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Encyclopedia > Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
Έλληνες του Πόντου - Ρωμιοί
Pontic Greek Man
Total population

ca. 3,000,000 (est.) Note: This article contains special characters. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (516x768, 103 KB) A man in traditional clothes from Trebizond. ...

Regions with significant populations
Greece, Russia, Ukraine
Languages
Pontic Greek, Standard Modern Greek
Religions
Greek Orthodox
Related ethnic groups
rest of the Greeks

The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: Πόντιοι, Ποντιακός Ελληνισμός or Έλληνες του Πόντου, Turkish: Pontus Rumları) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from the shores of the Black Sea or the Pontus. Greeks from Trabzon traditionally speak Pontic Greek. The terms Pontic and Pontian can be used interchangeably. Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ...

Contents

History of Greek Colonization of the Black Sea

The history of the Pontic Greek people is first recounted in a Greek myth. The Black Sea area generally, and the region around Trabzon specifically, are where Jason and the Argonauts sailed to find the Golden Fleece. This myth was formally documented by Apollonius of Rhodes in his work, the Argonautica. Modern historians however, see this epic also as a historical tool. They date the expedition of the Argo around 1200 BC based on the description given by Apollonius. Look up Myth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jason (Greek: Ιάσων, Etruscan: Easun) was a hero from Greek mythology. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after...


The first recorded Greek colony, established on the northern shores of ancient Anatolia, was Sinop circa 800 BC. The settlers of Sinop were merchants from the Ionian Greek city state of Miletus. After the colonization of the shores of the Black Sea the name changed to Efxinos (hospitable) Sea. In time, other Greeks followed their path and, as numbers grew, more Greek colonies were established along the Black Sea coastline of what is now Turkey, [Bulgaria]], Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, and Romania. Sinop (from Hittite: Sinuwa, in Greek: Σινώπη/Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on Boztepe cape and peninsula which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

The Pontus region.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 1231 KB) The Pontus region, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 1231 KB) The Pontus region, Turkey. ...

The Trapezus Area

The region of Trapezus, now Trabzon, was also mentioned by Xenophon (430 - 355 BC) Anabasis, when his 10,000 soldiers had reached the Pontic Euxine Sea (Black Sea) and cried out 'Thalassa! Thalassa!' ("The sea! The sea!"), the local people understood them. They were Hellenes as well and, according to Xenophon, they had been there for over 300 years. For over thousands of years the Trapezus colony, later called the Pontos region, has flourished, contributing to the development of a rich civilization with a strong Hellenic basis. This is verified by a various ancient Greek and Roman historians. For example, many accounts exist of the Mithridatic wars and the reign of Eupator Dionysius.With the passage of time and the establishment of the Eastern Roman Empire Pontos was placed under its control. Pontos remained isolated from the 'modern' Greek-speaking world afterward. This isolation however helped maintain the Pontic language with its strong roots to the ancient Greeks. For many years later they lived under Ottoman rule but maintained a strong sense of Hellenism and Greek Orthodoxy. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. ... Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. ... Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and Pontus in the first century BC. They are named for Mithridates VI who was King of Pontus at the time, and a famous enemy of Rome. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...


Throughout its long history Pontos was also inhabited and invaded by the Persians, Romans, Alexander III of Macedon, Germany, Russia and finally the Turks. The land also had its share of royal rulers such as the Komnenos family, which made Trabzon (Trapezounda) Empire of Trebizond capital from 1204 to 1461. Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by...


Like other Christians in Asia Minor, the Armenians and Assyrians for example, the Pontic Greeks faced persecution and suffered during ethnic cleansing at the beginning of the 20th century. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

The Armenian genocide in Turkey during World War I is widely known. Almost unknown, however, is the annihilation of the Pontic Greeks, who had lived for 3000 years in the Pontic Mountains near the Black Sea, by Kemal Ataturk's military forces after the war. In 1921, one survivor, ten-year-old Sano Halo (the author's mother), was forced with her entire village on a nearly year-long death march to Syria. Separated from her family, she lost even her name when she was sold by her surrogate family to a man three times her age, whom she married; later, they emigrated to New York City and raised ten children.

