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Encyclopedia > Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy
Pope Benedict XVI, January 2006

The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany. The Pope had previously served as professor of theology at the university, and his lecture was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University — Memories and Reflections". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1077x1536, 1155 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1077x1536, 1155 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... This article is becoming very long. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article is becoming very long. ... The University of Regensburg, situated in Regensburg, in Bavaria, was founded on 18th July 1962 by the Bavarian parliament. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


The lecture received ample doses of both condemnation and praise from political and religious authorities. Many Islamic politicians and religious leaders registered protest against what they said was an insulting mischaracterization of Islam,[1][2] contained in the quotation by the Pope of the following passage: The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...

Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.[2]

The passage originally appeared in the "Dialogue Held With A Certain Persian, the Worthy Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia"[3], written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos on such issues as forced conversion, holy war and the relationship between faith and reason. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Emperor Manuel II Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (June 27, 1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425. ... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative consequences not just in the afterlife but in this life too, ranging from job loss, social isolation to incarceration, torture, or death. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Pope Benedict XVI's lecture

Part of a series on
Controversies related to Islam and Muslims

This article list Controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ...

Theological conflicts
Human conflicts
Events post 9 / 11
People
v  d  e

The lecture on "faith and reason", with references ranging from ancient Jewish and Greek thinking to Protestant theology and modern Secularity, focused mainly on Christianity and what Pope Benedict called the tendency to "exclude the question of God" from reason. Islam features in a part of the lecture: the Pope quoted strong criticism of Islam, which he described as being of a "startling brusqueness, a brusqueness which leaves us astounded". Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam and Non-Muslim view of Muhammad Muslims consider Muhammad to be the final and greatest prophet, the messenger of the final revelation that he called the Qur’an. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam and Quran. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Qutbism is the Islamic strain of thought and activism, or ideology, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle or holy war in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status... This article covers: The prevalence of antisemitism amongst Muslims - and whether it is more or less common than amongst people of other religions. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Disability... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantanamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation camp under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO) and has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they were first published in Jyllands-Posten in September 2005. ... Protests in Islamabad, Pakistan, following allegations that U.S. military personnel had desecrated the Quran The Quran desecration controversy of 2005 captured international attention in April 2005 when Newsweek published an article containing allegations that U.S. personnel at the Guantánamo Bay prison camp had deliberately damaged... It has been suggested that Ali Osman (criminal) be merged into this article or section. ... Norman Kember and Harmeet Singh Sooden were held hostage, as depicted here on Al Jazeera television. ... Screenshot of Olaf Wiig (left) and Steve Centanni (right) in tape released after capture Fox News Channel journalists Olaf Wiig, a New Zealander photojournalist, and Steve Centanni, an American reporter, were kidnapped in the Gaza Strip by the Holy Jihad Brigades, a previously unknown group of Palestinian militants, from their... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islamic Cultural Revolution was when the universities were shut down after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran for about two years to purge them of Western influences and bring them in line with Islam. ... Jerry Klein of WMAL 630 AM Radio On Nov. ... The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i. ... The Flying Imams controversy is a controversy concerning the removal of six Muslim imams from US Airways Flight 300, from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Phoenix, Arizona, at 6:30 PM on November 20, 2006. ... The Imam Rapito affair refers to the ongoing exposé in the Italian press, notably in the newspapers Corriere della Sera and Repubblica, regarding the events surrounding the abduction of Egyptian cleric (and alleged former Albanian national intelligence service asset) Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also known as Abu Omar, from the... Theo van Gogh (IPA pronunciation: ) (July 23, 1957 – November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ... Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... This list of Guantanamo Bay detainees is compiled from various sources. ... Babar Ahmad (b. ... Moazzam Begg before speaking at a meeting about civil liberties Moazzam Begg (born 1968) is one of nine British men who were held at Camp X-Ray, Guantanamo Bay by the government of the United States of America. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


In three paragraphs at the beginning of the speech, Pope Benedict quoted from and discussed an argument made by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos in a 1391 dialogue with an "educated Persian" (who remained unnamed in the Pope's lecture), as well as observations on this argument made by Theodore Khoury, the scholar whose edition of Manuel II's dialogues the Pontiff was referencing. Pope Benedict used Manuel II's argument in order to draw a distinction between the Christian view, as expressed by Manuel II, that "not acting reasonably is contrary to God's nature", and an Islamic view, as explained by Khoury, that God transcends concepts such as rationality, and his will, as Ibn Hazm stated, is not constrained by any principle, including rationality. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Emperor Manuel II Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (June 27, 1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Professor Adel Theodor Khoury (Arabic: عادل خوري) (born March 26, 1930 in Tebnine, Libanon) is a catholic theologian. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ...


In part of his explication of this distinction, Pope Benedict referred to a specific aspect of Islam that Manuel II considered irrational, namely the practice of forced conversion. Specifically, the Pope (making clear that they were the Emperor's words, not his own) quoted Manuel II Palaiologos as saying: "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only bad and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached." The Pontiff was comparing the Quranic passage that "There is no compulsion in religion" with later ones that, according to Manuel II, allowed "spreading the faith through violence"; the latter teaching being offered by Pope Benedict as an unreasonable one, on the belief that religious conversion should take place through the use of reason. His larger point here was that, generally speaking, in Christianity, God is understood to act in accordance with reason, while in Islam, God's absolute transcendence means that "God is not bound even by his own word", and can act in ways contrary to reason, including self-contradiction. At the end of his lecture, the Pope said, "It is to the great logos, to this breadth of reason, that we invite our partners in the dialogue of cultures". A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative consequences not just in the afterlife but in this life too, ranging from job loss, social isolation to incarceration, torture, or death. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders. ... Look up logos, λόγος in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Key paragraphs

Quoted below are the three paragraphs (of sixteen total) which discuss Islam in Pope Benedict's lecture:

I was reminded of all this recently, when I read the edition by Professor Theodore Khoury (Münster) of part of the dialogue carried on — perhaps in 1391 in the winter barracks near Ankara — by the erudite Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus and an educated Persian on the subject of Christianity and Islam, and the truth of both. It was presumably the emperor himself who set down this dialogue, during the siege of Constantinople between 1394 and 1402; and this would explain why his arguments are given in greater detail than those of his Persian interlocutor. The dialogue ranges widely over the structures of faith contained in the Bible and in the Qur'an, and deals especially with the image of God and of man, while necessarily returning repeatedly to the relationship between — as they were called — three "Laws" or "rules of life": the Old Testament, the New Testament and the Qur'an. It is not my intention to discuss this question in the present lecture; here I would like to discuss only one point — itself rather marginal to the dialogue as a whole — which, in the context of the issue of "faith and reason", I found interesting and which can serve as the starting-point for my reflections on this issue.

