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Encyclopedia > Pope Benedict XV
Benedict XV
Birth name Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa
Papacy began September 3, 1914
Papacy ended January 22, 1922
Predecessor Pius X
Successor Pope Pius XI
Born November 21, 1854
Genoa, Italy
Died January 22, 1922, (age 67)
Apostolic Palace, Rome, Italy
Other popes named Benedict

Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus PP. XV), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). source: http://www. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Pope St. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... View across St. ... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Pope Benedict is the regnal name of the current Roman pontiff, Pope Benedict XVI (2005–present) and has been the name of fifteen other popes: Pope Benedict I (575–579) Pope Benedict II (684–685) Pope Benedict III (855–858) Pope Benedict IV (900–903... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Pope St. ...

Contents

Early life

Pope Benedict XV was born as Giacomo della Chiesa at Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, Italy, of noble family, the son of Marchese Giuseppe della Chiesa. His first name Giacomo in Italian is the eqivalent of the english Francis. He acquired a doctorate of law in 1875, after which he studied for the priesthood. He was ordained priest on December 21, 1878. Shortly after ordination, he began studies at the training school for the Vatican diplomatic service, in which he would spend most of his career. Once he had entered the diplomatic service, Mariano Cardinal Rampolla was a friend and patron, employing him as a secretary on being posted to Madrid and subsequently on being appointed Cardinal Secretary of State. During these years Della Chiesa helped negotiate the resolution of a dispute between Germany and Spain over the Caroline Islands as well as organising relief during a cholera epidemic. When Rampolla left his post with the election of Pope Pius X, and was succeeded by Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val, Della Chiesa was retained in his post. Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... A Marquess is a nobleman of hereditary rank in Europe and Japan. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... A diplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government of a country to communicate with the governments of other countries. ... Mariano Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro (Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, August 17, 1843 – December 17, 1913, Rome) was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Pope St. ... The Servant of God Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val y Zulueta (October 10, 1865 – February 26, 1930) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal (Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede) from 1903 until his death. ...


But Della Chiesa's association with Rampolla, the architect of Pope Leo XIII's (1878–1903) foreign policy, made his position in the Secretariat of State under the new pontificate (with its more strongly uncompromising foreign policy) somewhat uncomfortable. He was soon moved out of the diplomatic service, on 18 December 1907 becoming Archbishop of Bologna. Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Archdiocese of Bologna is a Roman Catholic territory in northern Italy, with episcopal see in Bologna. ...


On 25 May 1914 Della Chiesa was created a cardinal, becoming the Cardinal Priest of the Titulus Ss. Quattuor Coronatorum. In this capacity, on the outbreak of World War I (1914–18) – with the papacy vacant upon Pius X's death on 20 August 1914 – he made a speech on the Church's position and duties, emphasising the need for neutrality and promoting peace and the easing of suffering. The conclave opened at the end of August 1914. The war would clearly be the dominant issue of the new pontificate, so the cardinals' priority was to choose a man with great diplomatic experience. Thus on 3 September 1914 Della Chiesa, despite having been a Cardinal only three months, was elected Pope, taking the name of Benedict XV. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... First courtyard with the guard tower. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Pontificate

Styles of
Pope Benedict XV
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none

Benedict XV's pontificate was dominated by World War I, which he termed "the suicide of Europe", and its turbulent aftermath. His early call for a Christmas truce in 1914 was ignored. The Pope organised significant humanitarian efforts (establishing a Vatican bureau, for instance, to help prisoners of war from all nations contact their families) and made many unsuccessful attempts to negotiate peace, but these pleas for a negotiated peace made him unpopular, even in Catholic countries like Italy, among many supporters of the war who were determined to accept nothing less than total victory. His best known intervention was the seven-point Papal Peace proposal of August 1917, demanding a cessation of hostilities, a reduction of armaments, guaranteed freedom of the seas, and international arbitration. Only Woodrow Wilson responded directly, declaring that a declaration of peace was premature; in Europe each side saw him as biased in favour of the other and were unwilling to accept the terms he proposed. This resentment contributed to the exclusion of the Vatican from the Paris Peace conference of 1919 (although it was also part of a historical pattern of political and diplomatic marginalization of the papacy after the loss of the papal states); despite this, he wrote an encyclical pleading for international reconciliation, Pacem, Dei Munus Pulcherrimum [1]. Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ...

The Humeston New Era (Iowa newspaper) image of the coronation of Pope Benedict XV in the Sistine Chapel in 1914

In the post-war period Benedict was involved in developing the Church administration to deal with the new international system that had emerged. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In internal Church affairs, Benedict XV reiterated Pius X's condemnation of "modernist" scholars and the errors in modern philosophical systems in his first encyclical Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum, and declined to readmit to full communion scholars who had been excommunicated during the previous pontificate. However, he calmed what he saw as the excesses of the anti-modernist campaign within the Church. Modernism describes a broad body of theological views, including the belief that the Church and Catholic dogma are mere human institutions and as such their nature may radically change over time. ...


The Pope was also disturbed by the Communist revolution in Russia. The Pope reacted with horror to the strongly anti-religious policies adopted by Lenin's government and the bloodshed and widespread famine which occurred during the subsequent Russian Civil War. Combatants Red Army Latvian Reds Finnish Reds White Army Czech Legion Allied intervention UK France United States Japan Italy  Canada  Greece  Romania  Serbia New states Poland Finland  Latvia  Estonia  Lithuania Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Commanders Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Kamenev Budyonny Frunze...


