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Encyclopedia > Pontius Pilate
Ecce Homo ("Behold the Man"), Antonio Ciseri's depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem.

Pontius Pilate (pronounced /ˈpɔnʧəs ˈpaɪlət/; Latin: Pontius Pilatus, Greek: Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος) was the Procurator (governor) of the Roman Iudaea province from 26 until 36. He is typically known as the sixth Procurator of Iudea, but some sources cite him as the fifth.[citation needed] In modern times he is best known as the man who presided over the trial of Jesus and ordered his crucifixion. Pilate is the cognomen of Pontius Pilate. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Christ to the people. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Christ to the people. ... This article is a work in progress being translated from the German Wiki Ecce Homo by Quentin Massys, ca. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man), a depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to the people of Jerusalem. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


Pilate appears in all four canonical Christian Gospels. Mark, demonstrating Jesus to be innocent of plotting against Rome, portrays Pilate as extremely reluctant to execute Jesus, blaming the Jewish hierarchy for his death.[1] In Matthew, Pilate washes his hands of Jesus and reluctantly sends him to his death.[1] In Luke, Pilate not only agrees that Jesus did not conspire against Rome but King Herod also finds nothing treasonous in Jesus' actions.[1] In John, Jesus makes no claim to be the Son of Man or the Messiah to Pilate or to the Sanhedrin.[1] A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Pilate's biographical details before and after his appointment to Iudaea are unknown, but have been supplied by tradition, which include the detail that his wife's name was Claudia (she is canonized as a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church) and competing legends of his birthplace. Saints redirects here. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ...


Pilate's term serves as a reliable historical benchmark for Jesus' death.[citation needed]

Contents

Birthplace

Pilate's date and place of birth are unknown. Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland[2]; Tarraco (now Tarragona) in Spain, and Forchheim and its suburb Hausen in Germany have all developed local legends.[citation needed] The author of the Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 article noted that Pontius suggested a Samnite origin—among the Pontii—and his cognomen Pileatus, if it derived from the pileus or cap of liberty, descent from a freedman. He is commonly believed to be descended from Gaius Pontius, a Samnite General. Fortingall is a small village in Perthshire, Scotland. ... Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt in Gaelic) was a county in central Scotland, which extended from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... This article is about the country. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Forchheim is a large district city in Franconia in northern Bavaria, and also the seat of the administrative region of Upper Franconia (Oberfranken in German). ... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... poop. ... Gaius Pontius, sometimes called as Gavius Pontius or simply Pontius, was a Samnite commander during the Second Samnite War. ...


Titles and duties

Pontius Pilate's title was traditionally thought to have been procurator, since Tacitus speaks of him as such. However, an inscription on a limestone block known as Pilate Stone — apparently a dedication to Tiberius Caesar Augustus — that was discovered in 1961 in the ruins of an amphitheater at Caesarea Maritima refers to Pilate as "Prefect of Iudaea". Archaeologists believe it to be genuine and settles the argument about the historical accuracy of Pontius Pilate's existence. See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Pilate Stone. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


The title used by the governors of the region varied over the period of the New Testament. When Samaria, Judea proper and Idumea were first amalgamated into the Roman Iudaea Province[3], from 6 to the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt in 66, officials of the Equestrian order (the lower rank of governors) governed. They held the Roman title of prefect until Herod Agrippa I was named King of the Jews by Claudius. After Herod Agrippa's death in 44, when Iudaea reverted to direct Roman rule, the governor held the title procurator. When applied to governors, this term procurator, otherwise used for financial officers, connotes no difference in rank or function from the title known as prefect. Contemporary archaeological finds and documents such as the Pilate Inscription from Caesarea attest to the governor's more accurate official title only for the period 6 through 44: prefect. The logical conclusion is that texts that identify Pilate as procurator are more likely following Tacitus or are unaware of the pre-44 practice. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... This article is about the year 66. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...


The procurators' and prefects' primary functions were military, but as representatives of the empire they were responsible for the collection of imperial taxes,[4] and also had limited judicial functions. Other civil administration lay in the hands of local government: the municipal councils or ethnic governments such as — in the district of Judea and Jerusalem — the Sanhedrin and its president the High Priest. But the power of appointment of the High Priest resided in the Roman legate of Syria or the prefect of Iudaea in Pilate's day and until 41. For example, Caiaphas was appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus and deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius. After that time and until 66, the Jewish client kings exercised this privilege. Normally, Pilate resided in Caesarea but traveled throughout the province, especially to Jerusalem, in the course of performing his duties. During the Passover, a festival of deep national as well as religious significance for the Jews, Pilate, as governor or prefect, would have been expected to be in Jerusalem to keep order. He would not ordinarily be visible to the throngs of worshippers because of the Jewish people's deep sensitivity to their status as a Roman province. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... This page gives the traditional list of High Priests of Israel up to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD. The earlier parts of the list are possibly legendary. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... Lucius Vitellius was the name of two politicians of the early Roman Empire, father and son. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ...


Equestrians such as Pilate could not command legionary forces, and so in military situations, he would have to yield to his superior, the legate of Syria, who would descend into Palestine with his legions as necessary. As governor of Iudaea, Pilate would have small auxiliary forces of locally recruited soldiers stationed regularly in Caesarea and Jerusalem, such as the Antonia Fortress, and temporarily anywhere else that might require a military presence. The total number of soldiers at his disposal numbered in the range of 3000.[5] A model of the Antonia Frotress - currently in the Israel Museum. ...