In the seventh conversation edited by Professor Khoury, the emperor touches on the theme of the holy war. The emperor must have known that sura 2, 256 reads: "There is no compulsion in religion". According to the experts, this is one of the suras of the early period, when Mohammed was still powerless and under threat. But naturally the emperor also knew the instructions, developed later and recorded in the Qur'an, concerning holy war. Without descending to details, such as the difference in treatment accorded to those who have the "Book" and the "infidels", he addresses his interlocutor with a startling brusqueness on the central question about the relationship between religion and violence in general, saying: "Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached". The emperor, after having expressed himself so forcefully, goes on to explain in detail the reasons why spreading the faith through violence is something unreasonable. Violence is incompatible with the nature of God and the nature of the soul. "God", he says, "is not pleased by blood — and not acting reasonably is contrary to God's nature. Faith is born of the soul, not the body. Whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threats… To convince a reasonable soul, one does not need a strong arm, or weapons of any kind, or any other means of threatening a person with death… Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... SÅ«rata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ... Sura (sometimes referred to as Surah) ( ) is an Arabic term literally meaning picture, evidence, or proof. ...


The decisive statement in this argument against violent conversion is this: not to act in accordance with reason is contrary to God's nature. The editor, Theodore Khoury, observes: "For the emperor, as a Byzantine shaped by Greek philosophy, this statement is self-evident. But for Muslim teaching, God is absolutely transcendent. His will is not bound up with any of our categories, even that of rationality." Here Khoury quotes a work of the noted French Muslim R. Arnaldez, who points out that Ibn Hazn went so far as to state that God is not bound even by his own word, and that nothing would oblige him to reveal the truth to us. Were it God's will, we would even have to practice idolatry.[4]

Translation differences

The original German text of the Pope's lecture as published at the Vatican website differs slightly in several respects from the English translation, despite both versions being official (though provisional) versions. It is unknown whether this had an impact on perceptions of the speech.


Commenting on the quote from the Byzantine emperor, Pope Benedict states in the English translation of his lecture, "he addresses his interlocutor with a startling brusqueness". According to the German text the Pope's original comment was "He addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh — to us surprisingly harsh — way" (wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, uns überraschend schroffer Form).[5]


This difference was corrected on 17 September. The official (though still provisional) passage now reads: "he addresses his interlocutor with a startling brusqueness, a brusqueness which leaves us astounded". (emphasis in original) September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ...


Another difference involves the use of the word "jihad", which is present in the German version but not in the English one: the original statement "The emperor touches on the theme of jihad, holy war" (kommt der Kaiser auf das Thema des Djihad, des heiligen Krieges zu sprechen) became in the English rendition "The emperor touches on the theme of the holy war." Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle or holy war in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status...


A third difference involves the emperor's quote employed by the Pope: "... things only evil and inhuman ...". What the Pope said, and which is found in the German text and verifiable with the audio from the lecture, was "... things only bad and inhumane ... ". The word used was "Schlechtes" (bad/wicked), whereas the English word "evil" would have corresponded to "Böses", a word the Pope did not use. Similarly, the German word "inhuman" (inhumane) was used, and not "unmenschlich" (inhuman).[6]


Initial reactions

Political leaders

Africa

  • Flag of Egypt Egypt – Foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit: " This was a very unfortunate statement and it is a statement that shows that there is a lack of understanding of real Islam. And because of this we are hopeful that such statements and such positions would not be stated in order to not allow tension and distrust and recriminations to brew between the Muslim as well as the west." The Vatican envoy was also summoned.[2]
  • Flag of Morocco Morocco – Morocco recalled its ambassador to the Vatican.[7]
  • Flag of Somalia Somalia – Sheikh Abubukar Hassan Malin of Somalia's Supreme Islamic Courts Council (ICU) urged Muslims "...wherever you are to hunt down the Pope for his barbaric statements as you have pursued Salman Rushdie, the enemy of Allah who offended our religion. Whoever offends our Prophet Mohammed should be killed on the spot by the nearest Muslim."[8]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Ahmed Aboul Gheit (Arabic: أحمد أبو الغيط )(born June 12, 1942 in Heliopolis) has been the foreign minister of Egypt since July 2004, since the government of Ahmed Nazif took office. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... The flag of the Supreme Islamic Courts Council The Supreme Islamic Courts Council (or Conservative Council of Islamic Courts), as the Islamist militia called itself by July 2006, was called the Islamic Courts Union before 24 June 2006 (ICU, Somali: Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, Arabic: اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim al... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Americas

  • Flag of United States United States - Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice praised the Pontiff's "love of humanity," and said: "We all need to understand that offense can sometimes be taken when perhaps we don't see it." [9]

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...

