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Encyclopedia > Pope Adrian IV
Hadrian IV
Birth name Nicholas Breakspeare
Papacy began December 4, 1154
Papacy ended September 1, 1159
Predecessor Anastasius IV
Successor Alexander III
Born c. 1100
Hertfordshire, England
Died September 1, 1159
Anagni, Italy
Other popes named Adrian

Pope Adrian IV (c. 11001 September 1159), born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope from 1154 to 1159. Image File history File links Pope_Hadrian_IV.jpg‎ [edit] Summary H.H. Pope Adrian IV [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Adrian IV Manuel I Komnenos Dominium mundi ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Anastasius IV, né Corrado di Suburra or della Suburra (d. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... Pope Adrian may refer to: Pope Adrian I (772–795) Pope Adrian II (867–872) Pope Adrian III (884–885) Pope Adrian IV (1154–1159), only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ...


Adrian IV is the only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair. It is generally believed that he was born at Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and received his early education at the Abbey School, St Albans (St Albans School). For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Abbots Langley is a large village in the English county of Hertfordshire. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... The Abbey Gateway, now home to the schools History, Economics and Classics departments. ...

Contents

Early life

His father was Robert, a priest of the diocese of Bath, who became a monk at St Albans. Nicholas himself, however, was refused admission to the monastery, being told by the abbot to 'wait to go on with his schooling so that he might be considered more suitable' (Abbey chronicles). In the event he did not wait and went instead to Paris and finally became a canon regular of the cloister of St Rufus near Arles. He rose to be prior and in 1137 was unanimously elected abbot. The Diocese of Bath and Wells is an administrative division of the Church of England Province of Canterbury in England. ... Abbey gateway St Albans Abbey was an abbey at St Albans, Hertfordshire, England, dissolved in 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A canon (from the Latin form canonicus of tyhe greek kanonikos, regular) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon) secular canons A member of the chapter of priests who are responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ...


His reforming zeal as abbot led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Pope Eugene III (1145–1153), who created him cardinal bishop of Albano. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... There are communes that have the name Albano in Italy: Albano di Lucania, in the province of Potenza Albano Laziale, in the province of Rome Albano SantAlessandro, in the province of Bergamo Albano Vercellese, in the province of Vercelli This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as papal legate, organizing the affairs of the new Norwegian archbishopric of Trondheim, and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Gamla Uppsala (later moved to Uppsala) as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164. As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ...

See also: Henry, Bishop of Uppsala

Saint Henry (pyhä Henrik or piispa Henrik in Finnish, Biskop Henrik or Sankt Henrik in Swedish, Henricus et cetera in Latin; died allegedly 20 January circa 1150[1]) was a medieval Swedish clergyman. ...

Accession as Pope

On his return Nicholas was received with great honour by Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154), and on the death of the latter was elected pope on December 4, 1154. He at once endeavoured to bring down Arnold of Brescia, the leader of the anti-papal faction in Rome. Disorder within the city led to the murder of a cardinal, causing Adrian IV, shortly before Palm Sunday 1155, to take the previously unheard-of step of putting Rome under interdict. The Senate thereupon exiled Arnold. Anastasius IV, né Corrado di Suburra or della Suburra (d. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Arnold of Brescia, (c. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


The Byzantine Alliance

In 1155, Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus invaded Italy from the south, landing his forces in the region of Apulia. Making contact with local rebels who were hostile to the Sicilian crown, Byzantine forces quickly overran the coastlands and began striking inland. Pope Adrian IV watched these developments with some satisfaction. The Papacy was never on good terms with the Normans of Sicily, except when under duress by the threat of direct military action. Having the "civilised" Eastern Roman Empire on its southern border was infinitely preferable to Adrian than having to constantly deal with the troublesome Normans. Therefore, negotiations were hurriedly carried out, and an alliance was formed between Adrian and Manuel. Adrian undertook to raise a body of mercenary troops from Campania. Meanwhile, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire; this was, however, at the cost of a potential union between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church. Negotiations for union of the eastern and western churches, which had been in a state of schism since 1054, soon got underway. The combined Papal-Byzantine forces joined with the rebels against the Normans in Southern Italy, achieving a string of rapid successes as a number of cities yielded either to the threat of force or to the lure of gold. The future looked bleak for the Sicilians. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a...


It was at this point, just as the war seemed decided in the allies' favour, that things started to go wrong. The Byzantine commander Michael Palaeologus alienated some of his allies by his arrogance, and this stalled the campaign as rebel Count Robert of Loritello refused to speak to him. Although the two were reconciled, the campaign lost some of its momentum. Yet worse was to come: Michael was soon recalled to Constantinople. Although his arrogance had slowed the campaign, he was a brilliant general in the field, and his loss was a major blow to the allied campaign. The turning point was the Battle for Brindisi, where the Sicilians launched a major counter attack by both land and sea. At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries that were serving in the allied armies demanded impossible rises in their pay. When this was refused, they deserted. Even the local barons started to melt away, and soon Adrian's Byzantine allies were left hopelessly outnumbered. The naval battle was decided in the Sicilians' favour, and the Byzantine commander was captured. The defeat at Brindisi put an end to the restored Byzantine reign in Italy, and by 1158 the Byzantine army had left Italy. Robert II of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died in 1182) was the count of Conversano (from 1138) and Loritello (from 1154). ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... The Byzantine Army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine Navy. ...


