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Encyclopedia > Pope Alexander VI
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Alexander VI
Birth name Roderic Llançol-Borja i Borja (in Catalan) (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia)
Papacy began 11 August 1492
Papacy ended August 18, 1503
Predecessor Innocent VIII
Successor Pius III
Born January 1, 1431
Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain
Died August 18, 1503
Rome
Other popes named Alexander

Pope Alexander VI (1 January 143118 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. He was born at Xativa, Valencia, Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol (Castilian) or Llançol (Catalan); he assumed his mother's family name of Borja on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Calixtus III in 1455. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Alexander VI ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and one of several co-official languages in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (under the name Valencian). ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – July 25, 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo, was Pope from 1484 until his death. ... Pius III, born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini (May 9, 1439 – October 18, 1503), was [Pope]] from September 22 to October 18, 1503. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Xàtiva (formerly written Játiva), or San Felipe de Játiva, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida and at the junction of the Valencia-Murcia and Valencia-Albacete railways. ... Valencia province Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /balenθja/; Valencian Catalan: València /vałεnsia/) is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Country. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... There have been eight popes named Alexander. ... (Redirected from 1 January) January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... (Redirected from 18 August) August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Secularity is the state of being without religious or spiritual qualities. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Xàtiva (formerly written Játiva), or San Felipe de Játiva, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida and at the junction of the Valencia-Murcia and Valencia-Albacete railways. ... // Valencia is the name of two large cities in different parts of the world: Spain: Valencia, capital of the Valencia Autonomous Community. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and one of several co-official languages in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (under the name Valencian). ... This is a list of articles on Wikipedia. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... ... no changes . ...

Contents

Education and election

Rodrigo Borgia studied law at Bologna and after his uncle's election as pope, was created successively bishop, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church, nepotistic appointments characteristic of the age. He served in the Roman Curia under five popes (Calixtus III, Pius II, Paul II, Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII) and acquired much administrative experience, influence and wealth, though not great power. Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Nepotism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Curia - usually (but simplistically) called the Vatican - is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 - August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... Pope Paul II, né Pietro Barbo (February 23, 1418 - March 22, 1471), was pope from 1464 to 1471. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 – July 25, 1492), pope from 1484 to 1492, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Calixtus III had been a senator at Rome. ...

The death of Pope Innocent VIII opened the possibility of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's succession to the Throne of St. Peter.
The death of Pope Innocent VIII opened the possibility of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's succession to the Throne of St. Peter.

On the death of Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492), the three likely candidates for the Holy See were cardinals Borgia, Ascanio Sforza and Giuliano della Rovere. While there was never substantive proof of simony, the rumour was that Borgia, by his great wealth, succeeded in buying the largest number of votes, including that of Sforza, whom, popular rumour had it, he bribed with four mule-loads of silver.[1] According to some historians, however, Borgia had no need of such an unsubtle exchange - the benefices and offices granted Sforza for his support would be worth considerably more than four mule-loads of silver. John Burchard, the conclave's master of ceremonies and a leading figure of the papal household under several popes, recorded in his diary that the 1492 conclave was a particularly expensive campaign. Della Rovere was bankrolled to the cost of 200,000 gold ducats by the King of France, with another 100,000 supplied by the Republic of Genoa.[2] Borgia was elected on 11 August 1492, assuming the name of Alexander VI. H.H. Pope Innocent VIII File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent VIII ... H.H. Pope Innocent VIII File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent VIII ... Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – July 25, 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo, was Pope from 1484 until his death. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Simony is the ecclesiastical crime and personal sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:18-24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... // Early Life Johann Burchard was born c. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