Asia

  • Flag of Iran Iran – The Guardian Council said the Pope was part of "a series of Western conspiracy against Islam" and had "linked Islam to violence and challenged Jihad at a time when he apparently closed his eyes to the crimes being perpetrated against defenseless Muslims by the leaders of power and hypocrisy under flag of Christianity and Jewish religion".[10] President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad stated that "Regarding the issue of the Pope's comments, we respect the pope and all of those who are interested in peace and justice."[11]
  • Flag of Iraq IraqGovernment spokesman Ali al-Dabbagh said that "The Pope's remarks reflect his misunderstanding of the principles of Islam and its teachings that call for forgiveness, compassion and mercy," but also called on Iraqis not to harm "our Christian brothers."[12]
  • Indonesia – President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that the Pope's comments were "unwise and inappropriate," [13] but also that "Indonesian Muslims should have wisdom, patience, and self-restraint to address this sensitive issue....We need them so that harmony among people is not at stake."[14]
  • Malaysia – Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said, "The Pope must not take lightly the spread of outrage that has been created. The Vatican must now take full responsibility over the matter and carry out the necessary steps to rectify the mistake."[2]
  •  Pakistan – President Pervez Musharraf, in a speech at the United Nations, called for legislation against "defamation of Islam."[15] Pakistan's parliament, issued a statement saying "The derogatory remarks of the Pope about the philosophy of jihad and Prophet Muhammad have injured sentiments across the Muslim world and pose the danger of spreading acrimony among the religions." Pakistan's Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Tasnim Aslam said, "Anyone who describes Islam as a religion as intolerant encourages violence."[16]
  • Palestinian AuthorityHamas leader and Prime Minister Ismail Haniya condemned the Pope's remarks: "In the name of the Palestinian people, we condemn the pope’s remarks on Islam. These remarks go against the truth and touch the heart of our faith." He also denounced the Palestinian attacks on churches in the West Bank and Gaza.[17]
  • Flag of Turkey Turkey – Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said: "I believe it is a must for (the Pope) to retract his erroneous, ugly and unfortunate remarks and apologise both to the Islamic world and Muslims. …I hope he rapidly amends the mistake he has made so as not to overshadow the dialogue between civilizations and religions." [18]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... General (ret. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... (PA – 6920) Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف); born August 11, 1943) is the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Bold text Majlis-e-Shoora (Urdu: مجلس شوری) (Council of Advisors in Urdu, although referred to as Parliament) is the bicameral federal legislature of Pakistan that consists of the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house). ... Image File history File links Palestinian_flag. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist terrorist group that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1963) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Ali Abdullah Saleh (1990-present) See also: President of North Yemen, President of South Yemen Categories: Government stubs | Lists of office-holders | Yemen ... Field Marshal Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبد الله صالح) (born March 21, 1942) is the current President of Yemen. ...

Australia

  • Flag of Australia AustraliaPrime Minister John Howard has backed the Pope's comments, saying that angry response from the Islamic world is "disproportionate, strange and disappointing". He also stated that Muslims should "move on", adding that, "I don't, at the moment, note terrorist groups killing people and invoking the authority of the Catholic Church".[20]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ...

Europe

  • Flag of France France – President Jacques Chirac warned against "anything that increases tensions between peoples or religions".[21]
  • Flag of Germany Germany – Chancellor Angela Merkel said: "Whoever criticises the Pope misunderstood the aim of his speech… It was an invitation to dialogue between religions and the Pope expressedly spoke in favour of this dialogue, which is something I also support and consider urgent and necessary."[22]
  • Flag of Italy Italy – Prime Minister Romano Prodi said: "There cannot be any controversy... Religious dialogue and respect for every faith are essential today and religion does not justify any type of violence."[23]
  • Flag of Switzerland Switzerland – Interior Minister Pascal Couchepin stated the Pope's speech was "intelligent and necessary."[24]
  • Flag of Vatican City Vatican City - The director of the Vatican press office stated: "Pope Benedict’s remarks about jihad may have been taken out of context but they were not an aberration. On the contrary, they stem from his thinking about Islam and the West in the one and a half years since he became Pope. It was certainly not the intention of the Holy Father to undertake a comprehensive study of the jihad and of Muslim ideas on the subject, still less to offend the sensibilities of Muslim faithful. Quite the contrary, what emerges clearly from the Holy Father’s discourses is a warning, addressed to Western culture, to avoid 'the contempt for God and the cynicism that considers mockery of the sacred to be an exercise of freedom.'"[25][26]

Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the Gaullist President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...   (born 9 August 1939) is a centre-left Italian politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Pascal Couchepin (born April 5, 1942) is a Swiss politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... The Holy Father Holy Father according to the Bible, John 17:11, is YHWH. In John 17:11, Yahshua Messiah (Jesus Christ) prays to YHWH calling YHWH His Holy Father. ...

International

  • The Organisation of the Islamic Conference said "The OIC hopes that this sudden campaign does not reflect a new trend for the Vatican policy toward the Islamic religion… and it expects the Vatican to express its real vision of Islam", called it "character assassination of the Prophet Mohammed" and a "smear campaign."[27], and asked the United Nations Human Rights Council to address the Pope's remarks.[28]
  • Flag of European Union European Union – A EU Commission spokesman objected to "picking quotes out of context", and said the commission would not "clarify or interpret" the speech, because they consider it "a theological contribution to a theological debate." He added that "reactions which are disproportionate and which are tantamount to rejecting freedom of speech are unacceptable."[29]

Image File history File links Flag_of_OIC.svg Beschreibung The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ...

Religious leaders

Catholic

  • Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger said “We are faced with a media-driven phenomenon bordering on the absurd... If the game consists in unleashing the crowd’s vindictiveness on words that it has not understood, then the conditions for dialogue with Islam are no longer met.”[30]
  • Abbot Primate Notker Wolf, head of the worldwide Roman Catholic Benedictine Confederation of the Order of Saint Benedict, said that the Pope used Manuel's dialogue with a Persian to make an indirect reference to Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. "I have heard he plans to write a letter to the Pope," Wolf added. "I think this would be a good opportunity to take up the gauntlet, so to speak, and really discuss things."[31]
  • Cardinal George Pell of Australia has backed the Pope's comments, saying he does not "rule out the link between Islam and Violence" and that "The violent reaction in many parts of the Islamic world justified one of Pope Benedict's main fears".[32]
  • Cardinal Secretary of State Bertone said: "Addressing the world's other religious faiths is part of the Church's misson... We must all return to the original source of human life, which is love."[33]

A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... Jean-Marie Cardinal Lustiger Aaron Jean-Marie Cardinal Lustiger (born September 17, 1926), French clergyman, has been Archbishop of Paris since January 1981, and has been a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church since February 1983. ... Notker Wolf OSB (born June 21, 1940 in Unterallgäu, Bavaria) is the current Abbot Primate of the Benedictine Confederation of the Order of Saint Benedict. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... See also Rule of Saint Benedict and Benedictine. ... St Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... His Eminence George Cardinal Pell, AC, DD, STL, MEd, DPhil, FACE (born 8 June 1941) is an Australian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone is the Archbishop of Genoa and was considered papabile following the death of Pope John Paul II. His Eminence Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone (born 2 December 1934) is Archbishop of Genoa and a Cardinal Priest in the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Other Christian

His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Right Reverend and Right Honourable George Leonard Carey, Baron Carey of Clifton, PC (born 13 November 1935), was the 103rd Archbishop of Canterbury, from 1991 to 2002. ...

