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Encyclopedia > Pope Callixtus II
Calixtus Millionth
Birth name Guido of Vienne
Papacy began February 2, 1119
Papacy ended December 13, 1124
Predecessor Gelasius II
Successor Honorius II
Born  ???
???
Died December 13, 1124
???
{{{footnotes}}}

Callixtus II (or Calistus II), born Guido of Vienne (died December 13, 1124), the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 2, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms, 1122. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (432x721, 195 KB) Pope Calixtus II. From: from the Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus of Ebulo, 1196 File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Callixtus II ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Gelasius II, né Giovanni Coniulo (d. ... Pope Honorius II should not be confused with Antipope Honorius II, otherwise known as Peter Cadalus. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... William I, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 William married Etienette de Longwy and had several children, among them: Renaud II, Count of Burgundy (born 1061, died 1105) Stephen I, Count of Macon (born 1065, died 1102) William of Vienne, Pope Callixtus II (died 1124) Gisele, (born 1075... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Gelasius II, né Giovanni Coniulo (d. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... The Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near Worms. ...


He was a member of the highest aristocracy. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II of Savoy (1080–1103) and then Renier I of Montferrat; another, Maud to Eudes I of Burgundy (1079–1103). His brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of Castille. His brother Hugh had been appointed Archbishop of Besançon. With the name of Humbert II of Savoy are known two famous members of the Savoy dynasty. ... Renier I of Montferrat (1084-c. ... Eudes I of Burgundy (1058– 23 Mar. ... Raymond of Burgundy (Spanish and Portuguese: Raimundo) was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy and was Count of Amous. ... Urraca of Castile (1082 - March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. ... Location within France Besançon is a French city in the département of Doubs, of which it is the préfecture. ...

Main article: Investiture Controversy.

In 1088, he became the Archbishop of Vienne. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate in France by Pope Paschal II (1099–1118) during the time that Paschal II, yielding to pressure from Emperor Henry V (1105–25), was induced to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Gregorian Reforms. Guido, with kin both in Burgundy and the Franche Comté, that is within the Emperor's jurisdiction and bordering it, led the pro-Papal opposition at the synod called at the Lateran in 1112; on his return to France he immediately convoked an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical, and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V, on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for confirmation, which they received, in general terms, for Paschal II had proved loath to take this step, October 20, 1112. Guido was apparently made cardinal by Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118. The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Events Succession of Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Work begins on the third and largest church at Cluny Rebellion of 1088 against William II of England lead by Odo of Bayeux. ... Vienne is a commune of France, located 30 km south of Lyon, on the Rhône River. ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ... Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 – May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. ... Gregory VII, born Hildebrand (c. ... Gregorian Reform is generally considered named after Pope Gregory VII(1073-1085), who personally denied this, and claimed it was named after Gregory the Great. ... Capital Besançon Land area¹ 16,202 km² Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ...


During the violent confrontations between Henry V and Paschal II's successor, Pope Gelasius II, the Pope was forced to flee from Rome, first to Gaeta, where he was crowned, then to the Abbey of Cluny, where he died, January 29, 1119. Within four days Guido was elected Pope and was crowned at Vienne as Calixtus II. At the outset it appeared that the new Pope was willing to negotiate with Henry V, who received the papal embassy at Strasburg, and withdrew his support from the antipope he had proclaimed at Rome. It was agreed that pope and emperor should meet at the château de Mousson, near Reims, and in October he opened the council at Reims attended by Louis VI of France (1108–37), with most of the barons of France and more than four hundred bishops and abbots. Henry V arrived for his personal conference at Mousson — not alone, as had been anticipated, but with an army of over thirty thousand men. Calixtus II, fearing that force was likely to be used at Mousson to extract from him prejudicial concessions, remained at Reims. There, while Calixtus II busied himself ineffectively with attempting a reconciliation between the brothers Henry I of England (1100–35) and Robert II, Duke of Normandy (1087–1106), and after the council had busied itself with disciplinary regulations and decrees against lay investiture, simony, and clerical concubines, there being no compromise coming from Henry V, it was determined that the Emperor and his antipope should be solemnly excommunicated, 30 October 1119. Gelasius II, né Giovanni Coniulo (d. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, William I, who placed it under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... Location within France Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was king of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Henry I of England (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Simony is the ecclesiastical crime and personal sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:18-24. ...


