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Encyclopedia > Pope Clement XIII
Clement XIII
Birth name Carlo della Torre Rezzonico
Papacy began July 6, 1758
Papacy ended February 2, 1769
Predecessor Benedict XIV
Successor Clement XIV
Born March 7, 1693
Venice, Italy
Died February 2, 1769
Rome, Italy
{{{footnotes}}}

Clement XIII, born Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693Rome, February 2, 1769), was Pope from 1758 to 1769. Image File history File links Clement12. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 – Rome, May 3, 1758), was Pope from 1740 to 1758. ... Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (Sant Arcangelo di Romagna, 31 October 1705 – Rome, 22 September 1774), was Pope from 1769 to 1774. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church, which considers him the successor of St. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


He was born to a recently ennobled family of Venice, received a Jesuit education in Bologna and became a cardinal in 1737. Previously he had filled various important posts in the Curia and had been bishop of Padua since 1743. He became pope on July 6, 1758. In the same year the Rezzonico family were celebrating Ludovico Rezzonico's marriage into the powerful Savorgnan family. The son of the man who bought the uncompleted palace on the Grand Canal (now Ca' Rezzonico) and finished its construction, Carlo the pontiff was notorious for his rampant nepotism. It has been suggested that Brothers of the Society of Jesus be merged into this article or section. ... Bologna (pronounced , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Location within Italy Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua The city of Padua (Lat. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Ca Rezzonico is a palazzo on the Grand Canal in Venice. ... Nepotism means favoring relatives or personal friends because of their relationship rather than because of their abilities. ...


Notwithstanding the meekness and affability of his upright and moderate character, modest to a fault (he had the classical sculptures in the Vatican provided with mass-produced fig leaves) and generous with his extensive private fortune, Clement XIII's pontificate was disturbed by perpetual contentions respecting the pressures to suppress the Jesuits coming from the progressive Enlightenment circles of the philosophes in France. Clement XIII placed the Encyclopédie of D'Alembert and Diderot on the Index, an action that had been more effective in the previous century. More unexpected resistance came in the less progressive courts of Spain, the Two Sicilies, and Portugal. In 1758 the reforming minister of Joseph I of Portugal (1750–77), the Marquis of Pombal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal, and shipped them en masse to Civitavecchia, as a "gift for the Pope." In 1760, Pombal sent home the papal nuncio and recalled the Portuguese ambassador. The pamphlet titled the Brief Relation, which represented the Jesuits as having set up virtually an independent kingdom in South America under their own sovereignty, and of tyrannizing the Native Americans, all in the interest of an insatiable ambition and avarice, whether or not it was completely true, was damaging to the Jesuit cause. Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla - Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... The Philosophes (French for Philosophers) were a group of French thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... Fig. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de la Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Roman Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and its members. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph I (Portuguese José), the Reformer (Port. ... The Marquis of Pombal, or Marquês de Pombal, (13 May 1699 - 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese politician and statesman, prime minister of king Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. ... Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio, a sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, 50 miles WNW of Rome, 42°06N 11°47E. According to the 2003 census, its population was 50,100. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European explorers in the 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ...


In France, the Parlement de Paris, with its strong upper bourgeois background and Jansenist sympathies, opened the pressure to expel the Jesuits from France in the spring of 1761, and the published excerpts from Jesuit writings, the Extrait des assertions, taken out of context perhaps, certainly provided anti-Jesuit ammunition. Though a congregation of bishops assembled at Paris in December 1761 recommended no action, Louis XV of France (1715–74) promulgated a royal order permitting the Society to remain in the kingdom, with the proviso that certain essentially liberalizing changes in their institution satisfy the Parlement with a French Jesuit vicar-general who should be independent of the general in Rome. To the arrét of August 2, 1762, by which the Parlement suppressed the Jesuits in France, imposing untenable conditions on any wishing to remain in the country, Clement XIII replied by a protest against the invasion of the Church's rights, and annulled the arréts. Louis XV's ministers could not permit such an abrogation of French law, and the King finally expelled the Jesuits in November 1764. Parlements in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Jansenism was a branch of Christian philosophy founded by Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), a Flemish theologian. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Louis XV (February 16, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the well-beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Styles of
Pope Clement XIII
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none

Clement XIII warmly espoused the order in a papal bull Apostolicum pascendi, January 7, 1765, which dismissed criticisms of the Jesuits as calumnies and praised the order's usefulness; it was largely ignored: by 1768 the Jesuits had been expelled from France, the Two Sicilies and Parma. In Spain, they appeared to be safe, but Charles III of Spain (1759–88), aware of the drawn-out contentions in Bourbon France, decided on a more peremptory efficiency. During the night of April 2–3, 1767, all the Jesuit houses of Spain were suddenly surrounded, the inhabitants arrested, shipped to the ports in the clothes they were wearing and bundled onto ships for Civitavecchia. The King's letter to Clement XIII promised that his allowance of 100 piastres each year would be withdrawn for the whole order, should any one of them venture at any time to write anything in self-defence or in criticism of the motives for the expulsion, motives that he refused to discuss, then or in the future. Image File history File links Clemente_XIII.jpg http://www. ... Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the office itself. ... His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio, a sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, 50 miles WNW of Rome, 42°06N 11°47E. According to the 2003 census, its population was 50,100. ...


Much the same fate awaited them in the territories of the Bourbon Duke of Parma and Piacenza, advised by the liberal minister Guillaume du Tillot. In 1768 Clement XIII issued a strong protest (Munitium) against the policy of the Parmese government. The question of the investiture of Parma aggravated the Pope's troubles. The Bourbon Kings espoused their relative's quarrel, seized Avignon, Benevento and Ponte Corvo, and united in a peremptory demand for the total suppression of the Jesuits (January 1769). Driven to extremes, Clement XIII consented to call a consistory to consider the step, but on the very eve of the day set for its meeting he died (February 2, 1769), not without suspicion of poison, of which, however, there appears to be no conclusive evidence. 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... INVESTITURE, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in his public office, especially by talking possession of its insignia. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear Palais des papes Square below the Palace of the Popes Paul Vs coat-of-arms on the Palais des papes The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near... Benevento is a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 32 miles northeast of Naples. ... Pontecorvo is a town in Latium, Italy. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // Antiquity Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (from which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ...


From the Annual Register, for 1758: Pope Clement XIII was "the honestest man in the world; a most exemplary ecclesiastic; of the purest morals; devout, steady, learned, diligent..." 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


See also: other Popes named Clement. There have been fourteen popes named Clement. ...


External link and reference

  • Papal State and papacy, 1758–89

References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.
Preceded by:
Benedict XIV
Pope
1758–69
Succeeded by:
Clement XIV

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Clement XIV (4356 words)
At the death of Clement XIII the Church was in dire distress.
Without revoking the constitution of Clement XIII against he young Duke of Parma's inroads on the rights of the Church, he refrained from urging its execution, and graciously granted him a dispensation to marry his cousin, the Archduchess Amelia, daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.
Clement XIII had hoped to silence their enemies by renewing the approbation of their Institute, "but the Holy See derived no consolation, the Society no help, Christianity no advantage from the Apostolic letters of Clement XIII, of blessed memory, letters which were wrung from him rather than freely given".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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