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Encyclopedia > Pope Clement X
Clement X
Image:Clement_X.jpg
Birth name Emilio Bonaventura Altieri
Papacy began April 29, 1670
Papacy ended July 22, 1676
Predecessor Clement IX
Successor Innocent XI
Born July 13, 1590
Rome, Italy
Died July 22, 1676
Rome, Italy

Pope Clement X (July 13, 1590July 22, 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from April 29, 1670 to July 22, 1676. Image File history File links Clement_X.JPG H.H. Pope Clement X File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Clement IX, né Giulio Rospigliosi (January 28, 1600 - December 9, 1669) was pope from 1667 to 1669. ... The Blessed Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 – August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... This article is about the capital of Italy. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... This article is about the capital of Italy. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...

Contents


Early life

Emilio Altieri was born in Rome, the son of Lorenzo Altieri and Victoria Deiphini, a Venetian lady. The Altieri family belonged to the ancient Roman nobility and had enjoyed the highest consideration at Rome for several centuries; they had occasionally contracted alliances with the Colonnas and the Orsinis. During earlier pontificates, Altieri held many important offices and had been entrusted with several delicate missions. Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia), nicknamed the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... The Orsini family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying three popes and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals, the Colonna family, for influence. ...


Early work

After finishing his studies, Altieri was named auditor of John Baptist Lancellotti in 1623, in the nunciature of Poland. On his return to Rome, he was named Bishop of Camerino, then governor of Loreto and of all Umbria. Pope Urban VIII (1623–44) gave him charge of the works designed to protect the territory of Ravenna from the unruly Po River. From the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ... Camerino is small town of 7 000 in Marche, Italy and lies on the Apennines between Marche and Umbria, between the valleys of the rivers Potenza and Chienti. ... Loreto is a hilltown and comune of the Italian province of Ancona, in the Marche. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Urban VIII, né Maffeo Barberini (April 1568 – July 29, 1644) was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pissed off (often used as a verb or adjective, as in POed or POed) Platforma...


Pope Innocent X (1644–55) sent him as nuncio to Naples, where he remained for eight years. He is credited with the re-establishment of peace after the stormy days of Masaniello. Pope Alexander VII (1655–67) confided to him a mission to Poland. Innocent X, born Giovanni Battista Pamphili (May 6, 1574 – January 7, 1655) was Pope from 1644 to 1655. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Masaniello, an abbreviation of Tommaso Aniello (1622 - July 16, 1647), was an Amalfi fisherman, who became leader of the revolt against Spanish rule in Naples in 1647. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ...


Pope Clement IX (1667–69) named him Superintendent of the Papal Exchequer (in charge of the Church's finances), and in 1667 his maestro di camera, and he was made Secretary of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars. Just before his death, Clement IX made him a Cardinal. He was then about seventy-nine years of age; and Clement IX, when making him a member of the Sacred College, said to him: "You will be our successor." Clement IX, né Giulio Rospigliosi (January 28, 1600 - December 9, 1669) was pope from 1667 to 1669. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


After the funeral of Pope Clement IX sixty-two electors entered into conclave on the December 20, 1669. Forty-two votes were necessary, and heated discussion prevailed for four months; Cardinal Giovanni Nicholas Conti was supported by twenty-two votes; Cardinal Rospigliosi, nephew of the late Pope, had thirty, or, as some say, thirty-three, with two at the accesso, so that he needed only seven more votes to gain the tiara. Cardinal Cerri obtained twenty-three votes. Clement IX, né Giulio Rospigliosi (January 28, 1600 - December 9, 1669) was pope from 1667 to 1669. ... con·clave (knklv, kng-) n. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... 16th century Papal Tiara, the oldest surviving tiara in the papal collection. ...