[1][this primary source citation needs verification]


In 1923, after hundreds of years, those remaining were expelled from Turkey to Greece as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey defined by the Treaty of Lausanne. In his book 'Black Sea', author Neal Ascherson writes: Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Charles Neal Ascherson, commonly known as Neal Ascherson (born October 5, 1931), is a Scottish journalist. ...

The Turkish guide-books on sale in Turkey today offer this account of the 1923 catastrophe: 'After the proclamation of the Republic (Turkish), the Greeks who lived in the region returned to their own country. Their own country? Returned? Pontians had lived in that area for over 3,000 years. The Pontian dialect was not understandable to 20th century Athenians.

[2][page # needed]


The suffering of the Pontic Greeks did not end upon their violent and forceful departure from the lands of their ancestors. Many Pontic Greek refugees perished during the voyage from Asia Minor to Greece. Noteable accounts of these voyages have been included in Steve Papadopoulos’ work on Pontic culture and history. Pontic Greek immigrants of the United States from that era were quoted saying;

Many children and elderly died during the voyage to Greece. When the crew realized they were dead,they were thrown overboard. Soon the mothers of such children started pretending that they were still alive. After witnessing what was done to the deceased,they would hold on to them and comfort them as if they were still alive. They did this to give them a proper burial in Greece.

[citation needed]

Settlements

Some of the settlements historically inhabited by Pontic Greeks include:

Chersonesos, Kerkinitida, Panticapaeum, Soughdaia, Tanais, Theodosia.
Batis, Dioscurias, Germonassa, Gorgippa, Heraclea Pontica, Phanagoria, Phasis, Pitsunda, Sebastopolis.
Amasia, Aphene, Kerasounta, Kissa, Kromna, Amisos, Sinope, Themiscyra, Trapezounta, Bafra, Argyroupolis, Xeroiana (Sheroina), Ofis, Santa, Tonya, Matsouka, Galiana, Sourmena, Imera, Rizounta, Mouzena, Kotoiora, Livera, Platana, Kel Kit, Nikopolis, Kakatsis, Merzifounta, Tokat, Oinoe, Neokaisareia, Fatsa, Tripoli, Thermi, Hatzi-koi, Komana, Hopa, Athina, Koloneia, Gemoura, Ak-Dag Maten.
  • Outside Pontos:
Kars, Kioumush Maten, Sevasteia, Tsoroum, Baibourt, Ata Pazar.
Antiphilos, Apollonia, Germonakris, Mesembria, Nikonis, Odessos, Olbia, Tira.

Kingdoms either established or ruled by Pontic Greeks, or heavily influenced by Pontic Greek culture, include Pontus, Bithynia, and the Bosporan kingdom. Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun, Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also transliterated as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... 1. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Sukhumi (სოხუმი in Georgian, in Abkhaz language) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent state that is internationally recognised, however, as being part of Georgia. ... Tmutarakan (Russian: Тмутаракань, Ukrainian: Тмуторокань) is an ancient city that controlled the passage from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. ... Anapa (Russian: ) is a seaport town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. ... Heraclea Pontica (Greek: Ηράκλεια Ποντική; modern day Karadeniz EreÄŸli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea), an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ... Poti is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of the Republic of Georgia. ... Pitsunda (Georgian: Bichvinta) is a resort town in Abkhazia, situated on the shore of the Black Sea 25 km south from Gagra. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ... Map of the Black Sea Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ... Giresun (Greek: Κερασούντα ) is a town on the Black Sea of northeastern Turkey, about 110 miles (175 km) west of the city of Trabzon. ... Statue of Atatürk who initiated the Turkish War of Independence in Samsun on May 19, 1919 Samsun (Greek: / Sampsoúnta) is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 439,000 as of 2006. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, Themiscyra was the capital of the Amazons, on the river Thermodon. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Bafra is a district of Samsun Province of Turkey. ... Gümüşhane is a city in northeastern Turkey. ... Åžiran is a town and a district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. ... Of is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey. ... Dumanlı (former: Santa) is a mid-size town in the border of Trabzon and Gümüşhane in Pontos. ... For the pre-modern Japanese trade association, see Tonya (Japan). ... Maçka is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Rize is the capital of Rize Province, in north-east Turkey, on the Black Sea coast. ... Akçaabat is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey Categories: | ... Kelkit is a district of Gümüşhane Province of Turkey. ... Åžebinkarahisar Åžebinkarahisar is a district of Giresun Province, Turkey. ... Merzifon is a city in Amasya Province in Turkey. ... Tokat is a city in Turkey, at the mid Black Sea region of Anatolia. ... Ãœnye is a town and a district of Ordu Province of Turkey. ... Niksar is a city in Tokat Province, Turkey. ... Fatsa is a district of Ordu Province of Turkey. ... Tirebolu is a turkish town in the Giresun Province, Turkey. ... Terme is a district of Samsun Province of Turkey. ... Gümüşhacıköy is a district of Amasya Province of Turkey. ... Hopa is a district of Artvin Province of Turkey. ... Pazar is a district of Rize Province, Turkey. ... Koyulhisar is a district of Sivas Province of Turkey. ... Yomra is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey. ... AkdaÄŸmadeni is a town and a district of Yozgat Province of Turkey. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Balya is a district of Balıkesir Province, Turkey. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Çorum is a town in the Corum Province of Turkey. ... Bayburt is the provincial capital of Turkeys Bayburt Province. ... Adapazarı is the capital of the Turkish province of Sakarya. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Position of Varna in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Province Varna Province Government  - Mayor Kiril Yordanov Area  - City 205 km²  (79. ... For Pontic Olbia, the Greek colony on the Black Sea coast, see Olbia, Ukraine. ... Tira (טירה) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ...


