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Encyclopedia > Pope Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII
Birth name Benedetto Caetani
Papacy began December 24, 1294
Papacy ended October 11, 1303
Predecessor Celestine V
Successor Benedict XI
Born c. 1235
Anagni, Italy
Died October 11, 1303
Rome, Italy
Other popes named Boniface

Pope Boniface VIII (c. 1235October 11, 1303), born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Pope Celestine V (c. ... Pope Benedict XI (1240 – July 7, 1304), born Nicholas Boccasini, was Pope from 1303 to 1304 Born in Treviso, he succeeded Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303), but was unable to carry out his policies. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... There have been nine Popes named Boniface. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of...

Contents

Biography

Caetani was born in 1235 in Anagni, c. 50 kilometers southeast of Rome. He was the younger son of a minor noble family and became a canon of the cathedral in Anagni in his teens. In 1252, when his uncle Peter Caetani became bishop of Todi, in Umbria, Benedict went with him and began his legal studies there. Benedict never forgot his roots in Todi, later describing the city as "the dwelling place of his early youth," the city which "nourished him while still of tender years," and as a place where he "held lasting memories". In 1260, Benedict acquired a canonry in Todi, as well as the small nearby castle of Sismano. Later in life he repeatedly expressed his gratitude to Anagni, Todi, and his family. Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Panorama of Todi. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to an ecclesiastical rule (canon). ...


In 1264, Benedict became part of the Roman Curia where he served as secretary to Cardinal Simon of Brie on a mission to France. Similarly, he accompanied Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi to England (1265-1268) in order to suppress a rebellion by a group of barons against Henry III, a churchman in England. Upon Benedict's return from England, there is an eight year period in which nothing is known about what occurred in his life. After this eight year period of uncertainty, Benedict was sent to France to supervise the collection of a tithe in 1276 and then became a papal notary in the late 1270s. During this time, Benedict accumulated seventeen benefices which he was permitted to keep when he was promoted, first to cardinal deacon in 1281 and then 10 years later as cardinal priest. As cardinal, he often served as papal legate in diplomatic negotiations with France, Naples, Sicily, and Aragon. The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Various rulers or governments of Europe, of Japan bestow or recognise the title of baron. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


He was elected in December 24, 1294 after Pope Celestine V abdicated in December 13. There is a legend that it was Boniface VIII's doing that Celestine V renounced the papacy - for Boniface, previously Benedetto, convinced Celestine V that no person on the earth could go through life without sin. However, in later times, it is a more common understanding that Celestine V resigned by his own designs and Benedetto merely showed that it was allowed by Church law. Either way, Celestine V left and Boniface VIII took his place as pope. One of his first acts as pontiff was to imprison his predecessor in the Castle of Fumone in Ferentino, where he died at the age of 81, attended by two monks of his order. In 1300, Boniface VIII formalized the jubilees, which afterwards became a source of both profit and scandal to the church. Boniface VIII founded the University of Rome La Sapienza in 1303. Pope Celestine V (c. ... Papal abdication occurs in the Roman Catholic Church when the Pope resigns his office. ... Ferentino (Latin: Ferentinum) is a town and episcopal see in Italy, in the province of Frosinone, 65 km southeast of Rome. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... University of Rome La Sapienza (Università della Sapienza) is the most ancient university of Rome, Italy. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of...


Boniface VIII put forward some of the strongest claims to temporal, as well as spiritual, supremacy of any Pope and constantly involved himself with foreign affairs. In his Bull of 1302, Unam Sanctam, Boniface VIII proclaimed that it "is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff", pushing papal supremacy to its historical extreme. These views and his intervention in 'temporal' affairs led to many bitter quarrels with the Emperor Albert I of Hapsburg (1291-1298), the powerful family of the Colonnas, and with Philip IV of France (1285–1314). Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam (The One Holy), which historians consider one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. ... Albert I (born July 1255 - May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ...