At length the cardinals agreed to resort to the old expedient of electing a cardinal of advanced years, and proposed Cardinal Altieri, an octogenarian, whose long life had been spent in the service of the Church, and whom Clement IX, on the eve of his death, had raised to the dignity of the purple. The reason a prelate of such transcendent merits received the cardinalate so late in life seems to have been that he had waived his claims to the elevation in favour of an older brother. A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pontificate

Styles of
Pope Clement X
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none

On April 29, 1670, the papacy was offered to him by fifty-nine Cardinals present at the election; only two being against him. He, however, objected because of his age, for he was eighty, and exclaimed, "I am too old to bear such a burden." Pointing to Cardinal Brancacci, Altieri said he was the Cardinal whom they ought to elect. He persisted in refusing, protesting that he no longer had strength or memory; but he was crowned on May 11. He was dragged from his bed screaming "I don't want to be the Pope!!!" with tears he accepted, and out of gratitude to his benefactor, by ten years his junior, he assumed the name of Clement X. Image File history File links Clemente_X.jpg http://www. ... Image File history File links Vatican_coa2. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius XII, in coronation robes and wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ...


All but one of the male scions of the Altieri family had chosen the ecclesiastical career. On his accession to the papacy, Clement X, in order to save the Altieri name from extinction, adopted the Paluzzi family, and proposed that one of the Paluzzi should marry Laura Caterina Altieri, the sole heiress of the family. In exchange for adopting the Altieri surname he would make one of the Paluzzi a Cardinal. Following the wedding, which he officiated, he appointed his relative by marriage Cardinal Paluzzi-Altieri, the uncle of Laura's new husband, to the Office of Cardinal Nephew to take on the duties which he was prevented from doing by age. The main activity was to invest the Church's money, and with advancing years gradually entrusted to him the management of affairs, to such an extent that the Romans said he had reserved to himself only the episcopal functions of benedicere et sanctificare, resigning in favour of the Cardinal the administrative duties of regere et gubernare.


On the 8th of June Clement X took possession of St. John Lateran. On 11 June, he confirmed the Minor Observantines in the Holy Land in the privileges and indulgences granted to those who visit the holy places, according to the decree of Popes Alexander VII and Clement IX. In the same month he granted to the prelate-clerks of the chamber the use of the violet-colored band around their hats. Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreá¹£ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 - May 22, 1667) was pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... Categories: Christianity-related stubs | 1600 births | 1669 deaths | Popes ...


Like all the pontiffs, Clement X advised the Christian princes to love each other, and to prove it by an entire confidence, by generous measures, and by a prudent and scrupulous conduct. It was especially between Spain and France that the pope desired to witness a renewal of feelings of good understanding.


In 1671, the Pope published an edict by which he declared that a noble might be a merchant without loss of his nobility, provided always that he did not sell by retail". Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ...


Sanctifications

On April 12, 1671, Clement X canonized five new saints: April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...

Clement X confirmed the exemptions granted by Pope Gregory XIII (1572–85) to the German College at Rome in 1671; and then, on October 16, 1672, he ordered the pupils to swear that at the close of their studies they would set out for Germany without a day's delay. Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; died at Naples in 1547. ... The Theatines were a male religious order of the Catholic Church. ... Francis Borgia was born near Valencia, Spain, on October 28, 1510. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan, Spanish, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th in Spain  32 114 km²  6,3% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 2nd in Spain  6 995 206  15,9%  217,82/km² GDP Total (2004) GDP: €157,124 billion GDP per /capita: $26,550... 1510 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Superior General of the Society of Jesus. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... The Servite Friars or Servants of Mary are one of the five original mendicant orders. ... Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (Florence, 11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521, Rome), Pope from 1513 to his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) first accused the Roman Catholic Church of... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Saint Vincent Ferrer, (In Valencian Sant Vicent Ferrer) (23 January 1350 – April 5, 1419) was a Valencian Dominican missionary; born in Valencia, Kingdom of Valencia (modern day Spain). ... Saint Rose of Lima, (20 April 1586 - 30 August 1617), the first Catholic saint of The Americas, was born in Lima, Peru. ... St. ... Lima is the capital and largest city in Peru, as well as the capital of Lima Province. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Categories: Christianity-related stubs | 1600 births | 1669 deaths | Popes ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ...


