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Encyclopedia > Pope Clement VIII
Clement VIII
Birth name Ippolito Aldobrandini
Papacy began January 30, 1592
Papacy ended March 3, 1605
Predecessor Innocent IX
Successor Leo XI
Born February 24, 1536
Fano, Italy
Died March 3, 1605 (age 69)
Rome, Italy
Other popes named Clement

Pope Clement VIII (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536March 3, 1605 in Rome), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. Image File history File links Clem8. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pope Innocent IX (July 20, 1519 – December 30, 1591), born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous comune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV (1590... Leo XI, né Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (June 2, 1535, Florence – April 27, 1605, Rome), was Pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Country Italy Region Marche Province Pesaro e Urbino (PU) Mayor Stefano Aguzzi (since June 2004) Elevation 12 m Area 121 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 61,675  - Density 512/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fanesi Dialing code 0721 Postal code 61032 Frazioni Bellocchi, Camminate... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... There have been fourteen popes named Clement. ... Country Italy Region Marche Province Pesaro e Urbino (PU) Mayor Stefano Aguzzi (since June 2004) Elevation 12 m Area 121 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 61,675  - Density 512/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fanesi Dialing code 0721 Postal code 61032 Frazioni Bellocchi, Camminate... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ...

Contents

Early life and education

Born at Fano to a distinguished Florentine family, he studied law under his father, an able jurist; his ecclesiastical career was as a lawyer: consistorial advocate, auditor of the Rota and the Datary. Country Italy Region Marche Province Pesaro e Urbino (PU) Mayor Stefano Aguzzi (since June 2004) Elevation 12 m Area 121 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 61,675  - Density 512/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fanesi Dialing code 0721 Postal code 61032 Frazioni Bellocchi, Camminate... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...

Pope Clement VIII in pietre dure by Jacopo Ligozzi

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pope Clement VIII in pietre dure designed by Jacopo Ligozzi, executed by Romolo di Francesco Ferrucci del Tadda Pietre dure is the art-historical term for the technique of using small, exquisitely cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create what amounts to a painting in stone. ... Jacopo Ligozzi, 1547-1627, born in Verona, the son of the artist Giovanni Ermanno Ligozzi, was part of a clan of painters and artisans. ...

Cardinal

He was made a cardinal 1585 and sent him as legato in Poland. He placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, who for thirty years was his confessor. Aldobrandini won the gratitude of the Habsburgs by his successful diplomatic efforts in Poland to obtain the release of the imprisoned Archduke Maximilian, the defeated claimant to the Polish throne. S. Filippo Neri Philip Romolo Neri (Filippo de Neri; called, Apostle of Rome), (July 21, 1515 - May 26, 1595), was an Italian churchman, noted for founding a society of secular priests called the Congregation of the Oratory. He was was born at Florence, the youngest child of Francesco Neri, a... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Papacy

Election

After the death of Pope Innocent IX (1591), another stormy conclave ensued, where a determined minority of Italian Cardinals were unwilling to be dictated *to by Philip II of Spain (1556–98). Cardinal Aldobrandini's election on January 30, 1592, was received as a portent of more balanced and liberal Papal policy in European affairs. He took the non-politicized name Clement VIII. He proved to be an able Pope, with an unlimited capacity for work and a lawyer's eye for detail, and a wise statesman, the general object of whose policy was to free the Papacy from its dependence upon Spain. Pope Innocent IX (July 20, 1519 – December 30, 1591), born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous comune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV (1590... con·clave (knklv, kng-) n. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, King... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ...


Jubilee of 1600

During the jubilee of 1600, three million pilgrims visited the holy places. The Synod of Brest was held 1595 in Lithuania, by which a great part of the Ruthenian clergy and people were reunited to Rome. The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Clement VIII presided at the conferences to determine the questions of grace and free will, controverted between the Jesuits and Dominicans, were commenced under him, but he wisely abstained from pronouncing a decision. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, divine grace... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

On February 17, 1600, Giordano Bruno, a strong believer of free will, was burned alive due to Clement VIII's approving of a guilty verdict against Bruno. Image File history File links Clemente_VIII.jpg http://www. ... Giordano Bruno. ...


Canonizations and Beatifications

Clement VIII canonized Hyacinth (17 April 1594) and Raymond of Peñafort (1601). This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Saint Hyacinth For the 3rd century martyr, see Hyacinth and Protus. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... 02:41, 25 November 2006 (UTC)24. ...


Foreign relations

Reconciliation with France

The most remarkable event of Clement VIII's reign was the reconciliation to the Church of Henry IV of France (1589–1610), after long negotiations, carried on with great dexterity through Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat, that resolved the complicated situation in France. Henry embraced Catholicism on July 25, 1593. After a pause to assess Henry IV's sincerity, Clement VIII braved Spanish displeasure, and in the autumn of 1595 he solemnly absolved Henry IV, thus putting an end to the thirty years' religious war in France and winning a powerful ally. Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Arnaud dOssat (July 20, 1537 — March 13, 1604) was a French diplomat and writer, and a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, whose personal tact and diplomatic skill steered the perilous course of French diplomacy with the Papacy in the reign of Henri IV of France. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ...