Returning to Italy, where antipope Gregory VIII (1118–21) was supported in Rome by imperial forces and Italian allies of the emperor, Calixtus II managed to gain the upper hand amid clear popular demonstrations and the Imperial candidate was obliged to flee to the fortress of Sutri, where he was taken prisoner through the intervention of Norman support from the Kingdom of Naples where he was transferred from prison to prison and died at a stronghold near Salerno. The imperial allies in Rome soon disbanded. Gregory VIII (d. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The coat of arms of Pope Calixtus II
The coat of arms of Pope Calixtus II
Main article: Concordat of Worms.

Having established his power in Italy, he resolved to reopen negotiations with Henry V on the question of investiture. Henry V was anxious to put an end to a controversy which had reduced imperial authority in Germany — terminally so, as it appeared in the long run. An embassy of three cardinals was sent by Calixtus II to Germany, and negotiations for a permanent settlement of the investiture struggle were begun in October 1121 at Würzburg where it was agreed that a general truce should be proclaimed in Germany; that the Church should have free use of its possessions; that the lands of those in rebellion should be restored. These decrees were communicated to Calixtus II, who despatched a legate to assist at the synod that had been convoked at Worms, where, on 23 September 1122, the concordat known as the Concordat of Worms was concluded. On his side the emperor abandoned his claim to investiture with ring and crosier and granted freedom of election to episcopal sees; on the other hand, it was conceded that the bishops should receive investiture with the sceptre, that the episcopal elections should be held in the presence of the Emperor or his representatives, that in case of disputed elections the emperor should, after the decision of the metropolitan and the suffragan bishops, confirm the rightfully elected candidate, and lastly, that the imperial investiture of the temporal properties connected to the sees should take place in Germany before the consecration, in Burgundy and in Italy after this ceremony, while in the Papal States the pope alone had the right of investiture, without any interference on the part of the Emperor. As a result of this Concordat, the Emperor still retained in his hands the controlling influence in the election of the bishops in Germany, though he had abandoned much in regard to episcopal elections in Italy and Burgundy. Image File history File links Summary The coat of arms of Pope Callixtus II Licensing This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Image File history File links Summary The coat of arms of Pope Callixtus II Licensing This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near Worms. ... Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. ... The Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near Worms. ...

Main article: First Council of the Lateran.

To secure the confirmation of this Concordat of Worms, Calixtus II convoked the First Lateran Council, 18 March 1123, which solemnly confirmed the concordat and passed several disciplinary decrees, such as those against simony and concubinage among the clergy. Decrees were also passed against violators of the Truce of God, church-robbers, and forgers of ecclesiastical documents. The indulgences already granted to the crusaders were renewed, and the jurisdiction of the bishops over the clergy, both secular and regular, was more clearly defined. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils. ... The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Roman Catholic Church which applied spiritual sanctions in order to control and stop the violence of feudal society. ... In Roman Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for sin. ...


Calixtus II devoted his last few years to reestablishing Papal control over the Campagna and establishing Рwith the aid of some forgeries (CE) Рthe primacy of his see of Vienne over that of Arles, an ancient conflict. He rebuilt the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, in Rome. Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Map of western Mediterranean, showing location of Arles Arles (Arle in Proven̤al) is a city in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rh̫ne d̩partement, of which it is a sous-pr̩fecture, in the former province of Provence. ... Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a church in Rome founded in the 6th century. ...


Calixtus II died 13 December, 1124.

Preceded by:
Gelasius II
Pope
1119–24
Succeeded by:
Honorius II

Gelasius II, né Giovanni Coniulo (d. ... Popes buried in St. ... Pope Honorius II should not be confused with Antipope Honorius II, otherwise known as Peter Cadalus. ...

References

Some material adapted from the 9th edition (1876) of the Encyclopædia Britannica 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still...


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Callixtus II (or Calistus II), born Guido of Vienne (died December 13, 1124), the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 2, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19).
It was agreed that pope and emperor should meet at the château de Mousson, near Reims, and in October he opened the council at Reims attended by Louis VI of France (1108–37), with most of the barons of France and more than four hundred bishops and abbots.
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