Nepotism and opposition

Alexander's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government, in contrast to the mismanagement of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour. But it was not long before his passion for endowing his relatives at the church's and his neighbours' expense became manifest. To that end he was ready to commit any crime and to plunge all Italy into war. Alexander VI had four children by his mistress (Vannozza dei Cattani), three sons and a daughter: Giovanni, Cesare, Goffredo (or Giuffre) and Lucrezia. Cesare, while a youth of seventeen and a student at Pisa, was made Archbishop of Valencia, and Giovanni received a cardinal's hat and the dukedom of Gandía, the Borgias' ancestral home in Spain. For the Duke of Gandía and for Giuffrè/Goffredo the Pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the Kingdom of Naples. Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandía were Cerveteri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful house. This policy brought Ferdinand I, King of Naples, into conflict with Alexander, who was also opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand. Della Rovere fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth as Alexander formed a league against Naples (25 April 1493) and prepared for war. Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani (1442 - ?) was one of the many mistresses of the Pope Alexander VI, whose relation lasted longer. ... Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia (born Rome 1474- murdered Rome June 14, 1497) was the brother of the famous Cesare Borgia. ... Cesare Borgia. ... Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneziano, traditionally assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia. ... This article discusses the Italian city. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Valencia province Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /balenθja/; Valencian Catalan: València /vałεnsia/) is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Country. ... Gandia is a city in the Land of Valencia, Eastern Spain on the Mediterranean. ... Map of the Papal States. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... A small town located approximately 60 miles N of Rome. ... Anguillara were a baronal family of Latium, especially powerful in Rome and in the current province of Viterbo during the Middle Ages. ... Gentile Virginio Orsini (circa 1434 - 8 January 1497) was a Renaissance Roman aristocrat and vassal of the papal throne and the Kingdom of Naples, mainly remembered as the powerful head of the Orsini family during its feud with Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). ... Ferdinand I (1423 - January 25, 1494), also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. ... The Bishop of Ostia was the ecclesiastical head of the Italian Catholic diocese of Ostia. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Lucrezia Borgia, the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, was given an opulent wedding at the Vatican Palace.
Lucrezia Borgia, the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, was given an opulent wedding at the Vatican Palace.

Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, and Venice. He also appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was anxious to be on good terms with the papacy in order to obtain the title to the newly discovered continent of America. Alexander, in the bull Inter Caetera, 4 May 1493, divided the title between Spain and Portugal along a demarcation line. (This and other related bulls are known collectively as the Bulls of Donation.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (803x1014, 122 KB) Bartolomeo Veneziano, Portrait of a woman, could be Lucrezia Borgia Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (803x1014, 122 KB) Bartolomeo Veneziano, Portrait of a woman, could be Lucrezia Borgia Source: http://www. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Alexander VI arranged great marriages for his children. Lucrezia had been promised to the Venetian Don Gasparo da Procida, but on her father's elevation to the papacy the engagement was cancelled and in 1493 she married Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, the ceremony being celebrated at the Vatican Palace with unparalleled magnificence. Giovanni Sforza dAragona, Conte de Cotognola, Principe di Pesaro (c. ... Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic. ... The Palace of the Vatican, also called the Papal Palace or the Apostolic Palace, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ...


In spite of the splendours of the Pontifical court, the condition of Rome became every day more deplorable. The city swarmed with Spanish adventurers, assassins, prostitutes and informers; murder and robbery were committed with impunity, and the Pope himself cast aside all show of decorum, living a purely secular life and indulging in the chase, dancing, stage plays and orgies (culminating in the debaucherous Banquet of Chestnuts of 1501). One of his close companions was Cem, the brother of the Sultan Bayazid II (1481–1512), detained as a hostage. The general outlook in Italy was of the gloomiest and the country was on the eve of foreign invasion. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... The Banquet of Chestnuts, known more properly as the Ballet of Chestnuts, refers to a fête in Rome, and particularly to a supper given by Don Cesare Borgia on October 30, 1501, an account of which is preserved in Johann Burchards Liber Notarum. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cems portrait. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Beyazid II Beyazid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ...


French involvement

Alexander VI would ally with Charles VIII of France against the King of Naples.
Alexander VI would ally with Charles VIII of France against the King of Naples.

Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. He sought help from Charles VIII of France, who was allied to Ludovico il Moro Sforza, the de facto ruler of Milan who needed French support to legitimise his regime (1483–1498). As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo — the husband of his granddaughter Isabella — Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his scheme for the conquest of Naples. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


But Alexander VI, always ready to seize opportunities to aggrandize his family, then adopted a double policy. Through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and cemented the peace by a marriage between his son Giuffre and Doña Sancha, another granddaughter of Ferdinand I. In order to dominate the Sacred College of Cardinals more completely, Alexander, in a move that created much scandal, created twelve new cardinals, among them his own son Cesare, then only eighteen years old, and Alessandro Farnese (later Pope Paul III), the brother of one of the Pope's mistresses, the beautiful Giulia Farnese. The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Giulia Farnese was one of the mistresses of the Pope Alexander VI. She was known as Giulia la bella, which in Italian means Giulia the Beautiful. Lorenzo Pucci described her as most lovely to behold. Cesare Borgia, the son of Alexander VI, described her as having dark colouring, black eyes...


On 25 January 1494 Ferdinand I died and was succeeded by his son Alfonso II (1494–1495). Charles VIII of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander VI authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Turks, without mentioning Naples. But when the French invasion became a reality he was alarmed, recognized Alfonso II as King, and concluded an alliance with him in exchange for various fiefs for his sons (July 1494). A military response to the French threat was set in motion: a Neapolitan army was to advance through the Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa; but both expeditions were badly conducted and failed, and on 8 September Charles VIII crossed the Alps and joined Lodovico il Moro at Milan. The papal states were in turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France. Charles VIII rapidly advanced southward, and after a short stay in Florence, set out for Rome (November 1494). January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alphonso II of Naples (November 4, 1448 - December 18, 1495) was King of Naples from January 25, 1494 to 1495. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... The Castle of Julius II in Ostia Antica. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


Alexander VI appealed to Ascanio Sforza for help, and even to the Sultan. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defence, but his position was precarious. When the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles, Alexander had no choice but to come to terms with Charles, who on 31 December entered Rome with his troops, the cardinals of the French faction, and Giuliano della Rovere. Alexander now feared that the king might depose him for simony and summon a council, but he won over the bishop of Saint Malo, who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat. Alexander VI agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Cem to Charles VIII and to give him Civitavecchia (16 January 1495). On 28 January Charles VIII departed for Naples with Cem and Cesare, but the latter slipped away to Spoleto. Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alfonso II fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II, who also had to escape, abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Simony is the ecclesiastical crime and personal sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:18-24. ... Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany in northern France on the English Channel. ... Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio, a sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, 50 miles WNW of Rome, 42°06N 11°47E. According to the 2003 census, its population was 50,100. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spoleto (Latin: Spoletium), 42°44′ N 12°44′ E, an ancient town in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria, at 385 meters (1391 ft) above sea-level on a foothill of the Apennines. ... Ferdinand II (26 August 1469 - September 7, 1496), sometimes known as Ferrantino, was King of Naples from 1495 to 1496. ...


The French in retreat

But a reaction against Charles VIII soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on 31 March 1495 a so-called Holy League was formed between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico il Moro and Ferdinand of Spain, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy. Charles VIII had himself crowned King of Naples on 12 May but a few days later began his retreat northward. He encountered the allies at Fornovo and after a drawn battle cut his way through them and was back in France by November. Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, with Spanish help. The expedition, if it produced no material results, demonstrated the foolishness of the so called 'politics of equilibrium' (the Medicean doctrine of preventing one of the Italian principates from overwhelming the rest and uniting them under its hegemony), since it rendered the country unable to defend itself against the powerful nation states, France and Spain, that had forged themselves during the previous century. Alexander VI, following the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism, now took advantage of the defeat of the French to break the power of the Orsini and begin building himself an effective power base in the papal states. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Papal States, Republic of Venice, Naples, Duchy of Milan, Holy Roman Empire Commanders Charles VIII Francesco II The First Italian War (1494–95), sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIIIs Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... The name Charles VIII is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles VIII of France, reigned 1483-1498 Charles VIII of Sweden, reigned 1448-1470 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Naples panorama. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... The Battle of Fornovo took place in July 1495 during the Italian Wars. ... See: Ferdinand II of Leon (1137-1188, king from 1157) Ferdinand II of Portugal (1816-1885, king 1837-1853) Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Catholic (1452-1516, king of Aragon from 1479, of Sicily from 1468) (=Ferdinand V of Castille 1474-1504) (=Ferdinand III of Naples 1504-1516) Ferdinand II... Naples panorama. ...