Population

Nowadays, the actual number of Pontic Greeks is unknown. The largest communities of Pontic Greek (or people of Pontic Greek descent) around the world are (according to Pontian Diaspora 2000):

For the Greek-speaking Muslim Pontian community (about 300,000 in 1996) in Turkey, see Pontic Greek Muslims. East Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, being the eastern part of Greek Macedonia along with Thrace. ... Central Macedonia is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, being the central part of Greek Macedonia. ... West Macedonia is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Motto: The Right Place, The Right Time Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region South Western Region Incorporated 1651 Consolidated 1913 Government type Mayor-council Mayor Dick Moccia Area    - City 36. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Aerial view of the Triborough Bridge (left) and the Hell Gate Bridge (right) spanning Astoria Park and the Astoria Pool Astoria is a neighborhood in the northwestern corner of the borough of Queens in New York City. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Canton is a city in Stark County, Ohio, United States. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of...


Pontic Greeks in the former Soviet Union

Pontic Greeks were predominantly settled in the regions bordering the Georgian SSR and Armenian SSR. There was also a notable presence of Pontic Greeks in Black Sea ports like Odessa and Sukhumi. About 100,000 Soviet Black Sea Greeks, including 37,000 in the Caucus area were deported to Central Asia in 1949. State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... ODESSA (German: Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, Organization of Former SS Members) is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Following 1988, Pontic Greeks in the Soviet Union started to migrate to Greece with their often mixed families and settling in and around Athens and Macedonia. They are known as "Russian Pontians" (Ρωσσοπόντιοι) by the Greek public. In his 1998 movie From the Edge of the City (Από την άκρη της πόλης), with dialogues in Greek, Pontic Greek and Russian, the film director Constantinos Giannaris, describes the life of a young "Russian Pontian" from Kazakhstan in the Athens' prostitution underworld. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Greeks in today's Georgia are mostly Turkish-speaking Pontic Greeks known as Tsalkalideis (Τσαλκαλιδείς), named after the town of Tsalka where they used to comprise the largest ethnic group. Pontic Greeks live in southern mkhares Kvemo Kartli and Samtskhe-Javakheti. Pontic Greeks in Armenia live abundantly in the marz of Lori. They form the majority in the north of the province. Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Tsalka is a city in southern Georgia, with a population of 22,000, predominantly ethnic Armenians and Greeks, with around 2,000 Azerbaijanis. ... Mkhare (Georgian: მხარე) is a kind of administrative division in the country of Georgia. ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Marz performing in Cleveland in 2004. ... Lorri is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ...