Pilate according to early Jewish accounts

Most of the information about Pilate comes from the accounts of the first-century Jewish historian Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews and The Wars of the Jews. Pilate is said to have displayed some empathy for Jewish sensibilities, to encourage peaceful administration. The two accounts in Josephus' writings of one important event may be summarised as follows: A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...

On one occasion, when the soldiers under his command came to Jerusalem, he made them bring their ensigns with them, upon which were the usual images of the emperor. Roman battle standards were considered idolatrous by the Jews. The ensigns were brought in secretly by night, but their presence was soon discovered. Immediately multitudes of excited Jews rushed to Caesarea to petition him for the removal of the obnoxious ensigns. He ignored them for five days, but the next day he admitted the Jews to hear their complaint. He had them surrounded with soldiers and threatened them with instant death unless they ceased to trouble him with the matter. The Jews then threw themselves to the ground and bared their necks, declaring that they preferred death to the violation of their laws. Pilate, unwilling to kill so many, succumbed and removed the ensigns.[6]

Philo of Alexandria states that on one other occasion Pilate dedicated some gilded shields in the palace of Herod Antipas in honor of the emperor. On these shields there was no representation of any forbidden thing, but simply an inscription of the name of the donor and of him in whose honor they were set up. The Jews petitioned him to have them removed; when he refused, they appealed to Tiberius, who sent an order that they should be removed to Caesarea (Philo, Legatio ad Gaium,, 38). Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


Pilate is also said to have appropriated Herod's Temple funds for the construction of an aqueduct: Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ...

At another time he used the sacred treasure of the temple, called corban (qorban), to pay for bringing water into Jerusalem by an aqueduct. A crowd came together and clamored against him; but he had caused soldiers dressed as civilians to mingle with the multitude, and at a given signal they fell upon the rioters and beat them so severely with staves that the riot was quelled (Josephus, Jewish War 2.175–177; Ant. 18.60–62).

Pilate may possibly have responded so harshly to the unrest because, due to political machinations, the powerful neighbouring Roman province of Syria was unable to provide him military support at that particular time.[citation needed] Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...


Shortly after the account of this episode, the Antiquities of the Jews 18.63-64, in a passage of questionable authenticity known as the Testimonium Flavianum, states that, "about this time", Pilate ordered the crucifixion of someone called "Jesus", whom the author identifies as "the Christ" (i.e. the Messiah), after whom "the tribe of Christians" were named. In A.D. 93, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus published his work Antiquities of the Jews. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


In approximately 36, Pilate used arrests and executions to quash what appears to have been a Samaritan religious procession in arms that may have been interpreted as an uprising.[7] Pilate's behaviour was so offensive to the morals of the time that, after complaints to the Roman legate of Syria, Pilate was recalled to Rome, where he disappears from historic record. Pilate's supposed suicide[8] is merely a legend, and not derived from any historical account. For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The "Pilate Inscription" or "Pilate Stone" from Caesarea

Limestone block discovered in 1961 with Pilate's tribute in Latin to Tiberius. The words [...]TIVS PILATV[...] can be clearly seen on the second line.

The first physical evidence relating to Pilate was discovered in 1961, when a block of black limestone was found in the Roman theatre at Caesarea Maritima, the capital of the province of Iudaea, bearing a damaged dedication by Pilate of a Tiberieum.[9] This dedication states that he was [...]ECTVS IUDA[...] (usually read as praefectus iudaeae), that is, prefect/governor of Iudaea. The early governors of Iudaea were of prefect rank, the later were of procurator rank, beginning with Cuspius Fadus in 44. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x650, 54 KB) Summary Photo of Pontius Pilate Inscription. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x650, 54 KB) Summary Photo of Pontius Pilate Inscription. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pilate Stone. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Cuspius Fadus was a Roman procurator of Iudaea Province who is mentioned by Josephus. ...


The inscription is currently housed in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, where its Inventory number is AE 1963 no. 104. Dated to 26–37, it was discovered in Caesarea (Israel) by a group led by Antonio Frova. The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Caesarea or in its Hebrew name Qeysarya (קיסריה) is a modern urban city in Israel. ...


Pilate in the canonical Gospel accounts

Christ before Pilate, Mihály Munkácsy, 1881

According to the canonical Christian Gospels, Pilate presided at the trial of Jesus and, despite stating that he personally found him not guilty of a crime meriting death, handed him over to crucifixion. Pilate is thus a pivotal character in the New Testament accounts of Jesus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1003x654, 148 KB) Mihály Mukácsy - Christ in front of Pilate, 1881. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1003x654, 148 KB) Mihály Mukácsy - Christ in front of Pilate, 1881. ... Mihály Munkácsy (1844, Munkács, Kingdom of Hungary – 1900, Endenich, Germany) was a Hungarian painter, who lived in Paris and earned international reputation with his genre pictures and large scale biblical paintings. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Pilate by the Sanhedrin, who had arrested Jesus, and questioned him themselves. The Sanhedrin had, according to the Gospels, only been given answers by Jesus that they considered blasphemous. The Gospel of Luke records that members of the Sanhedrin then took Jesus before Pilate where they accused him of sedition against Rome by opposing the payment of taxes to Caesar and calling himself a king. Fomenting tax resistance was a capital offense,[citation needed] and Pilate was the man responsible for imperial tax collections in Judea, so it is curious[who?] that Pilate's main question to Jesus was whether he considered himself to be the King of the Jews, and thus a political threat. Mark 15:2 in the NIV translation states: "Are you the king of the Jews?" asked Pilate. "It is as you say," Jesus replied. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Following the Roman custom, Pilate ordered a sign posted above Jesus on the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, The King of the Jews" to give public notice of the legal charge against him for his crucifixion. See Matthew 15:25-27 and Luke 23:35-38. According to John 19:18-22, the chief priests protested that the public charge on the sign should read that Jesus claimed to be King of the Jews. Pilate refused to change the posted charge, most likely emphasizing once again Rome's supremacy in crucifying a Jewish king. A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the...