On January 13, 1672, Clement X regulated the formalities to be observed in removing the relics of saints from sacred cemeteries. No one was to remove such relics without the permission of the cardinal-vicar. They were not to be exposed for the veneration of the faithful, unless previously examined by the same cardinal. The principal relics of the martyr–that is to say, the head, the legs, the arms, and the part in which they suffered–were to be exposed only in the churches, and they were not to be given to private persons, but only to princes and high prelates; and even to them but rarely, lest the too great profusion should deprive relics of the respect which they ought to inspire. The Holy Father decreed severe penalties against all who gave a relic any name but that given by the cardinal-vicar. The pain of excommunication was pronounced against all who should demand any sum whatever for sealed and authentic relics. These decrees, and others made by preceding Popes, were confirmed by Pope Clement XI (1700–21) in 1704. He beatified Pope Pius V (1566–72), Francis Solano, and John of the Cross, all subsequently canonized by Clement XI and Pope Benedict XIII (1724–30). January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Cardinal Vicar is the title of the the vicar general of the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, known in Latin as Vicarius Urbis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 – March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed, via Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor; b. ... Saint John of the Cross (Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the Catholic Reformation, a Spanish mystic and Carmelite friar born at Fontiveros, a small village near Ávila. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... For Pedro de Luna, the last of the Avignon popes, see Antipope Benedict XIII. Benedict XIII, O.P., born Pietro Francesco Orsini, later Vincenzo Maria Orsini (Gravina di Puglia, February 2, 1649 – February 21, 1730), was pope from 1724 to 1730. ...


Clement X, on the 24th of November, 1673, beatified nineteen martyrs of Gorcum, taken prisoner at Gorcum, the Netherlands, and put to death in Brielle on the 9th of July, 1572, in hatred of the Catholic faith, the primacy of the Pope, the Roman Church, and the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist. Of the nineteen Gorcum martyrs, eleven were Franciscan priests; Peter Ascanius and Cornelius Vican, laymen; one Dominican, two Premonstratensian monks, a regular canon of Saint Augustine, and four secular parish priests. Dalem Gate Gorinchem (population: 34,623 in 2004), also called Gorkum, is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Brielle, also called Den Briel, (population: 15,948 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Norbertines also known as the Premonstratensians and in England, the White Canons (from the color of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430) was one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. ...


Fernando III called El Santo (the Saint), (1198/1199 – May 30, 1252) was a king of Castile (1217 - 1252) and Leon (1230 - 1252). He was the son of Alfonso IX and Berenguela of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII. In 1231 he united Castile and Leon permanently. Fernando was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.


Foreign Affairs

Clement X, seeing the results of the apostolic labors of the early French missionaries in Canada, the number of the faithful, and the wide field of labor, resolved to give the Church an independent organization, and erected a see at Quebec, the bishop to depend directly on the Holy See–a provision which, in the designs of Providence, secured its permanence after the country passed into the hands of England. The first bishop was Monsignor Laval de Montmorency. A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower White garden lily Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 1,183... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Monsignor is an ecclesiastical honorific used by certain priests and bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In 1673, there arrived at Rome ambassadors from the Grand Duke of Muscovy, John Basilowitz. He solicited from the Pope the title of Czar, which, however, he had already conferred upon himself. At the same time it could not be forgotten that he gave strong financial aid to King John Sobieski of Poland in their fight against the Turkish invaders. But Paul Nanes, a Scotsman, who was the ambassador, could not obtain the grant or sanction of that title, though he was received with great magnificence and had many precious gifts to carry back to his master. The Grand Duke of Muscovy did not profess the Catholic faith in such a manner as to give any assurance of his intentions, and the King of Poland had looked upon the embassy with displeasure. Events January 22 - Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged in Newgate prison in England for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation March 18 - John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton sells his part of New Jersey to the Quakers. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie Casimire Louise Children...


Fernando was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.


Local Administration

Meantime Rome had reason to fear trouble. Cardinal Altieri, who was at the head of the government, determined to increase the revenues, and he established a new tax of three percent upon all merchandise entering the city, including even goods for cardinals and ambassadors. Although the government complained that ambassadors had abused their privilege, the diplomatic corps showed discontent that they were not expressly exempted in the new tax law.