Benedict XV also promulgated a new Code of Canon Law in 1917 and attempted to improve relations with the anticlerical Republican government of France. He canonized the French national heroine Saint Joan of Arc. In the mission territories of the Third World, he emphasized the necessity of training native priests to replace the European missionaries as soon as possible, and founded the Pontifical Oriental Institute of Studies and the Coptic College in the Vatican. In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne dArc) (January 6, 1412 - May 30, 1431), known as the Maid of Orléans (French: la pucelle dOrléans), is a national heroine of France and saint of the Catholic Church. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


In physical appearance, Benedict XV was a slight man (the smallest of the three cassocks which had been prepared for whoever the new Pope might be in 1914 was still a good deal too big for him). As a result, he became known as "Il Piccolito" or "The Little Man" He was renowned for his generosity, answering all pleas for help from poor Roman families with large cash gifts from his private revenues. When he was short on money, those who would be admitted to an audience would often be instructed by prelates not to mention their financial woes, as Benedict would inevitably feel bad that he could not help the needy. In fact, he had given so much beyond his means that money had to be borrowed to pay for his funeral expenses.



Benedict XV had a strong devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and like all the modern Popes encouraged the wearing of the Brown Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. He endorsed the belief that wearing it piously brings "the singular privilege of protection after death" from eternal damnation, and granted an indulgence for every time it was kissed. He also added the title 'Queen of Peace' to her Litany, and gave his support to an understanding of Mary as Mediatrix of All Graces (by approving a Mass and office under this title for the dioceses of Belgium) and affirmed that "together with Christ she redeemed the human race" by her immolation of Christ as his sorrowful mother (in his apostolic letter Inter sodalicia). Our Lady redirects here. ... The Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (also known as the brown scapular), is by far the best known, most celebrated, and most widespread of the small scapulars. ... Immolation means a sacrificial killing by burning, such as: Animal sacrifice Human sacrifice Sati is a Hindu funeral custom involving immolation. ...

Benedict XV lying in state.
Statue of Benedict XV in the courtyard of St. Esprit Cathedral, Istanbul.

Benedict XV fell ill with pneumonia in early January 1922. He died of the illness on January 22. Image File history File links Pope Benedict XV lying-in-state, 1922. ... Image File history File links Pope Benedict XV lying-in-state, 1922. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The statue of Pope Benedict XV in the courtyard of St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The statue of Pope Benedict XV in the courtyard of St. ... St. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although one of the less remembered Popes of the twentieth century, Benedict XV was unique in his humane approach in the world of 19141918, which starkly contrasts with that of the other great monarchs and leaders of the time. His worth is reflected in the tribute engraved at the foot of the statue that the Turks, a non-Catholic, non-Christian people, erected of him in Istanbul: "The great Pope of the world tragedy...the benefactor of all people, irrespective of nationality or religion." This monument stands in the courtyard of the St. Esprit Cathedral. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... St. ...


Pope Benedict XVI

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger showed his own admiration for Benedict XV following his election to the Papacy on April 19, 2005. The election of a new Pope is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. Ratzinger's choice of "Benedict" was seen as a signal that Benedict XV's views on humanitarian diplomacy, and his stance against relativism and modernism, would be emulated during the reign of the new Pope. This article is becoming very long. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism and Cultural relativism. ... Modernism describes a broad body of theological views, including the belief that the Church and Catholic dogma are mere human institutions and as such their nature may radically change over time. ...


During his first General Audience in St. Peter's Square on April 27, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI paid tribute to Benedict XV when explaining his choice: "Filled with sentiments of awe and thanksgiving, I wish to speak of why I chose the name Benedict. Firstly, I remember Pope Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war. In his footsteps I place my ministry in the service of reconciliation and harmony between peoples." An Audience is a formal meeting that takes place between a head of state and another person at the invitation of the head of state. ... Berninis piazza was extended by the Via della Conciliazione, Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ...


It has been reported that the relatively short 20th century reign of Benedict XV was another reason for the choice. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


(Note on numbering: Pope Benedict X is now considered an antipope. At the time, however, this status was not recognized and so the man the Roman Catholic church officially considers the tenth true Pope Benedict took the official number XI, rather than X. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Benedict by one. Popes Benedict XI-XVI are, from an official point of view, the tenth through fifteenth popes by that name.) Pope/Antipope Benedict X (reigned 1058–1059; died ca. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Pope Benedict XI (1240 – July 7, 1304), born Nicholas Boccasini, was Pope from 1303 to 1304 Born in Treviso, he succeeded Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303), but was unable to carry out his policies. ...


References

  • Peters, Walter H. The Life of Benedict XV. 1959. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.
  • Daughters of St. Paul. "Popes of the Twentieth Century". 1983. Pauline Books and Media

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Pope Benedict XV
Episcopal Lineage
Consecrated by: Pope Pius X
Date of consecration: December 22, 1907
Consecrator of
Bishop Date of consecration
Sebastiano Nicotra 1917
Eugenio Pacelli May 13, 1917
Willem Cardinal van Rossum May 19, 1918
Ersilio Menzani January 25, 1921
Federico Tedeschini May 5, 1921
Carlo Cremonesi January 8, 1922
Preceded by
Domenico Cardinal Svampa
Archbishop of Bologna
18 December 19073 September 1914
Succeeded by
Giorgio Cardinal Gusmini
Preceded by
Pius X
Supreme Pontiff of the Holy Roman Church
19141922
Succeeded by
Pius XI

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Benedict XV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1291 words)
Arms of Pope Benedict XV Della Chiesa was born at Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, Italy, of noble family, the son of Marchese Giuseppe della Chiesa.
Benedict XV also promulgated a new Code of Canon Law in 1917 and attempted to improve relations with the anticlerical Republican government of France by canonising the French national heroine Saint Joan of Arc.
Although one of the less remembered Popes of the twentieth century, Benedict XV was unique in his humane approach in the world of 1914–1918, which starkly contrasts with that of the other great monarchs and leaders of the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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