The Gospel of Luke also reports that such questions were asked of Jesus, in Luke's case it being the priests that repeatedly accused him, though Luke states that Jesus remained silent to such inquisition, causing Pilate to hand Jesus over to the jurisdiction (Galilee) of Herod Antipas. Although initially excited with curiosity at meeting Jesus, about whom he had heard, Luke states that Herod ended up mocking Jesus and so sent him back to Pilate. This intermediate episode with Herod is not reported by the other Gospels, which appear to present a continuous and singular trial in front of Pilate. The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


Unlike the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John states that Jesus said to Pilate that he is a king and "came into the world ... to bear witness to the truth; and all who are on the side of truth listen to my voice", to which Pilate famously replied, "What is truth?" (John 18:38) In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... John chapter 18, verse 38 of the Gospel of John, referred to as jesting Pilate or Truth?!! What is truth? In a jesting manner Pilate asks Jesus Truth?!! What is truth? and walks out before Jesus has a chance to answer. ...


The Synoptic Gospels and John then state that it had been a tradition of the Jews to release a prisoner at the time of the Passover. Pilate offers them the choice of an insurrectionist named Barabbas or Jesus, somewhat confusing because Barabbas had the full name Jesus Barabbas, and Barabbas (bar-Abbas) means Son of the Father, so the crowd had been given the choice of Jesus Son of the Father or Jesus. The crowd may not have understood whose release they were asking for, and were particularly susceptible to suggestions from the Jewish leaders. The crowd states that they wish to save Barabbas (i.e., Jesus Son of the Father). This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... This article is about the biblical character Barabbas. ...


Pilate agrees to condemn Jesus to crucifixion, after the charge is brought that Jesus is a threat to Roman occupation through his claim to the throne of King David as King of Israel in the royal line of David. The small crowd in Pilate's courtyard, according to the Synoptics, had been coached to shout against Jesus by the Pharisees and Sadducees. The Gospel of Matthew adds that before condemning Jesus to death, Pilate washes his hands with water in front of the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this man's blood; you will see." This page is about the Biblical king David. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...

Jesus at the hands of Pilate, oil on Canvas- Cucuta Cathedral Colombia by Master Santiago Martinez Delgado

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1664x1114, 272 KB) The Sentence of Jesus by Pilates; Oil on Canvas by Master Santiago Martinez Delgado of the Cucuta Cathedral Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1664x1114, 272 KB) The Sentence of Jesus by Pilates; Oil on Canvas by Master Santiago Martinez Delgado of the Cucuta Cathedral Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Master Santiago Martinez Delgado. ...

Responsibility for Jesus' death

In all New Testament accounts, Pilate hesitates to condemn Jesus, but changes his mind when the crowd insists and the Jewish leaders remind him that Jesus' claim to be king is a challenge to Roman authority.


Some suggest that this may have been an effort by Early Christian polemicists to curry favor with Rome by placing the blame for Jesus' execution on the Jews and exonerate the largely Italian Roman Empire.[citation needed] Yet Pilate's ability to be swayed by the crowd and his subsequent unjust decision to execute the innocent man hardly seem complimentary of Rome. So perhaps to save face, he "washed his hands", said that his death was not on his hands (an action of doubtful effect), and let the crowd decide. The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... In Christianity, the question of who is responsible for the death of Jesus has both historical and theological components. ...


Roman magistrates had wide discretion in executing their tasks, and some readers question whether Pilate would have been so captive to the demands of the crowd (Miller, 49–50). (And see, Nettervile, "Jesus, etc pp. 22-23)[10] Summarily executing someone to calm the situation would, however, have been a tool a Roman governor could have used, and Pilate's reputation for cruelty and violence in secular accounts of the era makes it quite plausible he would have had no hesitation in using this tool.[citation needed]


Some historians familiar with Roman politics find in Pontius Pilate's words a shrewd political "dance" or ceremony enticing the Jewish leaders to admit the supremacy of Rome. Being a skilled political leader, Pilate suggests that the Jewish leaders punish Jesus Himself, knowing full well that they were not permitted to put anyone to death under Roman occupation. Thus, when the Jews admit that they do not have the authority, they are confessing publicly once again that Rome is supreme over them. Similarly, Pilate rejects the religious charges brought by the Jews, enticing the Jews to finally identify the one charge that the Roman Empire was concerned with: challenging the authority of Rome. Thus, Pilate again forces the Jewish leaders to admit that only Rome's interests are important for the administration of their nation.