Culture

Traditional rural Pontic house
Part of the series on
Greeks

Greek culture
Art · Cinema · Cuisine
Dance · Dress · Literature
Music · Philosophy · Religion
Sport · Television Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evler2b. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evler2b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western culture and ancient Athens was considered its centre. ... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 4000 years and beginning in the Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (and developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of the East and the new religion of Christianity... Greek cuisine is the cuisine of Greece and of the Greeks. ... Greek dance is a very old and common tradition from the ancient land of Greece. ... Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western culture and ancient Athens was considered its centre. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ...

By region or country
(including the diaspora)

Greece · Cyprus
Albania · Argentina · Armenia
Australia · Belgium
Bulgaria · Brazil · Canada
Egypt · France · FYROM
Georgia · Germany · Hungary
Italy · Kazakhstan · Romania
Russia · South Africa · Sweden
Turkey · Ukraine · Uzbekistan
United Kingdom · United States Greek diaspora (Greek: ) is a term used to refer to the communities of Greek people living outside of the traditional Greek homelands of modern Greece,and Cyprus. ... For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Subgroups
Antiochian Greeks · Aromanians
Arvanites · Cappadocian Greeks
Greek Cypriots · Greek Muslims
Hayhurums · Kalash · Karamanlides
Macedonians · Maniots · Meglenites
Pontic Greeks · Romaniotes · Sarakatsani
Slavophone Greeks · Tsakonians · Urums Antiochian Greeks are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch who have resided in the territory of contemporary Turkish province of Hatay. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... Hayhurum is the name given to Armenian-speaking Christians who are members of Greek Orthodox Church. ... The Kalash (Nuristani: Kasivo, Greek: Καλάς) or Kalasha, are an ethnic group that lives in the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... A map showing Mani. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... The Romaniotes are a Jewish population who have lived in the territory of todays Greece for more than 2000 years. ... The Sarakatsani (Greek: , Bulgarian: , karakachani) are a group of Greek transhumant shepherds across the Southern Balkans. ... Map of Greece Greece is a largely ethnically homogenous country. ... A Tsakonian (Greek: Τσάκωνας Tsákonas) is a speaker of Tsakonian, or more broadly, one who lives in a traditionally Tsakonian-speaking area and follows certain Tsakonian cultural traditions, such as the Tsakonian dance, even if that person is no longer able to speak Tsakonian fluently. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Religion
Greek Orthodox Church
Islam · Judaism · Polytheism
Roman Catholicism Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... A disused mosque or dzami outside of Ioannina, which became part of Greece in 1913. ... There have been organized Jewish communities in Greece for more than two thousand years. ... Hellenic Polytheism is an umbrella term for a wide variety of polytheistic religious movements which are ideologically related by their reverence for the ancient Greek pantheon and/or their adoption of ancient Greek religious practices. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...

Languages and dialects
Greek
Calabrian Greek · Cappadocian Greek
Cretan Greek · Cypriot Greek
Griko · Pontic Greek
Tsakonian · Yevanic
Meglenitic · Aromanian
Arvanitika · Slavika
Karamanlidika · Urum
Kalash The Greek-Calabrian dialect or Greek-Bovesian is the version of Italian Greek used in Calabria, as opposed to the other Italian-Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina, remnant of the ancient and Byzantine Greek colonisation of the region. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Cretan Greek (Cretan dialect, Greek: Κρητική διάλεκτος or Kritika Κρητικά) is a dialect of the Greek language, spoken by more than half a million people in Crete and several thousands in the diaspora. ... The Cypriot dialect of Greek (Cypriot Greek or Kypriaka) is spoken by more than half a million people in Cyprus and several hundred thousands abroad. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Tsakonian (also Tsakonic) (Standard Greek Τσακωνική Διάλεκτος — Tsakonic language — is a dialect of, or language closely related to, Standard Modern Greek, spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Arvanitika or Arvanitic (native name: arbërisht, Greek: αρβανίτικα arvanitika) is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. ... Slavic (Greek: Σλάβικα Slávika, reported self-identifying names: endopika, makedonski (Macedonian), pomakika, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Kalash or Kalasha (also known as Kalasha-mun) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Iranian branch, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral Group. ...