Muslim

  • On September 29, 2006, Muslim debater Dr. Zakir Naik invited Pope Benedict XVI for open interfaith dialogue.[37][38] So did Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi[39]
  • Ali Bardakoğlu, the head of the Religious Affairs Directorate of Turkey, commented that the Pope's statements "were extraordinarily worrying, very unfortunate, both in the name of Christianity, and in the name of shared humanity," and called on Pope Benedict to either retract or apologize for his conduct. He added "if there is a religious antagonism in the West, it's the responsibility of the logic-ignoring Christian church", citing historical incidents of religious oppression in Europe and the Americas. He also implied that the Pope should consider cancelling his trip to Turkey that was originally planned for November 2006.[40] Bardakoğlu later admitted to not having read the Pope's lecture before making his statements.[41]
  • Mohammed Mahdi Akef from the Muslim Brotherhood said the remarks "threaten world peace" and "pour oil on the fire and ignite the wrath of the whole Islamic world to prove the claims of enmity of politicians and religious men in the West to whatever is Islamic."[42]
  • Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Egyptian muslim cleric and head of Islamic Scholars' Association; " Our hands are outstretched and our religion calls for peace, not for war, for love not for hatred, for tolerance, not for fanaticism, for knowing each other and not for disavowing each other. We condemn this and we want to know the explanation of this and what is intended by this. We call on the pope, the pontiff, to apologise to the Islamic nation because he has insulted its religion and Prophet, its faith and Sharia without any justification."[44]
  • Ahmad Khatami, one of Iran's most influential clerics asked the Pope to "fall on his knees in front of a senior Muslim cleric and try to understand Islam."[45]
  • Tariq Ramadan, an influential professor in the University of Oxford, said "Most did not read the pope's speech; others had relied on a sketchy summary according to which the pope had linked Islam and violence.. certain groups or governments manipulate crises of this kind as a safety valve for both their restive populations and their own political agenda.. the mass protests... end up providing a living proof that Muslims cannot engage in reasonable debate and that verbal aggression and violence are more the rule than the exception."[46]
  • Aga Khan IV, leader of the Ismaili branch of Islam said: "I have two reactions to the pope's lecture: There is my concern about the degradation of relations and, at the same time, I see an opportunity. A chance to talk about a serious, important issue: the relationship between faith and logic"[47]

September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Zakir Abdul Karim Naik (born October 18, 1965) is an Indian public speaker, debater and writer on the subject of Islam and comparative religion. ... Ali BardakoÄŸlu is the current president of Religious Affairs of Turkey, also known as Diyanet Isleri in Turkish. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement, which has spawned several religious and political organizations in the Middle East, dedicated to... Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (Arabic: محمد سيد طنطاوى ) born 28 October 1928 is the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Mosque and Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar University. ... Al-Azhar University in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble al-Azhar), is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 210 km²  (81. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي) (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline, a website that he helped to found in 1997. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Tariq Said Ramadan (born 26 August 1962 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss Muslim academic and theologian. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... The Ä€gā Khān IV, or His Highness Prince KarÄ«m al-HussaynÄ« Ä€gā Khān IV, KBE, CC, GCC, (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Hamza Yusuf Hanson Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Hanson (born 1960 as Mark Hanson in Walla Walla, Washington) is a traditionalist Islamic scholar. ... Google Video is a free Google service that allows anyone to upload video clips to Googles web servers as well as make their own media available free of charge or through Google Video Store for a cost that they can set. ...

Jewish

  • In a letter to the Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Qaradawi, Sephardic Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar criticized Benedict's remarks, writing: "our way is to honour every religion and every nation according to their paths, as it is written in the book of prophets: 'because every nation will go in the name of its Lord.'"[49]

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي) (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline, a website that he helped to found in 1997. ... Languages Ladino also Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, and Shuadit Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews; frequently used... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Rabbi Shlomo Amar Rabbi Shlomo Amar (1948 - ) is the current Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, appointed in 2003. ...

Non-religious commentary

  • Hamid Ansari, Chairman of India's minority commission, said, "The language used by the Pope sounds like that of his 12th-Century counterpart who ordered the crusades... It surprises me because the Vatican has a very comprehensive relationship with the Muslim world."[50]
  • In an article published in Counterpunch, author Tariq Ali said, "The Bavarian is a razor-sharp reactionary cleric. I think he knew what he was saying and why. In a neo-liberal world suffering from environmental degradation, poverty, hunger, repression, a ‘planet of slums’ (in the graphic phrase of Mike Davis), the Pope chooses to insult the founder of a rival faith. The reaction in the Muslim world was predictable, but depressingly insufficient."[51]
  • A similar sentiment was expressed on the Truthdig web magazine and in The Huffington Post weblog in which author Sam Harris said, "It is ironic that a man who has just disparaged Islam as ‘evil’ and ‘inhuman’ before 250,000 onlookers and the world press, is now talking about a ‘genuine dialogue of cultures.’" [52] Mr Harris also referred to the Pope's lecture as "...a speech so boring, convoluted and oblique to the real concerns of humanity that it could well have been intended as a weapon of war. It might start a war, in fact, given that it contained a stupendously derogatory appraisal of Islam." [53]
  • A different view was taken by Christopher Hitchens, who wrote in "Fighting Words" for Slate web magazine that Pope Benedict "...has managed to do a moderate amount of harm—and absolutely no good—to the very tense and distraught discussion now in progress between Europe and Islam." Hitchens also presented what he feels is a problem with the focus of the Pope's speech with respect to Reason: "...now its new reactionary leader has really 'offended' the Muslim world, while simultaneously asking us to distrust the only reliable weapon—reason—that we possess in these dark times. A fine day's work, and one that we could well have done without."[54]
  • US Rep. Tom Tancredo (R-CO), who became a Presidential canidate for 2008, wrote the Pope an open letter on the controversy on Sept. 20, 2006, saying “Like you, I believe any reformation of the Islamic faith is highly unlikely because it would require a radical reinterpretation of the Koran, something that you have correctly noted would be nearly impossible as Muslims view the Koran as a document that cannot be interpreted by man. …I hope you will resist calls from the like of Mahmoud Ahmedinejad and Al Qaeda to apologize…Whether we want to admit it or not, the western world is locked in a struggle against radical Islam whose practitioners and adherents are inextricably linked to terrorism. If we are to successfully defend ourselves against the desire of our enemies to impose a caliphate on the world, we must first be willing to openly identify them.”[55]

Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... Tariq Ali Tariq Ali (Urdu: طارق علی) (born October 21, 1943) is a British writer, historian and filmmaker. ... Truthdig is an online Web magazine that provides a mix of long-form articles, interviews, and blog-like commentary on current events, delivered from a progressive point-of-view. ... Logo of Huffington Post The Huffington Post (often referred to on the Internet as HuffPost or HuffPo) is a political group weblog founded by Arianna Huffington and Kenneth Lerer. ... Sam Harris Sam Harris (born 1967) is an American author with active interests in philosophy, religion and neuroscience. ... Christopher Hitchens Christopher Eric Hitchens (born in Portsmouth, England, April 13, 1949) is an author, journalist and literary critic. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... Thomas Gerard (Tom) Tancredo (born December 20, 1945) is an American politician from the Republican Party. ...

Subsequent Vatican statements

Official Vatican declaration

On 16 September 2006, Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone, the Secretary of State of the Holy See, released a declaration explaining that the "position of the Pope concerning Islam is unequivocally that expressed by the conciliar document Nostra Aetate" and that "the Pope's option in favour of inter-religious and inter-cultural dialogue is equally unequivocal."[56] September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone is the Archbishop of Genoa and was considered papabile following the death of Pope John Paul II. His Eminence Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone (born 2 December 1934) is Archbishop of Genoa and a Cardinal Priest in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ...

As for the opinion of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus which he quoted during his Regensburg talk, the Holy Father did not mean, nor does he mean, to make that opinion his own in any way. He simply used it as a means to undertake — in an academic context, and as is evident from a complete and attentive reading of the text — certain reflections on the theme of the relationship between religion and violence in general, and to conclude with a clear and radical rejection of the religious motivation for violence, from whatever side it may come. [The Pope] sincerely regrets that certain passages of his address could have sounded offensive to the sensitivities of the Muslim faithful and should have been interpreted in a manner that in no way corresponds to his intentions.[57][58] (emphasis in the original)

Response to official declaration

For many Muslim leaders, the declaration on 16 September was insufficient to rectify the situation. A representative for the Muslim Brotherhood rejected the Vatican statement, noting "Has he presented a personal apology for statements by which he clearly is convinced? No."[59] Grand Mufti Shaikh Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh, Saudi Arabia's highest religious authority, called the pope's declaration "lies", adding that they "show that reconciliation between religions is impossible."[60] On the other hand, the Muslim Council of Britain had a more favourable view of the declaration, issuing their own statement on 16 September that the Pope's expression of "sincere regret" was "a good first step."[61] September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement, which has spawned several religious and political organizations in the Middle East, dedicated to... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... Shaikh Abdul-Azeez Aal ash-Shaikh (born in Riyadh in 1941) is the current Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) is an unincorporated association founded in 1997 with the following aims: To promote co-operation, consensus and unity on Muslim affairs in the UK. To encourage and strengthen all existing efforts being made for the benefit of the Muslim community. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ...


Pope's Angelus

On 17 September, before his regular weekly Sunday Angelus prayer, Pope Benedict XVI stated the following: September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The Angelus is a devotion in memory of the Incarnation. ...

At this time, I wish also to add that I am deeply sorry for the reactions in some countries to a few passages of my address at the University of Regensburg, which were considered offensive to the sensibility of Muslims. These in fact were a quotation from a medieval text, which do not in any way express my personal thought. Yesterday, the Cardinal Secretary of State published a statement in this regard in which he explained the true meaning of my words. I hope that this serves to appease hearts and to clarify the true meaning of my address, which in its totality was and is an invitation to frank and sincere dialogue, with great mutual respect.[62]

Reactions to Angelus

The Angelus speech initially received a mixed yet predominantly negative response.[63] Mohammed Sayed Tantawi, Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo, the Sunni Arab world's most powerful institution, stated, "We have no objection if the Pope holds another speech and declares publicly that what the Byzantine emperor had said was wrong. At the same time, the Pope has to apologize frankly and justify what he said." Not long after the Pope's Sunday statements, Mohammed el-Sayed Habib, deputy leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, originally Egypt's main Islamic opposition group, called them a sufficient apology. However, later in the day, he retracted that statement, saying, "The Pope's comments that downplayed his earlier remarks are not enough. We will not accept anything less than an apology."[64] Mohammed Habib also said: "It does not rise to the level of a clear apology and, based on this, we're calling on the Pope of the Vatican to issue a clear apology that will decisively end any confusion."[65] This sentiment was shared by the governments of Malaysia ("inadequate to calm the anger")[66] and Jordan ("a step forward", but "not sufficient"),[67] by Turkish State Minister Mehmet Aydin ("You either have to say this 'I'm sorry' in a proper way or not say it at all. Are you sorry for saying such a thing or because of its consequences?") and scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who called for a "peaceful international day of rage" on his popular TV show on Al-Jazeera: "[The Pope's latest statements] were no apology. They were an accusation against Muslims that they didn't understand his words."[68] Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (Arabic: محمد سيد طنطاوى ) born 28 October 1928 is the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Mosque and Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar University. ... Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 210 km²  (81. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement, which has spawned several religious and political organizations in the Middle East, dedicated to... Mehmet Aydın is one of Turkeys Ministers of State. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي) (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline, a website that he helped to found in 1997. ... Al Jazeera (Arabic: ‎, , , meaning The Island) is a television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ...