With the Edict of Milan in AD 313, the state-sponsored persecution of Christians came to an end, and Christianity became officially tolerated as one of the religions of the Roman Empire. Afterward, in AD 325 the First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea promulgated a creed which was amended at the subsequent First Council of Constantinople in 381. The Nicene Creed incorporated for the first time the clause was crucified under Pontius Pilate (which had already been long established in the Old Roman Symbol, an ancient form of the Apostles' Creed dating as far back as the 2nd century AD) in a creed that was intended to be authoritative for all Christians in the Roman Empire. The main reason for this clause was to state the belief in Jesus as a real person, living in a precise moment and place, that is a historical Jesus. It is less clear that it was intended to implicate Pilate in Jesus' death. In modern times Western traditions regard Pilate as guilty, but those of Eastern Orthodoxy argue that he was clearly exonerated, and did all that he could to release Jesus.[citation needed] The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Old Roman Symbol (2nd Century) is an Early Christian statement of belief or creed, developed from the questions asked candidates before they received Christian Baptism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


Pilate in the Apocrypha

Little enough is known about Pilate, but mythology has filled the gap. A body of fiction built up around the dramatic figure of Pontius Pilate, about whom the Christian faithful hungered to learn more than the canonical gospels revealed. Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiae ii: 7) quotes some early apocryphal accounts that he does not name, which already relate that Pilate fell under misfortunes in the reign of Caligula (AD 37–41), was exiled to Gaul and eventually committed suicide there in Vienne. Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Vienne (Vièna in Arpitan) is a commune of France, located 30 km south of Lyon, on the Rhône River. ...


Other details come from less respectable sources. His body, says the Mors Pilati ("Death of Pilate"), was thrown first into the Tiber, but the waters were so disturbed by evil spirits that the body was taken to Vienne and sunk in the Rhône: a monument at Vienne, called Pilate's tomb, is still to be seen. As the waters of the Rhone likewise rejected Pilate's corpse, it was again removed and sunk in the lake at Lausanne. The sequence was a simple way to harmonise conflicting local traditions. Tiber River in Rome. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ...


The corpse's final disposition was in a deep and lonely mountain tarn, which, according to later tradition, was on a mountain, still called Pilatus (actually pileatus or "cloud capped"), overlooking Lucerne. Every Good Friday, the body is said to reemerge from the waters and wash its hands. Mount Pilatus is a mountain near Lucerne, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ...


There are many other legends about Pilate in the folklore of Germany, particularly about his birth, according to which Pilate was born in the Franconian city of Forchheim or the small village of Hausen only 5 km away from it. His death was (unusually) dramatised in a medieval mystery play cycle from Cornwall, the Cornish Ordinalia. Forchheim is a large district city in Franconia in northern Bavaria, and also the seat of the administrative region of Upper Franconia (Oberfranken in German). ... Hausen is part of the name of 15 municipalities and 84 localities throughout Germany and Switzerland. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...


Pilate's role in the events leading to the crucifixion lent themselves to melodrama, even tragedy, and Pilate often has a role in medieval mystery plays. Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...


In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Claudia Procula is commemorated as a saint, but not Pilate, because in the Gospel accounts Claudia urged Pilate to have nothing to do with Jesus. In some Eastern Orthodox traditions, Pilate committed suicide out of remorse for having sentenced Jesus to death. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Procula was the wife of the Roman Governor of Judea Pontius Pilate who governed the province 26 to 36AD. Not much is known about her, accept for she is a distant relative of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ...


Gospel of Peter

Main article: Gospel of Peter

The fragmentary apocryphal Gospel of Peter exonerates Pilate of responsibility for the crucifixion of Jesus, placing it instead on Herod and the Jews, who unlike Pilate refuse to "wash their hands". After the soldiers see three men and a cross miraculously walking out of the tomb they report to Pilate who reiterates his innocence: "I am pure from the blood of the Son of God". He then commands the soldiers not to tell anyone what they have seen so that they would not "fall into the hands of the people of the Jews and be stoned". The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ... The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


Acts of Pilate

Main article: Acts of Pilate

The 4th century apocryphal text that is called the Acts of Pilate presents itself in a preface (missing in some MSS) as derived from the official acts preserved in the praetorium at Jerusalem. Though the alleged Hebrew original of the document is attributed to Nicodemus, the title Gospel of Nicodemus for this fictional account only appeared in mediaeval times, after the document had been substantially elaborated. Nothing in the text suggests that it is in fact a translation from Hebrew or Aramaic. The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ... The Praetorium (also called Pilates House) is the place in what is now the Antonia Fortress where Jesus of Nazareth was brought to trial before Pontius Pilate. ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ...


This text gained wide credit in the Middle Ages, and has considerably affected the legends surrounding the events of the crucifixion, which, taken together, are called the Passion. Its popularity is attested by the number of languages in which it exists, each of these being represented by two or more variant "editions": Greek (the original), Coptic, Armenian and Latin versions. The Latin versions were printed several times in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ...


One class of the Latin manuscripts contain as an appendix or continuation, the Cura Sanitatis Tiberii, the oldest form of the Veronica legend. Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, sainte veroinica was a // hore and had sex with many guys in one time and alos had intercorse with JESUS!!!!!!! dundunduhhhhhh:)displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica According to the Acta Sanctorum published by the Bollandists (under February 4), Saint...


The Acts of Pilate consist of three sections, whose styles reveal three authors, writing at three different times.

  • The first section (1–11) contains a fanciful and dramatic circumstantial account of the trial of Jesus, based upon Luke 23.
  • The second part (12–16) regards the Resurrection.
  • An appendix, detailing the Descensus ad Infernos was added to the Greek text. This legend of a Harrowing of Hell has chiefly flourished in Latin, and was translated into many European versions. It doesn't exist in the eastern versions, Syriac and Armenian, that derive directly from Greek versions. In it, Leucius and Charinus, the two souls raised from the dead after the Crucifixion, relate to the Sanhedrin the circumstances of Christ's descent to Limbo. (Leucius Charinus is the traditional name to which many late apocryphal Acta of Apostles is attached.)