History This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

Persecution
Anti-Hellenism · Chios massacre
Pontic Greek Genocide
Asia Minor Catastrophe After the beginning of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, Turkish soldiers began the massacre of thousands of Greeks around the Ottoman Empire. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, İsmet İnönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The...

v  d  e

The culture of Pontos has been influenced by the topography of the different regions of Pontos. The cities located in the North, like Trabzon, Sinop were, from ancient times, trading centers. They retain this title till today. In these cities upper level education flurished. The markets provided the majority of the Northern cities economy.


In the inland cities like Argyroupolis and others, the economy was based upon agriculture and mining. Trade took place here too, but to a lesser extent. The topography of the land dictated this dichotomy of substinance. The northern cities all developed as rich urban ports due to the accessibility of the Black Sea. The southern cities developed as rural centers, due the valleys and plains extending from the base of the Pontic alps. The following are some cultural characteristics of the Pontic Greek people.


The Pontic Greek people value and revere education. This cultural aspect is witnessed by the number of colleges that existed in the region. In cities both rural and urban alike, highschools and colleges were widespread. Examples of such colleges include;

  • the Frontistirion of Trapezeus built in 1682 [1]
  • the Frontistirion of Argyroupolis built in 1722[2]
  • 38 different highschools in Synope[3]
  • 39 different highschools in Kerasous [4]

The Pontic Greek people value and revere religion. The Pontian Greeks built many churches and monasteries such as;

  • St.Eugenios of Trapezeus [5]
  • The monastery of St. George [6]
  • The monastery of St. Ioannes Vazelonos [7]
  • The church of Agia Sophia of Trapezeus, see Hagia Sophia, Trabzon. [8]
  • Arguably, one of the greatest monasteries built in Pontos is that of Panagia Soumela, see Sümela Monastery.

Hagia Sophia museum, Trabzon, 2002 The Hagia Sophia Museum (in Turkish: Ayasofya Müzesi) is a former church and mosque located in the city of Trabzon in the north-eastern part of Turkey. ... Sümela Monastery Sümela Monastery, 1903 Chapels, 2006 The Sümela Monastery (Greek: , Turkish: ) stands at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley in the region of Maçka in Trabzon Province, Turkey. ...

Music

Pontian music retains elements of Greek, Persian, and Celtic music. The music is often fast in tempo and can sometimes be high-pitched. Pontian music is played primarily to be danced to, with dance steps substantially different from that of Greek and Turkish dancing.


[9]


Instruments

From Macuka (Matzouka, Maçka) Trabzon, Turkey. 1950s Kemençe, Davul, zurna traditional Pontic musical instruments.

The following is a list of Pontian musical instruments. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Maçka is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey. ... Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... 1 Tepe - Top : Same as the body To Kifal - Head : Same as the body 2 Otia - Pegs (Ears): Same as the body 3 Goula - Neck : Same as the body 4 Spaler - Fingerboard (Slabbering bib) : Same as the body 5 Kapak - Soundboard 6 Rothounia - Soundholes (Nostrals) 7 Gaidaron - Bridge (Rider): Made... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tapan. ... Turkish Zurna in Ottoman band For other meanings, see Zurna (disambiguation) and Surna (disambiguation) The Zurna (also called Surnay, birbynÄ—, lettish horn, surla, sornai, zournas, zurma) is an Anatolian woodwind instrument. ...

The kemenche or kementze is similar to its Cretan, Cypriot and Thracian counterparts. The kemenche is played all over the world by people of Pontian descent. The kemence has three stings. 1 Tepe - Top : Same as the body To Kifal - Head : Same as the body 2 Otia - Pegs (Ears): Same as the body 3 Goula - Neck : Same as the body 4 Spaler - Fingerboard (Slabbering bib) : Same as the body 5 Kapak - Soundboard 6 Rothounia - Soundholes (Nostrals) 7 Gaidaron - Bridge (Rider): Made... For other uses, see Lyra (disambiguation). ... 1 Tepe - Top : Same as the body To Kifal - Head : Same as the body 2 Otia - Pegs (Ears): Same as the body 3 Goula - Neck : Same as the body 4 Spaler - Fingerboard (Slabbering bib) : Same as the body 5 Kapak - Soundboard 6 Rothounia - Soundholes (Nostrals) 7 Gaidaron - Bridge (Rider): Made...