Later comments were more favourable of the Pope. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said: "We respect the Pope and all those interested in peace and justice," [69] and said he accepted the Vatican view that the pontiff’s words had been "misinterpreted" and "taken out of context". [70] Malaysia’s Prime Minister Ahmad Badavi said: "I suppose we could accept this. We hope that there would be no other statements that would anger Muslims." [71] Ali Bardakoğlu, the head of Turkey’s Religious Affairs Directorate said that Benedict’s "expression of sadness is a sign that he would work for world peace." [72] Australian Muslim leader Ameer Ali said Australian Muslims must "accept the Pope's apology" over remarks that offended Islam and "move on". [73] Filipino Muslims expressed support for Pope Benedict's apology and blamed certain media outlets for increasing the tensions between Muslims and Catholics.[74]   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ali BardakoÄŸlu is the current president of Religious Affairs of Turkey, also known as Diyanet Isleri in Turkish. ... Ameer Ali is the ex-President of the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, an umbrella group for various Islamic groups or councils in Australia. ...


Diplomatic initiative

On September 25, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI held an audience with Muslim diplomats, ambassadors of Muslim countries and members of the Consulta Islamica, the Italian government appointed consultative body on Islamic affairs. The meeting was an effort to mend relations with the Muslim community. Pope Benedict's spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the meeting at the Pope's summer residence was "certainly a sign that dialogue is returning to normal after moments of … misunderstanding."[75] During the session, Pope Benedict XVI reiterated his conviction that the dialogue between Muslims and Christians is “a vital necessity” for the good of a world marked by relativism, one that “excludes the transcendence and universality of reason.” [76] At this meeting, Pope Benedict expressed "all the esteem and the profound respect that (he has) for Muslim believers."[77] Among the ambassadors invited were those from Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Morocco, as well as many other nations and Islamic groups.[78] September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Change of text

Pope Benedict has taken another step to placate anger in the Islamic world over his remarks on holy war, making additions to his original text by re-affirming that a quotation from a 14th century Byzantine emperor was not his personal opinion. The original text said the emperor's remark was made "somewhat brusquely." The new version says that it was made with "a brusqueness that we find unacceptable." Pope Benedict added in a footnote, "In the Muslim world, this quotation has unfortunately been taken as an expression of my personal position, thus arousing understandable indignation. I hope that the reader of my text can see immediately that this sentence does not express my personal view of the Quran, for which I have the respect due to the holy book of a great religion." He said he cited the text as part of an examination of the "relationship between faith and reason."[79]


Open letter from top Muslim clerics

On October 12, 2006, 38 top Muslim scholars and clerics, including the Grand Muftis of Egypt, Russia, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo and Metohija (Serbia), Turkey, Uzbekistan and Oman, as well as clerics and academics from the Middle East, Asia, North Africa, Europe and North America, published an Open Letter to the Pope. October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such...


All the eight schools of thought and jurisprudence in Islam are represented by the signatories. The 38 signatories to the letter declare that they accept the Pope's "personal expression of sorrow and assurance that the controversial quote did not reflect his personal opinion" and responded to some of the main substantive issues raised in the Pope's treatment of a debate between the medieval Emperor Manuel II Paleologus and an “educated Persian,” including reason and faith; forced conversion; “jihad” vs. “holy war”; and the relationship between Christianity and Islam.[80]


The open letter also provided an answer to Manuel II Paleologus' question "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached":

What the emperor failed to realize — aside from the fact... that no such command has ever existed in Islam — is that the Prophet never claimed to be bringing anything fundamentally new.

MA Khan published a detailed critique, arguing that the muslim scholar's open letter to the Pope is filled with serious deceptions.[81] [].


Protests, attacks and threats

Security has been discreetly stepped up around and inside the Vatican City, because of concerns about the possibility of acts of violence.[82] Thousands of people took part in many protests. [83]


In the West Bank city of Nablus, a Greek Orthodox and an Anglican Church were fire-bombed. At least five firebombs hit the Anglican church and its door was later set ablaze. A group called the Lions of Monotheism called the Associated Press to claim responsibility and said they were carried out to protest the pope's speech.[84] Explosive devices were set off at a Greek Orthodox church in Gaza City, causing minor damage. The next day, Palestinian militants opened fire from a car at the same Gaza church, striking the facade. [85] Four masked gunmen doused the main doors of Roman and Greek Catholic churches in Nablus with lighter fluid, then set them afire. They also opened fire on the buildings, striking both with bullets. Palestinians held anti-Pope rallies. [2] Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The article is about the Middle Eastern city. ...


Several organizations, such as Al-Qaeda and the Mujahideen Shura Council threatened in a joint statement: "you and the West are doomed as you can see from the defeat in Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechnya, and elsewhere. ... We will break up the cross, spill the liquor and impose the jizya tax, then the only thing acceptable is a conversion (to Islam) or (being killed by) the sword. ... God enable us to slit their throats, and make their money and descendants the bounty of the Mujahideen."[86][87] Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Nokhchiyn, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], in exchange for being allowed to live, practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to...


Employees of Ankara's Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, the state body that organizes Muslim worship in Turkey, asked the authorities on September 19th to open legal proceedings against Pope Benedict XVI and to arrest him when he visits the country in November 2006. They said the Pontiff had violated Turkish laws upholding freedom of belief and thought by "insulting" Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. [88] Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri Bakanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in which the party commencing the action, the plaintiff, seeks a legal remedy. ...