Eusebius (325), although he mentions an Acta Pilati that had been referred to by Justin and Tertullian and other pseudo-Acts of this kind, shows no acquaintance with this work. Almost surely it is of later origin, and scholars agree in assigning it to the middle of the 4th century. Epiphanius refers to an Acta Pilati similar to this, as early as 376, but there are indications that the current Greek text, the earliest extant form, is a revision of an earlier one. Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... Leucius Charinus was, according to tradition, a disciple of St. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Justin may refer to: Justin (name), a common given name Junianus Justinus, 3rd century Roman historian Justin I (c. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae Ecclesiasticae...


Justin the Martyr - The First and Second Apology of Justin Chapter 35-"And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate."


The Apology letters were written and addressed by name to the Roman Emperor Pius and the Roman Governor Urbicus. All three of these men lived between AD 138-161.


Minor Pilate literature

There is a pseudepigrapha letter reporting on the crucifixion, purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius, embodied in the pseudepigrapha known as the Acts of Peter and Paul, of which the Catholic Encyclopedia states, "This composition is clearly apocryphal though unexpectedly brief and restrained." There is no internal relation between this feigned letter and the 4th-century Acts of Pilate (Acta Pilati). Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ... The Acts of Peter and Paul is a late text from the New Testament apocrypha, thought to date from after the 4th century. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ...


This Epistle or Report of Pilate is also inserted into the Pseudo-Marcellus Passio sanctorum Petri et Pauli ("Passion of Peter and Paul"). We thus have it in both Greek and Latin versions. Pseudo-Marcellus, author of the Passio sanctorum Petri et Pauli. ... The pseudepigraphical Passio sanctorum Petri et Pauli (Passion of Saints Peter and Paul) is a late version of the martyrdoms of the two apostles, which claims to have been written by a certain Marcellus, thus the anonymous author, of whom nothing further is known, is referred to as the pseudo...


The Mors Pilati ("Death of Pilate") legend is a Latin tradition, thus treating Pilate as a monster, not a saint; it is attached usually to the more sympathetic Gospel of Nicodemus of Greek origin. The narrative of the Mors Pilati set of manuscripts is set in motion by an illness of Tiberius, who sends Volusanius to Judea to fetch the Christ for a cure. In Judea Pilate covers for the fact that Christ has been crucified, and asks for a delay. But Volusanius encounters Veronica who informs him of the truth but sends him back to Rome with her Veronica of Christ's face on her kerchief, which heals Tiberius. Tiberius then calls for Pontius Pilate, but when Pilate appears, he is wearing the seamless robe of the Christ and Tiberius' heart is softened, but only until Pilate is induced to doff the garment, whereupon he is treated to a ghastly execution. His body, when thrown into the Tiber, however, raises such storm demons that it is sent to Vienne (via gehennae) in France and thrown to the Rhone. That river's spirits reject it too, and the body is driven east into "Losania", where it is plunged in the bay of the lake near Lucerne, near Mont Pilatus — originally Mons Pileatus or "cloud-capped", as John Ruskin pointed out in Modern Painters — whence the uncorrupting corpse rises every Good Friday to sit on the bank and wash unavailing hands. The Acts of Pilate, also known as the Gospel of Nicodemus, is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ... Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, sainte veroinica was a // hore and had sex with many guys in one time and alos had intercorse with JESUS!!!!!!! dundunduhhhhhh:)displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica According to the Acta Sanctorum published by the Bollandists (under February 4), Saint... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...


This version combined with anecdotes of Pilate's wicked early life were incorporated in Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend, which ensured a wide circulation for it in the later Middle Ages. Other legendary versions of Pilate death exist: Antoine de la Sale reported from a travel in central Italy on some local traditions asserting that after the death the body of Pontius Pilate was driven until a little lake near Vettore Peak (2478 m in Sibillini Mounts ) and plunged in. The lake, today, is still named Lago di Pilato. Jacobus de Voragine (c. ... For the Arthur Sullivan oratorio, see The Golden Legend (oratorio). ... Antoine de la Sale or la Salle (born ~1388; died 1462?) was a French writer. ... A summer view of the Monti Sibillini. ...


In the Cornish cycle of mystery plays, the "death of Pilate" forms a dramatic scene in the Resurrexio Domini cycle. More of Pilate's fictional correspondence is found in the minor Pilate apocrypha, the Anaphora Pilati (Relation of Pilate), an Epistle of Herod to Pilate, and an Epistle of Pilate to Herod, spurious texts that are no older than the 5th century. Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...


Veneration

Pontius Pilate
Born unknown
Died unknown
Venerated in Ethiopian Orthodox Church

Eritrean Orthodox Church The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. ...

Canonized 6th century
Feast June 25
Saints Portal

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate.[11] This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Ethiopian Church in jerusalem The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic:Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of... The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ...