Conflicts with Philip IV

The conflict between Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France came at a time of expanding nation states and the desire for the consolidation of power by the increasingly powerful monarchs. The increase in monarchical power in the rising nation states and its conflicts with the Church of Rome were only exacerbated by the rise to power of Phillip IV. In France, the process of centralizing royal power and developing a genuine national state began with the Capetian kings. During his reign, Phillip surrounded himself with the best civil lawyers, and decidedly expelled the clergy from all participation in the administration of the law. With the clergy beginning to be taxed in France and England in order to finance their ongoing wars against each other, Boniface took a hard stand against it. He saw the taxation as an assault on traditional clerical rights, and ordered the Bull Clericis laicos in February 1296, forbidding lay taxation of the clergy without prior papal approval. In the bull, Benedict states "they exact and demand from the same the half, tithe, or twentieth, or any other portion or proportion of their revenues or goods; and in many ways they try to bring them into slavery, and subject them to their authority. And also whatsoever emperors, kings, or princes, dukes, earls or barons...presume to take possession of things anywhere deposited in holy buildings...should incur sentence of excommunication." It was during the issuing of Clericis Laicos that hostilities between Boniface and Philip began. Philip retaliated against the bull by denying the exportation of money from France to Rome, funds that the Church required to operate. Boniface had no choice but to quickly meet the demands of Philip by allowing taxation only "during an emergency." “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Clericis laicos was a Papal bull issued on February 25, 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII in an attempt to prevent the secular states of Europe, in particular France and England, from appropriating church revenues without the express prior permission of the pope. ...


After complications involving the capture of Jean Lemoine by Philip, the conflict was re-ignited. In December of 1301, Philip was sent the Papal Bull Ausculta fili ("Listen, My Son"), informing Philip that "God has set popes over kings and kingdoms."


The feud between the two reached its peak in the early 14th century when Philip began to launch a strong anti-papal campaign against Boniface. On November 18, 1302, Boniface issued one of the most important papal bulls of Catholic History: Unam Sanctum. It declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ...


In response, Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's chief minister, denounced Boniface as a heretical criminal to the French clergy. In 1303, Philip and Nogaret were excommunicated.[citation needed] However, on September 7, 1303 an army led by Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna of the Colonna family surprised Boniface at his retreat in Anagni. The King and the Colonnas demanded that he resign, to which Boniface VIII responded that he would 'sooner die'. Boniface was beaten badly and nearly executed but was released from captivity after three days. He died a month later, on October 11, 1303. Guillaume de Nogaret (1260-70 - 1313) was councillor and keeper of the seal to Philip IV of France. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Member of the powerful Colonna family , strong enemy of pope Boniface VIII. During the Outrage of Anagni, in September 1303, Sciarra reportedly slapped him in the face. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of...


After the humiliating ordeal of Boniface and Philip, no popes would ever again challenge or seriously threaten kings and emperors despite further excommunications and interdictions. In the future, the Church would see itself becoming subordinate to the growing power of the European nation-states and their secular leaders, and the church's secular power would forever be lost. It is also interesting to note that this was the first event that marked the downfall of the Church's prestige, and the decline of its prestige and advertisement of its corruptions led to the Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Boniface VIII was buried in St. Peter's Basilica in a grandiose tomb that he had designed himself. (Allegedly, when the tomb cracked open three centuries after his death (on October 9, 1605), his body was revealed to be perfectly incorrupt.) The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ...


Numbering

Pope Boniface VII is now considered an anti-pope. At the time, however, this fact was not recognized and so the seventh true Pope Boniface took the official number VIII. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Boniface by one. Therefore, Popes Boniface VIII and IX are really the seventh and eighth popes respectively. Boniface VII (died July 20, 985), who attained the papal chair in 974, is sometimes styled an antipope. ... During certain periods of turbulence in the Roman Catholic Church, Papal elections were conducted which were not considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church, either at the time of the election itself, or were subsequently declared invalid. ...

Statue of Pope Boniface VIII at the Museum of the Opera del Duomo in Florence.

Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...