See the following;

The touloum and aggeion are very similar to the bagpipe, and almost identical to the tsambouna, a bagpipe found in the Aegean islands. History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The music of Cyprus includes a variety of classical, folk and popular genres. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus Thrace is a historical region of Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus Crete is an island that is a SMALL part of Greece. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ...

The davul is a type of drum. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tapan. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ...

The zourna was widley played outdoors and was a preferred instrument over the kemence because it could be heard clearly and was hardly drowned out by the davul or daoul. The zurna varied by region. The zurna of Bafra has a different sound than those found in the rest of Pontos because it is bigger in size. Turkish Zurna in Ottoman band For other meanings, see Zurna (disambiguation) and Surna (disambiguation) The Zurna (also called Surnay, birbynÄ—, lettish horn, surla, sornai, zournas, zurma) is an Anatolian woodwind instrument. ...

  • Violi

The violin was played upright like the kemence. Areas with the violin were primarily Ak-Dag Maten, Kioumoush Maten and Bafra.

  • Kemane

The Kemane is related to the Kemane of Kappadokia. Pontic communities that played kemane were Ak-Dag Maten, Ata-Pazar, Kioumoush Maten and possibly in Kerasounta and Kars.

  • Defi

Defi (tambourine) was played in Bafra and Ata-Pazar.

Outi or Oud was played in Bafra, Ata-Pazar, Ak-Dag Maten and Kioumoush Maten.


Dance

Pontian dance retains the aspects of Persian and Greek dance styles. The dances called Horoi (Greek: Χοροί), singular Horon (Greek: Χορόν), are circular in nature and are each characterized by distinct short steps. A unique aspect of Pontian dance is the tremoulo (Greek: Τρέμουλο), which a fast shacking of the upper torso by a turning of the back on its axis. Pontian dances are similar to Greek dances in being danced in a line and forming a circle. Many Pontian dances are almost identical in steps to Greek dances. Pontian dances also resemble Persian and middle eastern dances in that they are not led. That is there is not one single leader in the dance formation. This is different from Greek dances but is a widespread aspect of Persian and middle eastern dances. The following is a list of Pontian Dances

  • Omal -(Grk.ομάλ)-meaning calm
  • Tik-(Grk.τικ)
    • Argon-(Grk.αργόν)-meaning slow
    • Tromakton-(Grk.τρομαχτόν)-meaning fiercely
    • So gonaton-(Grk.σο γόνατο)-meaning on the knee
    • Langefton-(Grk.λανγκευτόν)-meaning jumping or hopping
    • Karslidikon-(Grk.καρσλίδικον)-Meaning from Kars
    • Diplon-(Grk.διπλόν)-Meaning douple
  • Dipat or Giavaston-(Grk.διπάτ)-Meaning double step
  • Ters (from Kioumoush Maten)-(Grk.Tερς)-Meaning wrong or incorrectly
  • Ters (from Ak Dag Maten)-(Grk.Tερς)-Meaning wrong or incorrectly
  • Tas-(Grk.τας)
  • Trigona (from Trapezounta)-(Grk.τριγόνα)
  • Trigona (from Matsouka)-(Grk.τριγόνα)
  • Trigona (from Kerasounda)-(Grk.τριγόνα)
  • Seranitsa (from Trapezounta)-(Grk.σερανίτσα)
  • Seranitsa (Sheriana)-(Grk.σερανίτσα)
  • Serra-(Grk.σέρρα)-Named after the region Serra
  • Masher or Maheria(Grk.Μαχαίρια)or Pyrecheios(Grk.πυρήχειος)(Turkish Bıçak Oyunu)- ancient Greek dance described by the ancient historian Xenophon meaning sound of fire. In the films The Addams Family Gomez dances Masher.
  • Kots-(Grk.κοτς)-Meaning Heel dance
  • Kotsari-(Grk.κότσαρι)- Meaning Heel dance
  • Almatsouk-(Grk.αλματσούκ)
  • Titara (Argyropoli)-(Grk.τίταρα)
  • Titara (Kars)-(Grk.τίταρα)
  • Giurvalandun-(Grk.γιουρβαλαντούν)
  • Samson-(Grk.σαμσόν)-From Sinop
  • Etere-(Grk.έτερε)
  • Karsilamas-(Grk.καρσιλαμάς)-From Kars
  • Pipilomatena-(Grk.πιπιλομάτενα)- Meaning soft eyes
  • Tsurtuguzus-(Grk.τσουρτούγουζους)
  • Momogera-(Grk.μομόγερα)-Meaning immature old men
  • Atsiapat-(Grk.ατσιαπάτ)
  • Gemura-(Grk.γέμουρα)-Meaning from Gemura
  • Diplon Omal-(Grk.διπλόν ομάλ)-Meaning double calm
  • Kalon Korits-(Grk.καλόν κορίτσ)-Meaning good girl
  • Kymishanalidikon-(Grk.κιμισχαναλίδικον)-Meaning from Gumushane
  • Dolme-(Grk.ντολμέ)
  • Utsai-(Grk.ούτσαϊ)
  • Sarikuz-(Grk.σαρικουζ)
  • Siton-(Grk.σιτόν)
  • Tamsara-(Grk.τάμσαρα)
  • Tyrfon-(Grk.τυρφόν)
  • Fona-(Grk.φόνα)
  • Hala-Hala-(Grk.χάλα-χάλα)
  • Halai-(Grk.χαλάϊ)