Outside Westminster Cathedral, on September 18th 2006, around a hundred protestors held banners which included calls for the Pope's execution, "Pope go to Hell" and "Jesus is the slave of Allah", "Islam will conquer Rome," and "May Allah curse the Pope." [89][90] Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street The interior of Westminster Cathedral Westminster Cathedral is the motherchurch of the Roman Catholic faithful of the Archdiocese of Westminster and the metropolitan church of the Westminster Province, located at 42 Francis Street SW1 in the City of Westminster in London, England. ...


The Lashkar-e-Toiba in Pakistan has issued a Fatwa asking the Muslim community to kill Pope Benedict for his "blasphemous statement" about the Prophet Mohammad.[91] Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laškar-ĕ ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist organizations in South Asia. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ‎; plural fatāwa), is a legal pronouncement in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


Nun killed

On 17 September 2006 two Somali gunmen shot and killed an elderly Italian nun, sister Leonella, working at the Austrian-run children hospital of Mogadishu, with her Somali bodyguard.[92] A senior Somali Islamist, speaking on condition of anonymity, said: "There is a very high possibility the people who killed her were angered by the Catholic Pope's recent comments against Islam"; however, he offered no specific evidence for that motive [93]. Sheikh Mukhtar Robow, member of the Supreme Islamic Courts Council, said there was a "concrete possibility" that the murder of the nun was "a reprisal for the Pope’s remarks on Islam".[94] Somali Islamist officials vowed to punish the killers, and two men have been arrested.[95] September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Sister Leonella Sgorbati (born December 9, 1940 in Gazzola near Piacenza, Italy, killed September 17, 2006 in Mogadishu in Somalia) was an Italian Catholic nun. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ‎ ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its nominal capital. ... The flag of the Supreme Islamic Courts Council The Supreme Islamic Courts Council (or Conservative Council of Islamic Courts), as the Islamist militia called itself by July 2006, was called the Islamic Courts Union before 24 June 2006 (ICU, Somali: Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, Arabic: اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim al...


Attacks on Assyrian Christians in Iraq

In Iraq, the flags of Germany, Israel, and the United States, and Christian crosses and effigies of Pope Benedict and Jesus were burned in Basra.[96] A crucifix amidst the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria A handheld crucifix A crucifix in front of the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A crucifix is a cross with a representation of Jesuss body, or corpus. ... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ...


Iraq has one of the largest Christian minority in the middle east, where Assyrians number about 1 million. Since the Pope's comments, several churches have been bombed. A previously unknown Baghdad-based group, Kataab Ashbal Al Islam Al Salafi (Islamic Salafist Boy Scout Battalions) threatened to kill all Christians in Iraq if the Pope does not apologize to Muhammad within three days.[97] Christian Leaders in Iraq have asked their parishioners not to leave their homes, after two Christians were stabbed and killed in Baghdad.[98] Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


There have been reports of writing in church doors stating "If the Pope does not apologise, we will bomb all churches, kill more Christians and steal their property and money." [99]


The Iraqi militia Jaish al-Mujahedin (Holy Warriors' Army) announced its intention to "destroy their cross in the heart of Rome… and to hit the Vatican."[100]


Despite the Pope's comments dying down in the media, attacks on Assyrian Christians continued and on October 9, Islamic extremist group kidnapped priest Paulos Iskander. The relatives of a Christian priest who was beheaded 3 days later in Mosul, have said that his Muslim captors had demanded his church condemn the pope's recent comments about Islam and pay a $350,000 ransom. [101]


Sura 2 controversy

Another point of contention, widely covered in Arab media[102][103][104][105], but much less so in Western media[106], was the Pope's assessment that sura 2, which includes the verse "There is no compulsion in religion", was "one of the suras of the early period, when Muhammed was still powerless and under threat", and that instructions "concerning holy war" had come later. Many scholars of Islam have taken this as a classifcation of the sura as stemming from the earlier Meccan period and have contradicted the lecture by pointing out that the sura 2 was given after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca, during the Madinan period, the final stage of the quranic revelation[107]. According to Islamic tradition[108], the verse in question dates from 625, and was revealed in the context of the expulsion of the Banu Nadir from Medina. At this point in time, Islam was one of several factions in Medina, and had no organized adherents outside of the city (except for a few that had fled Mecca to the Kingdom of Axum in 615). The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. ... For other uses see Hijra. ... The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. ... The Banu Nadir (Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in Medina, now in Saudi Arabia, in the 7th century. ... The Axumite Kingdom, also known as the Aksum Kingdom, was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from circa the 5th century BC to become an important trading nation by the 1st century AD. It converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 (various sources). ...


Speculations about the lecture's purpose

In contrast to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy - which is now deemed a precursor to the controversy over the Pope's lecture - the media focus was not on the issues of free speech or injured religious sensitivities. Underlying the widely talked about question of whether or not the Pope should apologize, and whether or not his subseqent statements even constituded an apology, several competing and separate interpretations of his intentions have been proffered. These are, broadly and in no particular order: The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they were first published in Jyllands-Posten in September 2005. ...