Boniface VIII and culture

  • In his Inferno, Dante portrayed Boniface VIII as destined for hell, where simony is punished, although Boniface was still alive at the fictional date of the poem's story. Boniface's eventual destiny is revealed to Dante by Pope Nicholas III, whom he meets. A bit later in the Inferno, we are reminded of the pontiff's feud with the Colonnesi, which led him to demolish the city of Palestrina, killing 6,000 citizens and destroying both the home of Julius Caesar and a shrine to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Boniface's ultimate fate is confirmed by Beatrice when Dante visits Heaven.
  • The great mathematician and astronomer Giovanni Campano served as personal physician to Pope Boniface VIII.

For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... Dante redirects here. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... . Nicholas III, né Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (Rome, ca. ... For other uses, see Palestrina (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Our Lady redirects here. ... For other people named Johannes Campanus, see Campanus. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Illustration from a copy of The Decameron, ca. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people traveling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ... Ghino di Tacco Ghinotto di Tacco, called Ghino, was an outlaw in thirteenth century Italy. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ...

Posthumous process against the memory of Boniface VIII

A process (judicial investigation) against the memory of Pope Boniface VIII was held from 1303 to 1311. Its records were republished in a critical edition by J. Coste (1995). The collected testimonies (especially those of the examination held at Groseau in August and September of 1310) alleged many heretical opinions of Boniface VIII.


The historicity of these testimonies is disputed among scholars. T. Boase, whose 1933 biography of Pope Boniface VIII is often regarded as still the best, comes to the conclusion, "The evidence is not unconvincing ... but it was too late, long years after the event, to construct an openly held heresy out of a few chance remarks with some newly-added venom in construing them" (p. 361).


The posthumous trial against the memory of Boniface VIII was in any case settled without a result in 1311.


References

  • Boase, Thomas S. R. (1933). Boniface VIII. London: Constable. 
  • Coppa, Frank J, ed. (2002). The Great Popes Through History. Connecticut. Greenwood Press. 
  • (1995) in Jean Coste (ed.): Boniface VIII en procès. Articles d'accusation et dépositions des témoins (1303–1311). Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider. ISBN 88-7062-914-7. 
  • Tierney, Brian (1964). Crisis of Church and State. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 
  • Wood, Charles, T. (1967). Phillip the Fair and Boniface VIII: State vs Papacy. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. 

External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Pope Boniface VIII
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: "Pope Boniface VIII"
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: "Pope Clement V: a paragraph on the trial of Boniface VIII
  • Register of Boniface VIII: The Indiction of the Holy Year 1300 (Vatican Secret Archives)
  • The 1303 document founding the University of Rome La Sapienza (Vatican Secret Archives)
  • The 1303 document joining several schools into the University of Avignon (Vatican Secret Archives)
  • The Bull Clericis Laicos (Medieval Sourcebook)
  • Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon" "Bonifatius VIII"
Roman Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Celestine V
Pope
12941303
Succeeded by
Benedict XI
Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Boniface VIII - Biocrawler (437 words)
(One of Boniface's first acts as pontiff was to imprison his predecessor in the castle of Fumone, where he died at the age of 91, attended by two monks of his order.) In 1300 Boniface instituted the jubilees, which afterwards became a source of both profit and scandal to the church.
However, before the Pope could lay France under an interdict, Boniface was seized at Anagni by a party of horsemen under Guillaume de Nogaret, an agent of Philip and Sciarra Colonna.
Boniface was released from capitivity after three days, however, despite his fortitude died of shock a month later, on October 11, 1303.
Pope Boniface VIII - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (980 words)
Before this, Boniface VIII was a cardinal priest and papal legate to Sicily, France, and England.
However, before the Pope could lay France under an interdict, Boniface VIII was seized at Anagni by a party of horsemen under Guillaume de Nogaret, an agent of Philip IV and Sciarra Colonna.
Earlier (I.i), Boniface VIII is also mentioned for his role in sending Charles of Valois to Florence in 1300 to end the feud between the Black and White Guelphs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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