Kars (Armenian: Կարս) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... There are places that have the name Serra (Portuguese meaning a mountain range): // In Brazil, South America Serra (Brazil) , Espírito Santo, Brazil Related Amparo do Serra, Minas Gerais Araçoiaba da Serra, São Paulo Bom Jardim da Serra, Santa Catarina Bom Jesus da Serra, Bahia Campestre da Serra... There are places that have the name Serra (Portuguese meaning a mountain range): // In Brazil, South America Serra (Brazil) , Espírito Santo, Brazil Related Amparo do Serra, Minas Gerais Araçoiaba da Serra, São Paulo Bom Jardim da Serra, Santa Catarina Bom Jesus da Serra, Bahia Campestre da Serra... The Pyrehios dance (Pyrrhic dance) (Grk. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Addams Family is a creation of American cartoonist Charles Addams that appears in print cartoons, television shows, movies and video games. ... Gomez Addams is the fictional patriarch of The Addams Family, created by cartoonist Charles Addams for The New Yorker magazine in the 1930s. ... For other meanings of Sinop/Sinope, see Sinope Sinop (also Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on the coast of the Black Sea, in the modern region of Galatia in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope. ... Atsiapat is the first in a sequence of three tranditional dances performed in the region of Pontus, as well as by refugees of Pontos. ... Gümüshane, also spelt Gümüsane, is a city in Turkey. ...

Notable Pontic Greeks

Maximus V was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1946 till 1948. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Diogenes by John William Waterhouse, depicting his lamp, tub and diet of onions. ... Dimitris Psathas was a famous modern Greek satirist and playwright. ... Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... Evagrius of Ponticus (345-399) was a Christian monk and ascetic. ... Fyodor Nikolayevich Yurchikhin (Russian: Фёдор Николаевич Юрчихин), Ph. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ...

See also

Picture of Ömer Asan, 2005 in Edirne. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Ancomah (Antzomakh, Antzimah) is a mythological place which was first mentioned by Hasan Umur in the 1940s, approximately fifty meters inland near Trabzon, Turkey. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Համշինի in Armenian; Hemşinli in Turkish; Амшенцы in Russian) are an ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ... A procession of deported Greeks at Elazığ (Source: National Geographic Magazine 11/25). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Library Journal Review of Not Even My Nameby Thea Halo.
  2. ^ Ascherson, Neal (1995). The Black Sea. ISBN 0-8090-3043-8. 

References

  • Asan, Ömer. Pontos kültürü. İstanbul: Belge Yayınları, 1996.
  • Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. Picador. 2000. ISBN 978-0-312-26211-2.
  • Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. ISBN 978-3-8258-7823-8

External links


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