Pilate in later fiction

Plays and films dealing with life of Jesus Christ often include the character of Pontius Pilate due to the central role he played in the final days of Christ's life. Writers have found various reasons to make Pilate a main character and to fill in any unknown details of his life. Pilate has been portrayed in a number of different ways by various writers:

  1. A weak and harried bureaucrat
  2. A hard governor who ruled with an iron fist
  3. A man who clearly sees how the story of Jesus will affect human history
  4. A man who regrets his role in Jesus' death (to greater or lesser extents, depending on the work)
  5. A man who is oblivious to the significance of the Galilean he condemns to death
  • Pilate appears in the Mystery Plays and Passion Plays, the most notable being in the Cornish cycle in which he is summoned to Rome by Tiberius and sentenced to death for killing Jesus, but owing to this crime cannot be contained by earth, sea or water and so immediately proceeds (body and soul, rather than just soul) to hell.
  • In the Vestibule of Hell in Dante's Divine Comedy, a figure is seen "who made the great refusal". This is interpreted to be either Pontius Pilate or Pope Celestine V.
  • Pontius Pilate is portrayed in the classic work of Mikhail Bulgakov, The Master and Margarita, as being ruthless, complex, and yet human. In this novel, he exemplifies the statement "Cowardice is the worst of vices", and thus serves as a model, in an allegorical interpretation of the work, of all the people who have "washed their hands" by silently or actively taking part in the crimes committed by Joseph Stalin.
    • This novel inspired the song Sympathy for the Devil by The Rolling Stones'. The title of this song, and its lyrics, seem to be derived from Bulgakov's portrayal of the Devil. Pilate is referenced in the verse: "And I was around when Jesus Christ / had his moment of doubt and pain / made damn sure that Pilate / washed his hands, and sealed his fate".[1][2]
    • The Master and Margarita and Pilate are also referred to in the Pearl Jam song Pilate, on the album Yield.
  • Pilate appears in three stories in Karel Čapek's collection Apocryphal Tales. In "Pilate's Evening", the weary governor wonders why Jesus' friends and relatives did not come to try and save him, and wishes that they had. "Pilate's Creed" features a dialogue between Pilate and Joseph of Arimathea. Their argument reflects the conflict between sceptical humanism (Pilate's famous "What is truth?") and religious certainty (Joseph's reply, "The truth in which I believe"). "The Crucifixion" features a world-weary Pilate disgusted with the political machinations that led to Jesus' condemnation.
  • In Roger Caillois' short novel Pontius Pilate (1961), Pilate is portrayed as a vacillating colonial administrator who, during the day after Jesus' arrest, receives advice from his wife, from Judas Iscariot and from a Chaldaean friend who has amassed an immense knowledge of the world's various religions. In the end, he is shown as "a man who despite every hindrance succeeded in being brave".
  • In The Flame and the Wind, a novel by John Blackburn, the aged Pilate is wracked by guilt over Jesus' death and directs his heir to find out if Jesus was really the son of God.
  • In the Anatole France short story The Procurator of Judea, Pilate has retired to Sicily to become a gentleman farmer. This story is an example of the "oblivious" interpretation of Pilate.[citation needed]
  • The Dutch writer Simon Vestdijk's 1938 novel De nadagen van Pilatus (The Last Days of Pilate) presents an account of Pilate's life after the crucifixion.
  • Ann Wroe's Pontius Pilate: The Biography of an Invented Man is an attempt to provide the obscure official with a biography suitable to the man who is so influential to the Christian story. **The Royal Shakespeare Company debuted a performance piece called The Pilate Workshop in the summer of 2004, which attempted to cast Wroe's research in the form of a mystery play.
  • Pilate is mentioned in the theme song for Marvel Comics' Nextwave series in a list of enemies, along with a monster, a pirate, an electric emu, a giant sky-rat, and a midget Hitler.[citation needed]

Mystery plays are one of the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... Pope Celestine V (c. ... Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Russian: Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков; May 15 [O.S. May 3] 1891, Kiev – March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian novelist and playwright of the first half of the 20th century. ... The Master and Margarita (Russian: ) is a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov, woven about the premise of a visit by the Devil to the fervently atheistic Soviet Union. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the song. ... This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the rock group. ... Pilate is a song by Pearl Jam, from the album Yield. ... Singles from Yield Released: January 6, 1998 Released: May 5, 1998 Yield is Pearl Jams fifth album, released on February 3, 1998. ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Roger Caillois (March 3, 1913 - December 21, 1978), was a French intellectual whose idiosyncratic work brought together literary criticism, sociology, and philosophy by focusing on subjects as diverse as gems and the sacred. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... John Blackburn (born 1923) was a British novelist who wrote thrillers and horror novels. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Simon Vestdijk (October 17, 1898-March 23, 1971) was a Dutch writer. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The theme music of a radio or television program is a melody closely associated with the show, and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Nextwave is a comic book series published by Marvel Comics, that debuted in 2006 and was cancelled after issue #12,[1] which was published in February 2007. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

In Music


Notable figures who have played Pontius Pilate in various dramas include: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Night at the Opera as the title of a work of art may refer to: A Night at the Opera (1935 film), a Marx Brothers movie. ...