Expansion of the Papal States

Henry IV's friendship was of essential importance to the Papacy two years later, when Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, died childless (October 27, 1597), and the Pope resolved to attach the stronghold of the Este family to the states of the Church. Though Spain and the Empire encouraged Alfonso II's illegitimate cousin, Cesare d'Este, to withstand the Pope, they were deterred from giving him any material aid by Henry IV's threats, and a papal army entered Ferrara almost unopposed. Alfonso II dEste. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ... Ercole I dEste was one of the most important patrons of arts in the Italian Renaissance. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Cesare dEste in 1552 Cesare dEste (1561 - December 11, 1628) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1597 until his death. ...


Peace of Vervins

In 1598 Clement VIII won more credit for the papacy by bringing about a definite treaty of peace between Spain and France in the Peace of Vervins which put an end to their long contest, and he negotiated peace between France and Savoy as well. He also lent valuable assistance in men and money to the Emperor in his contest with the Turks in Hungary. The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2 1598. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...


Law enforcement

Clement VIII was as merciless as Pope Sixtus V (1585–90) in crushing brigandage in central Italy and in punishing the lawlessness of the Roman nobility. He did not even spare the youthful parricide Beatrice Cenci, who was to become a popular heroine adapted in literature by Stendhal and Giorgio Moravia. In 1600 Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in the Campo de' Fiori. The year before, the miller Menocchio, who had created a cosmology all by himself, holding that all life evolved like rotten cheese, was also put to the stake. Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... The portrait associated with Beatrice Cenci attributed to Guido Reni that Shelley saw in Palazzo Colonna in 1818, sparking his interest Beatrice Cenci (February 6, 1577–August 22, 1599) was an Italian noblewoman. ... Stendhal. ... Giordano Bruno. ... A view of Campo de Fiori with the monument to Giordano Bruno in the centre Campo de Fiori is a square in Rome, on the edge of rione Parione. ... The Friulian miller Menocchio, also known as Domenico Scandella, was born in 1532. ...


Anti-Semitism

Clement VIII was also openly anti-semitic, making the usual link of Jews and usury:

"All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. They have brought many unfortunate people into a state of poverty, especially the farmers, working class people and the very poor. Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."[citation needed]

Clement VIII's approach towards the Jews had more specific targets. In Cum saepe accidere (February 28, 1592) he forbid the long-established Jewish community of the papal enclave of Avignon to sell new goods, putting them at a disadvantage and fostering the cliché of the Jew as a dealer in secondhand goods. With Caeca et obdurata (February 25, 1593) he confirmed the bull of Pope Paul III (1534–49) that established a ghetto for the ancient community of Jews in Rome, and reiterated the ban on Jews, who had otherwise been formally expelled from the Papal States by Pope Pius V (1566–72) (in Hebraeorum gens, February 26, 1569) dwelling outside of the ghettos of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon, thus ensuring that they remained city-dwellers. Beyond Papal reach, east of Poland, by contrast, farming communities of Jews remained a familiar feature of the landscape. With Cum Haebraeorum malitia a few days later (February 28) he even forbade the reading of the Talmud [1]. It is alleged that Clement VIII's reference to the "blind (Latin: caeca) obstinacy" of the Jews gave rise to the religious slur "kike", though many etymologies dispute this. City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Look up Kike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Later life and death

Clement VIII was affected by gout, and was forced to spend much of his later life immobilized at bed. He died in March of 1605, leaving a high character for prudence, munificence, and capacity for business. His reign is especially distinguished by the number and beauty of his medals, and especially tarnished by his role in the brutal execution of Giordano Bruno, one of the great minds of his time. Clement was buried in St. Peter's Basilica, and later Pope Paul V (1605–21) had a mausoleum built for him in the Borghese Chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore, where the remains were transferred in 1646. This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ...


Clement VIII founded the Collegio Clementino for the education of the sons of the richer classes, and augmented the number of national colleges in Rome by opening the Collegio Scozzese for the training of missionaries to Scotland. The Collegio Clementino, sited between the Strada delOrso and the banks of the Tiber in Rome, was founded by Pope Clement VIII in 1595, to to host Slavonian refugees, but it was a stylish venue from the outset. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II...


Trivia

Coffee aficionados claim that the spread of its popularity is due to Pope Clement VIII's influence. Being pressured by his advisers to declare coffee the "bitter invention of Satan" because of its popularity among Muslims, he instead declared that, "This devil's drink is so good... we should cheat the devil by baptizing it." It is not clear whether this is a true story. A cup of coffee Workers sorting and pulping coffee beans in Guatemala Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds — commonly referred to as beans — of the coffee plant. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


External links

  • "Pope Clement VIII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Mons. Jouin, "The Holy See and the Jews", from Révue International des Societés, 1918
Preceded by
Innocent IX
Pope
1592–1605
Succeeded by
Leo XI


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