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Encyclopedia > Pons
Brain: Pons
Diagram showing the positions of the three principal subarachnoid cisternæ. (Pons visible at center.)
Anteroinferior view of the medulla oblongata and pons.
Gray's subject #187 785
Part of Brain stem
Artery pontine arteries
NeuroNames hier-538
MeSH Pons

The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a structure located on the brain stem. It is rostral to the medulla oblongata, caudal to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum. In humans and other bipeds this means it is above the medulla, below the midbrain, and anterior to the cerebellum. Image File history File links Gray768. ... Image File history File links Gray679. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... The pontine arteries are a number of small vessels which come off at right angles from either side of the basilar artery and supply the pons and adjacent parts of the brain. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The term Pons may refer to: Pons (or pons Varolii), a knob on the brain stem. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...

Contents

Function

It is part of the central nervous system, and relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum. Aids in relaying messages in the brain, and contains the pneumotaxic centres that help regulate respiration. Also controls arousal. Some theories pose that it has a role in dreaming.[1] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ...


Anatomy of the pons

The "knob-like" process is 2 centimeters long and located on the anterior (front) of the brainstem. It is formed of nerves that travel from one side (left or right) to the other. Most other fibres in the brainstem travel up and down.


The posterior (back) surface of the pons forms part of the wall of the fourth ventricle of the brain. The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ...


Most blood to the pons is supplied by pontine arteries. These are small arteries that branch off the basilar artery (of the Circle of Willis). Blood also comes from the anterior inferior, and superior cerebellar arteries. The pontine arteries are a number of small vessels which come off at right angles from either side of the basilar artery and supply the pons and adjacent parts of the brain. ... The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... The circle of Willis (also called the cerebral arterial circle or arterial circle of Willis) is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain. ... The anterior inferior cerebellar artery passes backward to be distributed to the anterior part of the under surface of the cerebellum, anastomosing with the posterior inferior cerebellar branch of the vertebral. ... The superior cerebellar artery arises near the termination of the basilar. ...


There are two main domains in the pons for control of respiration:[2] Control of ventilation refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of ventilation (physiology). ...

The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus. ... The pneumotaxic center of the upper pons antagonises the apneustic centre. ...

Cranial nerve nuclei

A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons: Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ...

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ... The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. ... The cranial nerve motor nucleus of the facial nerve is located in the lower pons. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ... The nuclei of the vestibular nerve. ... The cochlear nuclei consist of: (a) the dorsal cochlear nucleus, corresponding to the tuberculum acusticum on the dorso-lateral surface of the inferior peduncle; and (b) the ventral or accessory cochlear nucleus, placed between the two divisions of the nerve, on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle. ...

Additional images

References

  1. ^ The "Science of Dreaming" in Neurontic: Psychology for the Modern Mind..
  2. ^ Physiology at MCG 4/4ch6/s4ch6_10

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Page 785 (593 words)
—The pons or forepart of the hind-brain is situated in front of the cerebellum.
They course to the lateral border of the pons, and form part of the middle peduncle; the further connections of this brachium will be discussed with the anatomy of the cerebellum.
The longitudinal fasciculi (fasciculi longitudinales) are derived from the cerebral peduncles, and enter the upper surface of the pons.
Pons - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (344 words)
The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem.
A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons.
The abducens, vestibulocochlear, and facial nerve nuclei are present slightly lower down in the pons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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