Aristotelis Telly Savalas (January 21, 1922 – January 22, 1994) was a prominent Emmy Award-winning American film and television actor whose career spanned four decades. ... This article is about the film. ... Rod Steiger (April 14, 1925 – July 9, 2002) was an American Academy Award-winning actor best known for his intense performances in such films as In the Heat of the Night, On the Waterfront and Doctor Zhivago. ... Picture of Robert Powell playing Jesus of Nazareth. ... William Rukard Hurd Hatfield (December 7, 1917 – December 26, 1998) was an American actor. ... King of Kings is a 1961 American motion picture epic retelling the story of Jesus from his birth to his crucifixion and Resurrection. ... Frank Thring (May 11, 1926 - December 29, 1994) was an Australian actor. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third version of Lew Wallaces novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... For the African-American jazz musician, see Richard Bently Boone. ... A cinema presenting The Robe The Robe is a 1953 Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman tribune who commands the unit that crucifies Jesus. ... Gary Leonard Oldman[1] (born March 21, 1958) is an Emmy and Screen Actors Guild-nominated, Saturn and BAFTA award-winning English-born American[2] film actor, writer and director. ... Jesus (1999) is a made-for-television Biblical film that retells the story of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Arthur Kennedy (February 17, 1914 _ January 5, 1990) was an American actor. ... Barabbas was a 1962 film expanding on the career of Barabbas, from the Christian Passion narrative in the Gospel of Mark and other gospels. ... Hristo Naumov Shopov (b. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson, AO (born January 3, 1956) is an American-Australian actor, historian, Academy Award-winning director, producer and screenwriter. ... This article is about the film. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an iconic English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gabin. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Golgotha is a 1935 French film about Jesus Christ. ... Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter best known for being one of the members of the comedy group Monty Python and for his travel documentaries. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Life of Brian is a film from 1979 by Monty Python which deals with the life of Brian (played by Graham Chapman), a young man born at the nearly the same time as, and in a manger right down the street from Jesus. ... Barry Dennen (born Feb. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... This article is about the rock opera. ... John Woodvine in the Doctor Who serial The Armageddon Factor John Woodvine (born 21 July 1929 in Tyne Dock, County Durham) is a British actor who has appeared in over sixty film and television roles. ...

References

The references to Pilate, outside the New Testament:

  1. ^ a b c d Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ Did You Know? - Fortingall Yew
  3. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
  4. ^ law.umkc.edu
  5. ^ Administrative and military organization of Roman Palestine. Retrieved on 2006-05-08.
  6. ^ Josephus, Wars of the Jews2.9.2-3; Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-59
  7. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 18:85
  8. ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, Book 2, chapter 7.
  9. ^ The word Tiberieum is otherwise unknown: some scholars speculate that it was some kind of structure, perhaps a temple, built to honor the emperor Tiberius.
  10. ^ jesus-on-taxes.com
  11. ^ Pontius Pilate from the Catholic Encyclopedia

A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Coin of Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (23 BC – c. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...

