoned were denied by those closest to him, and as the Annual Register for 1774 stated, he was over 70 and had been in ill health for some time. 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Clement XIV expired on September 22, 1774, execrated by the Ultramontane party, but widely mourned by his subjects for his popular administration of the Papal States. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is beyond the Alps - generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ...


The Catholic Encyclopedia (or the 1876 Encyclopædia Britannica) opines that: The Catholic Encyclopedia (also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia today) is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still...

no Pope has better merited the title of a virtuous man, or has given a more perfect example of integrity, unselfishness, and aversion to nepotism. Notwithstanding his monastic education, he proved himself a statesman, a scholar, an amateur of physical science, and an accomplished man of the world. As Pope Leo X (1513–21) indicates, the manner in which the Papacy might have been reconciled with the Renaissance had the Reformation never taken place, so Ganganelli exemplifies the type of Pope which the modern world might have learned to accept if the movement towards free thought could, as Voltaire wished, have been confined to the aristocracy of intellect. In both cases the requisite condition was unattainable; neither in the 16th nor in the 18th century has it been practicable to set bounds to the spirit of inquiry otherwise than by fire and sword, and Ganganelli's successors have been driven into assuming a position analogous to that of Popes Paul IV (1555–59) and Pius V (1566–72) in the age of the Reformation. The estrangement between the secular and the spiritual authority which Ganganelli strove to avert is now irreparable, and his pontificate remains an exceptional episode in the general history of the Papacy, and a proof how little the logical sequence of events can be modified by the virtues and abilities of an individual.

Disagreeing with the Encyclopedia's assessment of Clement XIV, Cretineau-Joly wrote a critical history of the Pope's administration; agreeing with the Encyclopedia, Father Theiner, the custodian of the archives of the Vatican (at the time), claimed that numerous documents had vanished, apparently due to censorship by Clement XIV's enemies. Clement XIV's familiar correspondence has been frequently reprinted and was much admired for its elegance and urbanity by some Catholic authorities. Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475, Florence – 1 December 1521, Rome), Pope from 1513 to his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) first accused the Roman Catholic Church of... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Paul IV, né Giovanni Pietro Carafa (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Bold textHe was born as Antonio Ghislieri at Bosco in the duchy of Milan. ... Augustin Theiner (b. ...


See also: other Popes named Clement. There have been fourteen popes named Clement. ...


External links

Preceded by:
Clement XIII
Pope of the
Roman Catholic Church

1769–74
Succeeded by:
Pius VI

Clement XIII, born Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 – Rome, February 2, 1769), was Pope from 1758 to 1769. ... Popes buried in St. ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ...

References

  • Initial text from the 9th edition (1876) of the Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Valérie Pirie, 1965. The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves from the Fifteenth Century to Modern Times Spring Books, London

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Clement XIV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (848 words)
Ganganelli became a friend of Pope Benedict XIV (1740–58), and Pope Clement XIII (1758–69) appointed him a cardinal in 1759, at the insistence of Father Ricci, the General of the Jesuits.
By yielding the Papal claims to Parma, Clement XIV obtained the restitution of Avignon and Benevento, and in general he succeeded in placing the relations of the spiritual and the temporal authorities on a friendlier footing.
The Pope went on to engage in the suppression of the Jesuits, the decree to this effect being written in November 1772, and signed in July 1773.
Cultural Catholic - Pope Pius VI (624 words)
Pope Pius VI released some of the Jesuits who were imprisoned by Clement XIV in Catherine the Great's Russia, but he dared not do more because there was widespread disagreement with the Jesuits.
Pope Pius VI was deposed, made a prisoner in exile, and taken to Sienna, then to Florence, and despite Pope Pius VI's illness and frailty, the French pressed on to Turin, Grenoble, and finally Valence where Pope Pius VI died on August 29, 1799.
Pope Pius VI was initially buried in Valences, France but on February 17, 1802 his remains were transferred to Saint Peter’s Basilica where a statue by Canova of Pope Pius VI in a kneeling position was placed in 1822.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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