Hopes for a lasting alliance with the Byzantine Empire had also come up against insuperable problems. Pope Adrian IV's conditions for a union between the eastern and western church included recognition of his religious authority over all Christians everywhere, and the Emperor's recognition of his secular authority. Neither East nor West could accept such conditions. Adrian's secular powers were too valuable to be surrendered; Manuel's subjects could never have accepted the authority of the distant Pope in Rome. In spite of his friendliness towards the Roman church, Adrian never felt able to honour Manuel with the title of "Augustus". Ultimately, a deal proved elusive, and the two churches have remained divided ever since. Byzantine redirects here. ...


Adrian IV and Ireland

Adrian IV during his reign issued a papal bull, Laudabiliter, granting dominion over Ireland to the English monarch, Henry II. The bull made Ireland a feudal possession of the King of England under the nominal overlordship of the papacy. The title the English King was to hold over Ireland was "Lord of Ireland". The theory of western Christendom was that certain states were recognised and others were not; Laudabiliter formally brought Ireland as a political entity into the European polity. In 1155, Pope Adrian IV issued a papal bull Laudabiliter giving the English King Henry II lordship over Ireland. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Ireland in the century prior to the Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169 is probably best described as a national kingdom lacking a settled monarchy, the kingship being disputed by three regional dynasties. ...


Henry II had no use for the bull until about 1170. At that time various English, Norman, and Welsh aristocrats had begun invading Ireland (c. 1166) because the deposed King of Leinster, Dermot MacMurrough, had asked them to help him regain his throne from his enemy High King of Ireland and King of Connacht Rory O'Connor. Henry was afraid these invaders would turn Ireland into a rival Norman state so he invaded Ireland himself in 1171, using the papal bull to claim sovereignty over the island, and forced the Anglo-Norman warlords and most of the Gaelic Irish kings to accept him as their overlord. Finally the Irish High King accepted Henry's overlordship in 1174 at the Treaty of Windsor. Diarmait Mac Murchada (also known as Diarmait na nGall, Dermot of the Foreigners, Daimait MacMorchada), anglicized as Dermot MacMurrough (died 1 January 1171) was the King of Leinster, and is often considered to have been the most notorious traitor in Irish history. ... Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (d. ...


In 1317 some Gaelic kings allied to Edward Bruce signed a document that asked the Pope to withdraw the effect of Laudabiliter. But the main effect from 1172 was financial, as much as political; the tithes, a form of Papal taxation, were applied to Ireland for the first time. To pay its way, Ireland started to use the feudal system. In this regard, Laudabiliter was similar to Adrian's work in Norway, bringing Christians at the edge of Europe into conformity with Rome, in terms of doctrine and taxation. The Irish church had been self-governing for centuries and had never paid its dues to Rome. But in Ireland since 1500 it has come to represent the start of Norman and English rule. Ireland was a feudal territory of the English monarch under the nominal overlordship of the papacy until 1541, when it became a kingdom belonging solely to the King of England. // Edward Bruce (Edubard a Briuis as he was known in medieval Gaelic), (c. ...


Barbarossa and the death of Adrian IV

At the diet of Besançon in October 1157, the legates presented to Barbarossa a letter from Adrian IV which alluded to the beneficia or "benefits" conferred upon the Emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense of the presentation of property from a lord to a vassal (benefice). Barbarossa was infuriated by the suggestion that he was dependent on the Pope, and in the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the Pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum or "a good deed," the coronation. The breach subsequently became wider, and Adrian IV was about to excommunicate the Emperor when he (Adrian) died at Anagni on 1 September 1159. In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... -1... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ...

Preceded by
Anastasius IV
Pope
11541159
Succeeded by
Alexander III

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pope Adrian IV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1023 words)
Adrian IV crowned the Emperor at Saint Peter's on 18 June, 1155, a ceremony which so incensed the Romans that the Pope had to leave the city, not returning until November 1156.
Pope Adrian IV's conditions for a union between the eastern and western church included recognition of his religious authority over all Chrisitans everywhere; the Emperor's, recognition of his secular authority.
Barbarossa was infuriated by the suggestion that he was dependent on the Pope, and in the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the Pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum or "a good deed," the coronation.
Talk:Pope Adrian IV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3805 words)
Adrian IV was described as a man of mild and kindly bearing, high character and learning, and famed for moving sermons and for his fine voice.
Adrian refused to surrender either territory or authority to these three challengers, citing the arguments of Hildebrand [Gregory VII], and found an temporary ally in Frederick I “Barbarossa” who, soon after his election as king of Germany in 1152, had laid claims on Italy and announced his attention to be crowned as emperor in Rome.
Pope Adrian showed his mettle early in his pontificate, when a cardinal was attacked in the street by a mob of supporters of the Roman Commune.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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