External links

Preceded by
Valerius Gratus
Prefect of Iudaea
26–36
Succeeded by
Marcellus
Valerius Gratus was Roman Prefect or procurator of Judea under Tiberius, 15 - 26 A.D. He succeeded Annius Rufus and was replaced by Pontius Pilate. ... This page lists rulers of Judea and other related Jewish Kingdoms from the Maccabean Rebellion to the final Roman annexations. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the New Testament, Cleophas is the single English rendering of two men, who are in the Greek originalsCleopas, an abbreviated form of Cleopatros, a commonplace Hellenistic name meaning son of a renowned father, and the other Clopas. Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the risen... Anna at the presentation of Jesus (right), from Giotto, Chapel of Scrovegni. ... Annas (also Ananus), son of Seth, was a Jewish High Priest from AD 6 to 15 and remained an influential leader afterwards. ... Bartimaeus (more accurately Bar Timaeus, Son of Timaeus) is the name given in the Gospel of Mark to a blind man healed by Jesus as he exited Jericho (Mark 10:46-52). ... The Blind Man of Bethsaida is a story told only in Mark 8:22-26. ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... In the New Testament, Cleophas is the single English rendering of two men, who are in the Greek originalsCleopas, an abbreviated form of Cleopatros, a commonplace Hellenistic name meaning son of a renowned father, and the other Clopas. Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the risen... Statue of St Dismas (1750) in BÅ™eznice, Czech Republic. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gestas, also spelled Gesmas is the apocryphal name (first appearing in the Gospel of Nicodemus) given to one of the two thieves who was crucified alongside Jesus. ... For other persons named Joachim, see Joachim (disambiguation). ... Joanna was one of the women associated with the ministry of Jesus of Nazareth, often considered to be one of the disciples. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Joses, in Hebrew, means He that forgives. Joses is one of the brothers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Mark 6:3 and its parallel passage in Matthew 13:54 - 57. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ... Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives is a parable[1] attributed to Jesus that is reported only in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 16:19-16:31). ... Jesus healing the man from Gerasa. ... In the New Testament of the Bible, Malchus was the name of a servant of the high priest who helped try to arrest Jesus. ... For other uses, see Martha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... Mary anoints Jesus in Bethany in this icon. ... Mary of Clopas (Greek: Maria he tou Klopa) was one of various Marys named in the New Testament. ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... Nicodemus ben Gurion was a wealthy Jew who lived in Jerusalem in the first century C.E. He is widely believed to be identical to the Nicodemus mentioned in the Gospel of John. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Seventy Disciples or Seventy-two Disciples were early followers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke . ... Simeon the Righteous by Alexey Yegorov. ... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion: And as they came... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Susanna is the name of one of the women associated with the ministry of Jesus of Nazarath. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... “Bartholomew” redirects here. ... James, son of Alphaeus was one of the Twelve Apostles. ... Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... For other uses, see Judas. ... For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Ματθαίος, Matthaios), most often called Saint Matthew, is an important Christian figure, and one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... This article is about the New Testament figure. ... St Peter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Philip. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The apostle... Judas the Zealot is a New Testament figure whose identity is not completely clear. ... Subscript text == Headline text ==dfgdfgdsfgfdgdf Insert non-formatted text here Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Agabus - a prophet, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. ... The Death of Ananias, by Masaccio Ananias, and his wife Sapphira, were, according to the Acts of the Apostles, members of the Early Christian church. ... Ananias was one of the Seventy Apostles sent out by Jesus in Luke 10. ... Apollos (Απολλως; contracted from Apollonius) was an early Jewish Christian, who is mentioned several times in the New Testament. ... Priscilla and Aquila were a First Century Christian couple described in the New Testament. ... Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica (Acts 27:2), was an early Christian mentioned in a few passages of the New Testament. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... Cornelius was a Roman Centurion who is considered by Christians to be the first Gentile to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles, 10:1. ... The name Demetrius occurs in two places in the Bible, both in the New Testament: a Diana-worshipping silversmith who incited a riot against the Apostle Paul (Acts 19:24-41) a disciple commended in 3 John 1:12. ... Dorcas is a female name of Greek origins, (in Aramaic - Tabitha), which means gazelle. ... Elymas the sorcerer is struck blind before Sergius Paulus. ... Eutychus was a boy tended to by St. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Jason appears in the Bible in Acts 17. ... Joseph Barsabbas (also known as Justus) is a figure of early Christian history. ... Judas of Galilee or Judas of Gamala led a violent resistance to a census imposed for Roman tax purposes by Quirinius in Iudaea Province around 6 CE. The revolt was crushed brutally by the Romans. ... Lucius of Cyrene was, according to the book of acts, one of the founders of the Christian Church in Antioch of Syria. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Lydia of Thyatira was the first recorded convert to Christianity in Europe. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... Mary (Hebrew מרים Miryām, Miryam Bitter) the mother of John, surnamed Mark, was one of the earliest of Jesuss disciples. ... St. ... Philip the Evangelist appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles but should not be confused with Philip the Apostle. ... Priscilla and Aquila were a First Century Christian couple described in the New Testament. ... ). Saint Publius is venerated as the first Bishop of Malta It was the same Publius who received the Apostle Paul during his shipwreck on the island as recounted in the Acts of the Apostles. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Seven Deacons were leaders elected by the early Christian church to minister to the people of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the first century figure from early Christianity. ... Silvanus was one of the Seventy Apostles, those followers of Jesus sent out by him in Luke 10. ... For the film, see Simon Magus (film). ... Sopater so-pa-ter, sop-a-ter (gr ΣωπατρoÏ‚; Sopatros, saviour of his father, Eastons reads The father who saves, Holmans reads “sound parentage”) Sopater was the son of Pyrhus, a man from the city of Berea, he accompanied Paul along with Aristarchus and Secundus the Thessalonians, Gaius... St. ... Theudas is also the name of a follower of Paul of Tarsus, who taught Valentinius, for more information, see Theudas (teacher of Valentinius) Theudas (Thoo duhs) Personal name meaning, gift of God. ... For other uses of Timothy, see Timothy (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... In Christianity, Tychicus was a biblical disciple and companion of St. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... Aretas IV Philopatris was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to AD 40. ... Cornelius was a Roman Centurion who is considered by Christians to be the first Gentile to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles, 10:1. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... Coin of Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (23 BC – c. ... Herod Philip II was the son of Herod the Great and his third wife Mariamne II. He became the second husband of Herodias after 6 and their child was Salome. ... Herod the Great. ... Longinus pierces the side of Christ. ... Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene, according to Luke 3:1, in the time of John the Baptist. ... Pontius Pilates wife is unnamed in the New Testament (Matth. ... The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ... Coin of Salome (daughter of Herodias), queen of Chalcis and Armenia Minor. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Front and back of a Judean coin from the reign of Agrippa I. // Agrippa I also called the Great (10 BC - 44 AD), King of the Jews, was the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice. ... Agrippa II (AD 27–100), son of Agrippa I, and like him originally named Marcus Julius Agrippa. ... Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix in Greek: ο Φηλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the ancient Rome procurator of Iudaea Province 52-60, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus. ... Claudius Lysias is a figure mentioned in the New Testament book of the Acts of the Apostles. ... Porcius Festus was procurator of Judea from about 58 to 62 AD, succeeding Antonius Felix. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... Achaichus was one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church (I Corinthians 16:17). ... For other uses, see Antipas. ... Archippus (literally, master of the horse), a Christian evangelist, preaching at the time of the writings of Paul, in Colossae. ... For the 2nd century martyr of Tivoli, see St. ... Diotrephes was a man mentioned by John the Apostle in his letter to Gaius (3 John, verses 9–11). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... According to the Epistle to the Romans found in the New International Version of the New Testament, Erastus was Corinths director of public works[1], a position of high status. ... Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ... Jesus Justus or Iesous ho legomenos Ioustos (in Greek) is refereed to by the Apostle Paul of Tarsus in Colossians 4:11 Paul tells the Church at Colossae in his letter from Rome that Jesus who is called Justus sends his greetings. ... Junia (ιουνιαν) was an apostle of the 1st century, recorded by Paul in the Epistle to the Romans chapter 16 verse 7. ... Nymphas meaning nymph. ... Philemon was the recipient of a private letter from Paul of Tarsus. ... Phoebe (Christian woman) was mentioned by the Apostle Paul in Romans 16:1 as a deaconess of the early Christian church located in Cenchrea, an eastern port of Corinth. ... Syntyche - meaning fortunate; affable. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...

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Pontius Pilate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3908 words)
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the Roman Iudaea Province from 26 until 36.
Pilate's biographical details before and after his appointment to Iudaea are unknown, but have been supplied by tradition, which include the detail that his wife's name was Procula (she is canonized as a saint in Orthodox Christianity) and competing legends of his birthplace.
Pilate is forced to condemn Jesus to crucifixion, due to the pressure of the crowd, who according to the Synoptics had been coached to shout against Jesus by the Pharisees and Sadducees.
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