Castel Sant'Angelo is where Pope Alexander VI secluded himself after the death of the Duke of Gandia.

Virginio Orsini, who had been captured by the Spaniards, died a prisoner at Naples, and the Pope confiscated his property; but the rest of the clan still held out, defeating the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino and Giovanni Borgia, Duke of Gandia, at Soriano (January 1497). Peace was made through Venetian mediation, the Orsini paying 50,000 ducats in exchange for their confiscated lands, while the Duke of Urbino, whom they had captured, was left by the Pope to pay his own ransom. The Orsini remained very powerful, and Alexander VI could count on none but his 3,000 Spaniards. His only success had been the capture of Ostia and the submission of the Francophile cardinals Colonna and Savelli. Castel SantAngelo in Rome, Italy. ... Castel SantAngelo in Rome, Italy. ... Gentile Virginio Orsini (circa 1434 - 8 January 1497) was a Renaissance Roman aristocrat and vassal of the papal throne and the Kingdom of Naples, mainly remembered as the powerful head of the Orsini family during its feud with Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ... Giovanni Borgia may refer to several members of the Borgia family. ... Soriano is a department of Uruguay. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The rich and influential Roman family of the Savelli provided four popes, Benedict II (684–685), Gregory II (715–731), Honorius III (1216–27), the senator Luca Savelli, who sacked the Lateran in 1234, and the senators son, Honorius IV (1285-87). ...


Then occurred the first of those ugly domestic tragedies for which the house of Borgia remains notorious. On 14 June the Duke of Gandia, lately created Duke of Benevento, disappeared: the next day his corpse was found in the Tiber. Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ...


Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castel Sant'Angelo and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth – a resolution he did not keep. Every effort was made to discover the assassin, and suspicion fell on various highly placed people. When the rumour spread that Cesare, the Pope's second son, had done the deed, the inquiries ceased. No conclusive evidence has come to light about the murder, although Cesare is the most widely suspected. Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ...


Confiscations and Savonarola

Violent and vengeful, Cesare now became the most powerful man in Rome, and even his father quailed before him. Because Alexander needed funds to carry out his various schemes, he began a series of confiscations, of which one of the victims was his own secretary. The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offence; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property. The least opposition to the Borgia was punished with death.

Because of his invectives against papal corruption, Girolamo Savonarola was viewed with hostility by Pope Alexander VI.
Because of his invectives against papal corruption, Girolamo Savonarola was viewed with hostility by Pope Alexander VI.

Even in that corrupt age the debased state of the curia was a major scandal. Opponents such as the demagogic monk Girolamo Savonarola, who appealed for a general council to confront the papal abuses, launched invectives against papal corruption. Alexander VI, unable to get the excommunicated Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (23 May 1498). The houses of Colonna and Orsini, after much fighting between themselves, allied against the Pope, who found himself unable to maintain order in his own dominions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (445x625, 23 KB) Girolamo Savonarola, by Fra Bartolomeo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (445x625, 23 KB) Girolamo Savonarola, by Fra Bartolomeo. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In these circumstances, Alexander, feeling more than ever that he could only rely on his own kin, turned his thoughts to further family aggrandizement. He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage to Giovanni Sforza — who had responded to the suggestion that he was impotent with the counter-claim that Alexander and Cesare indulged in incestuous relations with Lucrezia — in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of King Frederick IV of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II the previous year), he induced Frederick by threats to agree to a marriage between the Duke of Bisceglie, a natural son of Alfonso II, and Lucrezia. Cesare, after resigning his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new French king Louis XII, in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino), a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of papal Romagna, and a marriage to a princess of Navarre. Giovanni Sforza dAragona, Conte de Cotognola, Principe di Pesaro (c. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederick IV (April 19, 1452 – November 9, 1504), was King of Naples from 1496 to 1501. ... Bisceglie is a town on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 51. ... Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515) was King of France 1498 – January 1, 1515. ... Location within France Valence is a commune in south-eastern France, the capital of the département of Drôme, situated on the left bank of the Rhône, 65 miles south of Lyon on the railway to Marseille. ... Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ...