Another edict confirmed the first, and ordered the confiscation without distinction of all goods that did not pay the new tax. The cardinals at first complained, though with moderation. But the ambassadors didn't speak Clement X's language.


The Cardinal nephew maintained that Clement X, within his own State, might make what rules he pleased. Then the ambassadors of the empire, of France, Spain, and Venice, sent their secretaries to demand an audience of the Pope. The chief chamberlain replied that the Pope was engaged that day. And for four days in succession the chamberlain gave the same answer to the same applicants. Clement X, learning at length what had occurred, declared that he had given no such order. The ambassadors then sent their secretaries to ask an audience of Cardinal Altieri. He not only refused to admit them, but closed his doors and increased the guard at the pontifical palace, so that the offence could go no further. Subsequently the Cardinal nephew wrote to the nuncios who resided in the courts of Europe, stating that the excesses committed by the ambassadors had induced the pope to publish the edict. The ambassadors, on the contrary, assured their sovereigns that the accusation was a pretext. Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia), nicknamed the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ...


The conflict lasted for more than a year; and Clement X, who loved peace, at length referred the matter to a congregation. Some time after, Cardinal Altieri declared that he had not intended to comprise the ambassadors among those for whom the edict was intended, and that the pope had never contemplated subjecting them to it.


Jubilee

In the year 1675 Clement X celebrated the fourteenth jubilee of the holy year. Notwithstanding his age, he visited the churches, regretting that the gout prevented him from making that holy visit more than five times. He went twelve times to Trinity hospital to wash the feet of the pilgrims, and after the ceremony gave them liberal alms. Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ...


However, Rome made some complaints, and said that, though Clement X was Pope in name, Cardinal Altieri was Pope in fact.


Death

On the 22nd of July, 1676, the agonies of the gout became so violent that Clement X died under them. He was eighty-six years old, and had governed the Church six years, two months, and twenty-four days. He is interred at the St. Agnes at the Circus Agonalis in Rome.


Other accomplishments

He laboured to preserve the peace of Europe even though he was menaced by the ambition of Louis XIV of France (1643–1715), an imperious monarch over ecclesiastical matters (the struggle concerned the régale, or revenues of vacant dioceses and abbeys, which resulted in continued tension with France). He decorated the bridge of Sant'Angelo with the ten statues of angels in Carrara marble still to be seen there. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715), reigned as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death at the age of 77. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... An abbey (from the Latin abbatia, which is derived from the Syriac abba, father), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serve as the spiritual father or mother of the community. ...


To Pope Clement X we owe the two beautiful fountains which adorn the Piazza of St. Peter's church near the tribune, where a monument has been erected to his memory.


External links

  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Clement X (source of much of the above text)
  • Churches of Rome: S Agnese in Agone: (source of the interment information)
Preceded by:
Clement IX
Pope
1670–76
Succeeded by:
Innocent XI

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Clement X: Information from Answers.com (2117 words)
Pope Clement IX (1667–69) named him Superintendent of the Papal Exchequer (in charge of the Church's finances), and in 1667 his maestro di camera, and he was made Secretary of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars.
On January 13, 1672, Clement X regulated the formalities to be observed in removing the relics of saints from sacred cemeteries.
Clement X, on the 24th of November, 1673, beatified nineteen martyrs of Gorcum, taken prisoner at Gorcum, the Netherlands, and put to death in Brielle on the 9th of July, 1572, in hatred of the Catholic faith, the primacy of the Pope, the Roman Church, and the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist.
Pope Clement VI (179 words)
Clement VI, pope (1342-1352), (Pierre Roger, archbishop of Rouen, France), the fourth of the Avignon popes, was elected in May 1342.
The money was never paid, but Clement may have deemed that he gave the queen a full equivalent by absolving her from the murder of her husband.
The other chief incidents of his pontificate were his disputes with Edward III of England on account of the latter's encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction, his excommunication of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria, his negotiations for reunion with the Eastern Church, and the commencement of Cola di Rienzi's agitation at Rome.
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