  • The lecture was not directed at Islam at all and the incendiary passages were purely circumstantial to the lecture's real intention, which was to counter the demotion of theology in the university environment in particular and of faith in a society plagued by postmodern relativism & irrationalism in general.[109][110][111]
  • The presence of the controversial remark in the Pope's lecture is explainable by the possibility that, in front of his old scholarly colleagues, he fell back into his role as a university theologian, showing that he is still inexperienced at operating under the eyes of the worldwide public. A temporary inattention by the Pope's advisors, compounded by a recent reshuffling inside the Vatican's hierarchy, allowed a remark to slip through that would normally have been weeded out.[112][113] However, a member of the pontifical curia is reported to have indeed given "the advice to delete the controversial section."[114]
  • Pope Benedict's lecture was a "calculated risk," a move designed to win the hearts of the Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Church who are surrounded by Moslems and whom Pope Benedict will be visiting in November, 2006. Given what he sees as close theological affinities between these two churches and other personal characteristics specific to Pope Benedict (traditional liturgy; criticism of scientific interpretation of scripture), "some form of reunion is not only feasible; from Benedict's point of view, it is highly desirable."[115] [116]
  • The lecture demonstrates that the West in general, or the Pope in particular, are "Islamophobic" and imperialist, victimizing Islam and the Muslim people.[117][118]
  • Pope Benedict's lecture portends a parting from the Vatican's previous policies on dialogue with Islam, away from promoting harmony at all costs towards more reciprocity; that is, he wants the Muslim world opened up for Christian missions in the same way that Europe is open to Muslims and conversion out of Islam to be a legal or social possibility. In this view, the position of Christians in Muslim-majority countries must be improved.[119]
  • Pope Benedict has given up hope that Islam will reform; he now wants to take on Islam in Europe in the same way his predecessor took on Communism.[120]
  • The Pope wants to challenge Islam to clarify its position on violence past, present and future, as did the Church by amending doctrine & apologizing for past atrocities, and spark a similar reaction within Islam against the recent ascent of violent strains within its fold.[121][122][123]
  • The Pope is challenging those who think that all religions are equally unreasonable, to prefer and support the religion that is most conducive to creating peace and a community of reasonable men (implicily: Catholicism, or Christianity), even if they don't believe in this religion themselves.[124]

The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Disability...

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Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The Herald Sun is a newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, that is published by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... AP, Ap, or ap may mean: // Asia Pacific AP, the U.S. military state code for personnel in the Pacific Ocean region Andhra Pradesh, a state in south India Andean Pact, now the Andean Community, a trade agreement Associated Press, an American news agency Allied Press, a major New Zealand... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Zaman may refer to: famous [Turkish] newspapers with international editions Zaman, a town in Afghanistan; The Zaman people, one of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups of Cameroon. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... This article is becoming very long. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Yahoo! News is an Internet-based news aggregator provided by Yahoo!. It features Top Stories, U.S. National, World, Business, Entertainment, Science, Health, Weather, Most Popular, News Photos, Op/Ed, and Local news. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... AFP as an acronym can stand for: Agence France-Presse Alpha-fetoprotein American Free Press Apple Filing Protocol Association for Financial Professionals Armed Forces Police Australia First Party Australian Federal Police Automatic Frequency Planning, a term used in mobile communications Advanced Function Presentation, an IBM printing architecture and file format. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The word aina has a number of specific meanings: Aina أين, a word in the Arabic language meaning where? aina, a word in the Hawaiian language meaning land, or soil (Earth). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The word aina has a number of specific meanings: Aina أين, a word in the Arabic language meaning where? aina, a word in the Hawaiian language meaning land, or soil (Earth). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... BBC Focus magazine is a monthly magazine which describes itself as the worlds best science and technology monthly. The magazine features articles loosely based around the subject of science and technology. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Strategic Forecasting, Inc. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Andrew G. Bostom, MD, MS is an American scholar and Associate Professor of Medicine at Brown University Medical School. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative political magazine published 48 times per year. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

Aslim Taslam (Arabic: أسلم تسلم) (submit to Islam) is a phrase that was taken from the letters sent by the Prophet Muhammed to the chiefs of tribes in his times in which he urged them to convert to Islam to spare their lives. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle or holy war in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status... The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they were first published in Jyllands-Posten in September 2005. ... Theo van Gogh (IPA pronunciation: ) (July 23, 1957 – November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ...

External links

Wikinews has news related to:
Muslim world condemns Pope's criticism of Islam
  • Official English translation of the Regensburg lecture (also in pdf format)
  • Original German text of the Regensburg lecture
  • Audio recording of the Regensburg lecture (mp3) (German)
  • Declaration by the Vatican issued on 16 September (Italian and English)
  • Interview with Theodore Khoury, the author of the book Benedict cited
  • Open Letter to the Pope by 38 top clerics, replying to the points raised in the Pope's lecture, and rebuttal by MA Khan
  • Letter and article exchange about the Pope's lecture between Muslim scholar Aref Ali Nayed, Catholic scholar Alessandro Martinetti, and Cardinal Bertone
  • A commentary on Benedict XVI's lecture by Muslim scholar Hamza Yusuf
  • Documentation at www.chiesa.it
  • The Pope Delusion, an article by Hatim Salih - posted as a response to Prof Tariq Ramadan's article The True Debate
 v  d  e 
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI

Biography | 2005 Conclave | Theology | Works | Coat of Arms | Deus Caritas Est | Travels | Islam Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Professor Adel Theodor Khoury (Arabic: عادل خوري) (born March 26, 1930 in Tebnine, Libanon) is a catholic theologian. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Image File history File links BXVI_CoA_like_gfx_PioM.svg Summary Author: Piotr MichaÅ‚ Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL Place: POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Date: 07 V 2005 updated 18:26, 1 June 2006 (UTC) Description: Benedict XVI coat of arms like graphic. ... This article covers the early life of Pope Benedict XVI, from his birth in 1927 to his finishing his education and becoming ordained in 1951. ... The Papal conclave of 2005 was convoked due to the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005. ... Pope Benedict XVIs Theology and positions are similar to those of his predecessor, John Paul II, and is a staunch defender of Catholic doctrine. ... These are the works written by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, elected Pope Benedict XVI: As Joseph Kardinal Ratzinger (original titles) Dialektik der Säkularisierung (En: The Dialectics of Secularization), Freiburg im Breisgau 2005, ISBN 3-451-28869-9 Werte in Zeiten des Umbruchs (En: Values in a Time of Upheaval), Freiburg... Initial rendering of the coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI The coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI was designed by then Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (who later was created a Cardinal) soon after the papal election. ... Pope Benedict signs the encyclical Deus Caritas Est. ... Pope Benedict has not been as active in visiting other countires as his predecessor, John Paul II was, but has nonetheless made several trips a year to foreign countries. ... Main article: Pope Benedict XVI The Pope strongly condemned the Mohammed cartoons, first published by a Danish newspaper and later in other European papers, saying In the international context we are living at present, the Catholic Church continues convinced that, to foster peace and understanding between peoples and men, it...


 
 

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