Alexander VI hoped that Louis XII's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles VIII had been. In spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January 1499 and was joined by Venice. By the autumn Louis XII was in Italy expelling Lodovico Sforza from Milan. With French success seemingly assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with the Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes. Cesare, empowered by the support of the French, proceeded to attack the turbulent cities one by one in his capacity as nominated gonfaloniere (standard bearer) of the church. But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in 1500. 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is one of the biggest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is one of the biggest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... A Gonfaloniere is a government post in medieval and renaissance Florence. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cesare in the North

Indulgences were a key source of funding for Pope Alexander VI.
Indulgences were a key source of funding for Pope Alexander VI.

This year was a jubilee year, and crowds of pilgrims flocked to the city from all parts of the world bringing money for the purchase of indulgences, so that Alexander VI was able to furnish Cesare with funds for his enterprise. In the north the pendulum swung back once more in favour of the French, who reoccupied Milan in April, causing the downfall of the Sforza, much to Alexander VI's satisfaction. An indulgence from Johann Tetzel, 1517 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... An indulgence from Johann Tetzel, 1517 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ...


In July the Duke of Bisceglie, whose existence was no longer advantageous, was murdered on Cesare's orders, leaving Lucrezia free to contract another marriage. The Pope, ever in need of money, now created twelve new cardinals, from whom he received 120,000 ducats, and fresh conquests for Cesare were considered. A crusade was talked of, but the real object was central Italy; and so in the autumn, Cesare, backed by France and Venice, set forth with 10,000 men to complete his interrupted business in the Romagna. The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ...

The administration Pope Alexander VI created to replace the despots of Romagna drew the admiration of political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
The administration Pope Alexander VI created to replace the despots of Romagna drew the admiration of political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.

The local despots of Romagna were duly dispossessed, and an administration was set up, which, if tyrannical and cruel, was at least orderly and strong, and which aroused the admiration of Machiavelli. On his return to Rome in June 1501 Cesare was created Duke of Romagna. Louis XII, having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well. He concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the Pope on 25 June, Frederick being formally deposed. While the French army proceeded to invade Naples, Alexander VI took the opportunity, with the help of the Orsini, to reduce the Colonna to obedience. In his absence on campaign he left Lucrezia as regent, providing the remarkable spectacle of a pope's natural daughter in charge of the Holy See. Shortly afterwards he induced Alfonso d'Este, son of the Duke of Ferrara, to marry Lucrezia, thus establishing her as wife of the heir to one of the most important duchies in Italy (January 1502). At about this time a Borgia of doubtful parentage was born — Giovanni, described in some papal documents as Alexander VI's son and in others as Cesare's. Image File history File links Machiavelli. ... Image File history File links Machiavelli. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Alfonso dEste by an unknown artist Alfonso dEste (1486–1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the War of the League of Cambrai. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As France and Spain were quarrelling over the division of Naples and the Campagna barons were quiet, Cesare set out once more in search of conquests. In June 1502 he seized Camerino and Urbino, the news of whose capture delighted the Pope; but his attempt to draw Florence into an alliance failed. In July, Louis XII of France again invaded Italy and was at once bombarded with complaints from the Borgias' enemies. Alexander VI's diplomacy, however, turned the tide, and Cesare, in exchange for promising to assist the French in the south, was given a free hand in central Italy. Camerino is small town of 7 000 in Marche, Italy and lies on the Apennines between Marche and Umbria, between the valleys of the rivers Potenza and Chienti. ...


Last years

A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy on the part of the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri. At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked black for the house of Borgia. But a promise of French help quickly forced the confederates to come to terms. Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death (31 December 1502). As soon as Alexander VI heard the news he lured Cardinal Orsini to the Vatican and cast him into a dungeon, where he died. His goods were confiscated, his aged mother turned into the street and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Giuffre Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles. Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated and the Borgias' power increased. Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Giuffre in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to Alexander VI's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano. Country Italy Region Marche Province Ancona (AN) Mayor Elevation 3 m Area 115 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 43,899  - Density 359/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Senigalliesi Dialing code 071 Postal code 60019 Frazioni see list Patron St. ... Vitellozzo Vitelli (birthdate unknown ;died December 31, 1502) was an Italian condouiere. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Bracciano is a town and commune located northwest of Rome, Italy, famous for its lake of volcanic origin (Lago di Bracciano or Sabatino) and its medieval castle. ...


Three more high personages fell victim to the Borgias' greed this year: Cardinal Michiel, who was poisoned in April 1503, J. da Santa Croce, who had helped to seize Cardinal Orsini, and Troches or Troccio, Alexander's chamberlain and secretary; all these murders brought immense sums to the Pope. About Cardinal Ferrari's death there is more doubt; he probably died of fever, but Alexander VI immediately confiscated his goods even so. The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and Alexander VI was forever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised the most advantageous terms at any moment. He offered to help Louis XII on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna. Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August 1503 when, in the midst of all these projects and negotiations, both he and his father were taken ill with fever. It has been suggested that Cesare inadvertently poisoned his father and himself with wine laced with cantarella (white arsenic) that he probably intended to use on others,[3] although some commentaries (including the Encyclopædia Britannica) doubt the stories about poison and attribute Alexander's death to malaria, at that time prevalent in Rome, or to another such pestilence. The ambassador of Ferrara wrote to Duke Ercole that it was no wonder the pope and the duke were sick because nearly everyone in Rome was ill as a consequence of bad air ("per la mala condictione de aere"). Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... This article discusses the Italian city. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cantarella , was most probably a variation of arsenic used by Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia, to poison his victims. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... The miasma theory of disease held that diseases like cholera were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. The miasma theory was consistent with the observations that: disease was associated with poor sanitation (and hence foul odors) and that sanitary improvements reduced disease, but...


Death and reputation

Pope Pius III succeeded Alexander VI upon his death.
Pope Pius III succeeded Alexander VI upon his death.

Burchard recorded the events that surrounded the death of the Pope. According to Burchard, Alexander VI's stomach became swollen and turned to liquid, while his face became wine-coloured and his skin began to peel off. Finally his stomach and bowels bled profusely. After more than a week of intestinal bleeding and convulsive fevers, and after accepting last rites and making a confession, the despairing Alexander VI expired on 18 August 1503 at the age of 72. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


His death was followed by scenes of wild disorder, and Cesare, too ill to attend to the business himself, sent Don Michelotto, his chief bravo, to seize the Pope's treasures before the death was publicly announced. When the body was exhibited to the people the next day it was in a shocking state of decomposition. Writing in his Liber Notarum, Burchard elaborates: "The face was very dark, the colour of a dirty rag or a mulberry, and was covered all over with bruise-coloured marks. The nose was swollen; the tongue had bent over in the mouth, completely double, and was pushing out the lips which were, themselves, swollen. The mouth was open and so ghastly that people who saw it said they had never seen anything like it before." It has been suggested that, taken into account the unusual level of decomposition, Alexander VI was poisoned to death accidentally with a substance probably prepared to poison one of his guests, Cardinal Adriano.


Burchard described how the Pope's mouth foamed like a kettle over a fire and how the body began to swell so much that it became as wide as it was long. The Venetian ambassador reported that Alexander VI's body was "the ugliest, most monstrous and horrible dead body that was ever seen, without any form or likeness of humanity".[4] Finally the body began to release sulphurous gasses from every orifice. Burchard records that he had to jump on the body to jam it into the coffin and covered it with an old carpet, the only surviving furnishing in the room. Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ...


Such was Alexander VI's unpopularity that the priests of St. Peter's Basilica refused to accept the body for burial until forced to do so by papal staff. Only four prelates attended the Requiem Mass. Alexander's successor on the Throne of St. Peter, Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pope Pius III (1503), forbade the saying of a Mass for the repose of Alexander VI's soul, saying, "It is blasphemous to pray for the damned". After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in a less well-known church, the Spanish national church of Santa Maria di Monserrato. This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... A requiem is a Roman Catholic mass performed in commemoration of the dead, also known in Latin as the Missa pro Defunctis. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... Pius III, born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini (May 9, 1439 – October 18, 1503), was [Pope]] from September 22 to October 18, 1503. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ...


The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1911) wrote of Alexander that "His career shows no great political ideas, and none of his actions indicate genius. His one thought was family aggrandizement…" He gave away the temporal estates of the papacy to his children: Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

…as though they belonged to him. The secularization of the church was carried to a pitch never before dreamed of, and it was clear to all Italy that he regarded the papacy as an instrument of worldly schemes with no thought of its religious aspect. During his pontificate the church was brought to its lowest level of degradation. The condition of his subjects was deplorable, and if Cesare's rule in Romagna was an improvement on that of the local tyrants, the people of Rome have seldom been more oppressed than under the Borgia.

They further write of him that he "has become almost a mythical character, and countless legends and traditions are attached to his name, the most noted being the famous golden cup used to poison his victims…" While Alexander

…was not the only figure responsible for the general unrest in Italy or for the foreign invasions, but he was ever ready to profit by them. Even if we do not accept all the stories of his murders and poisonings and immoralities as true, there is no doubt that his greed for money and his essentially vicious nature led him to commit a great number of crimes. For many of his misdeeds his terrible son Cesare was responsible, but of others the pope cannot be acquitted.

The one pleasing aspect of his life is his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante. Raphael, Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him, and a curious contrast, characteristic of the age, is afforded by the fact that a family so steeped in vice and crime could take pleasure in the most exquisite works of art. Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... This page is about the artist. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... The Crucifixion with Sts Jerome and Christopher (1471) Oil on wood, 59 x 40 cm Galleria Borghese, Rome Pinturicchio (1454-1513), Italian painter, whose full name was Bernardino di Betti. ...

It has been noted that the crimes of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other medieval leaders, with the one exception being his position in the Church. As De Maistre said in his work Du Pape, "The latter are forgiven nothing, because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI." Joseph de Maistre (1753- February 26, 1821) was a French writer, who was one of the most influential spokesmen for a counter-revolutionary and authoritarian conservatism, in the period following the French Revolution. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


(Note on numbering: Pope Alexander V is now considered an anti-pope. At the time however, he was not considered as such and so the fifth true Pope Alexander took the official number VI. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Alexander by one. Popes Alexander VI-VIII are really the fifth through seventh recognised popes by that name.) During certain periods of turbulence in the Roman Catholic Church, Papal elections were conducted which were not considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church, either at the time of the election itself, or were subsequently declared invalid. ...


Mistresses and family

Of his many mistresses the one for whom his passion lasted longest was a certain Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani, born in 1442, and wife of three successive husbands. The connection began in 1470, and she bore him four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia (born 1474), Cesare (born 1476), Lucrezia (born 1480), and Goffredo or Giuffre (born 1481 or 1482). His other children – Girolamo, Isabella and Pier Luigi – were of uncertain parentage. Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia Farnese (Giulia Bella), wife of an Orsini, but his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. He lavished vast sums on them and loaded them with every honour. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia lived with his mistress Giulia, who bore him a daughter, Laura, in 1492. Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani (1442 - ?) was one of the many mistresses of the Pope Alexander VI, whose relation lasted longer. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia (born Rome 1474- murdered Rome June 14, 1497) was the brother of the famous Cesare Borgia. ... Gandia is a city in the Land of Valencia, Eastern Spain on the Mediterranean. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Cesare Borgia. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneziano, traditionally assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Giulia Farnese was one of the mistresses of the Pope Alexander VI. She was known as Giulia la bella, which in Italian means Giulia the Beautiful. Lorenzo Pucci described her as most lovely to behold. Cesare Borgia, the son of Alexander VI, described her as having dark colouring, black eyes... The Orsini family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying three popes and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals, the Colonna family, for influence. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


Representations in popular culture

Books

Frederick Rolfe wrote Chronicles of the House of Borgia. This was a revisionist account, in which he argued that the Borgia family was unjustly maligned and that the accounts of poisoning were a myth. Fr. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of historical facts, with an eye towards updating histories with newly discovered, more accurate, or less biased information. ...


Alexander VI and his family are the subjects of Mario Puzo's final novel The Family, as well as Robert Rankin's humorous and fictionalized novel The Antipope. Mario Puzo Mario Gianluigi Puzo (October 15, 1920 – July 2, 1999) was an American author known for his fictional books about the Mafia. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... The Family is a novel by Mario Puzo. ... Robert Rankin Robert Fleming Rankin (born July 27, 1949) is a prolific British humorous novelist. ... The Antipope is a comic fantasy novel by the British author Robert Rankin. ...


The Borgia Bride (2005) is a historic fiction by Jeanne Kalogridis, told from the perspective of Dona Sancha, married to the Pope's youngest son Jofre.


In March 2005, Heavy Metal published the first of a three part graphic novel biography of Alexander VI entitled "Borgia", written by Alexandro Jodorowsky with art by Milo Manara. The story focuses mostly on the sexual indiscretions and acts of violent backstabbery carried out by the corrupt papal figure. The second part was released in May 2006. Jean-Michel Nicollets cover for the first issue. ... Alexandro Jodorowsky, born on February 7, 1929. ... Milo Manara (born Maurilio Manara, September 12, 1945, Luson, Italy) is an Italian comic book creator (writer and drawer), best known for his erotic approach to the medium. ...


Gregory Maguire makes strong references to Alexander VI and specifically his daughter in the 2003 novel, Mirror, Mirror. Gregory Maguire (born June 9, 1954 in Albany, New York) is an American author. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Film

Alexander is played by Lluís Homar in the 2006 Spanish film, Los Borgia.


Television

The papacy of Alexander VI was dramatized in the 1981 BBC series The Borgias, starring the veteran Italian actor Adolfo Celi as Pope Alexander. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... The Borgias on the cover of Radio Times magazine. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor or actress is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ... Adolfo Celi as Emilio Largo in Thunderball Adolfo Celi (born July 27, 1922 in Messina, Sicily, Italy; died February 19, 1986 in Rome, Italy) was an Italian film actor and director. ...


The Canadian sketch comedy History Bites parodied Pope Alexander VI by portraying him and his family as the Osbournes. For information about The Sketch Show TV programme, see The Sketch Show. ... History Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. ... The Osbournes was an Emmy Award-winning American reality television program broadcast by MTV in the U.S., by CTV in Canada, Channel 4 in the UK and MTV UK and Ireland in Ireland and the UK, RTÉ Two in Ireland, Network Ten, MTV Australia in Australia and TV2 in...


Other

The British occultist Aleister Crowley considered Alexander VI to be one of his previous incarnations.[5] Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ...


See also

The Borgia Apartment is a suite of rooms in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican, which were adapted for personal use by Pope Alexander VI (Rodrígo de Borgia). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ ibid p.144.
  2. ^ John Burchard, Diaries 1483–1492 (translation: A.H. Matthew, London, 1910)
  3. ^ de Rossa, op.cit p.150.
  4. ^ ibid. p.151.
  5. ^ Crowley, Aleister. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, ch. 86.

Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the preceding endnote or footnote. ... Op cit (Latin, short for opus citatum, meaning the work cited. ) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation to refer the reader to an earlier citation. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • John Burchard, Diaries 1483–1492 (translation: A.H. Matthew, London, 1910)
  • Eamon Duffy, Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes (Yale Nota Bene, 2002)
  • Peter de Rossa, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy (Corgi, 1989)

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • "It Takes a Pope" Harpers Magazine, June 1886
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alexander VI
Preceded by
Innocent VIII
Pope
1492–1503
Succeeded by
Pius III

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Alexander VI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4518 words)
Pope Alexander VI (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503), born Rodrigo Borja (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia), Pope from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular Popes of the Renaissance, whose surname became a byword for low standards in the papacy of that era.
Alexander VI's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
Alexander VI hoped that Louis XII's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles VIII had been and, in spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January 1499 and was joined by Venice.
Pope Alexander VI (3563 words)
Alexander VI, (January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), born Rodrigo Borgia[?] (1431), is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance.
Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St Angelo[?], and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth--a resolution which he did not keep.
Alexander's diplomacy, however, turned the tide, and Cesare, in exchange for promising to assist the French in the south, was given a free hand in central Italy.
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