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Encyclopedia > Pong
Pong
Developer Atari Inc.
Publisher Atari Inc.
Designer Allan Alcorn
Series Pong
Released North America 1972
Japan 1973
Genre sports simulation
Mode(s)
Platform(s) Arcade
Input methods 2 analog paddles
Arcade cabinet standard
Arcade CPU discrete
Arcade sound system Amplified Mono (one channel)
Arcade display Vertical orientation, Black-and-white raster display, Standard Resolution

Pong is a video game released originally as a coin-operated arcade game by Atari Inc. on November 29, 1972.[1] Pong is based on the sport of table tennis (or "ping pong"), and named after the sound generated by the circuitry when the ball is hit.[2] The word Pong is a registered trademark of Atari Interactive,[3][4][5] while the term "pong" is used frequently to describe the genre of "bat and ball" video games. Pong is often regarded as the world's first video arcade game, but Computer Space by Nutting Associates had been launched a year earlier in 1971.[6] Pong was the first video game to achieve widespread popularity in both arcade and home console versions, and launched the initial boom in the video game industry. The popularity of Pong led to a successful patent infringement lawsuit from the makers of an earlier video game for the Magnavox Odyssey. Pong is a first generation video game, a term used to describe the video game industry between 1972 and 1977.[7] Look up pong, Pong in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... Al Alcorn is a pioneering engineer and comptuter scientist. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... This arcade cabinet, containing Centipede, is an upright. ... CPU redirects here. ... Look up discrete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... Suppose the smiley face in the top left corner is an RGB bitmap image. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1971 in video gaming, other events of 1972, 1973 in video gaming, history of video games Events May 24: Magnavox unveils the Odyssey at a Burlingame, California convention. ... Ping Pong redirects here. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... There are numerous debates over who created the first video game, with the answer depending largely on how video games are defined. ... Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November, 1971 by Nutting Associates. ... Nutting Associates was the company that created Computer Space (1971), the first coin operated arcade game. ... Game console redirects here. ... In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Civil action redirects here. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. ...

Contents

History

The earliest electronic ping-pong game was played on an oscilloscope, and was developed by William A. Higinbotham at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1958. His game was called Tennis for Two.[8] Ping Pong redirects here. ... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ... Categories: Physics stubs | 1910 births | 1994 deaths | Manhattan Project ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an oscilloscope which simulated a game of tennis or ping pong. ...


In September 1966, Ralph Baer, then working for Sanders Associates, wrote a short paper outlining a system for playing simple video games on a home television set.[9] Originally, his chief engineer Sam Lackoff asked Baer to build a television set. Baer decided to add the new concept of playing games on a television screen. [10] He developed a computer version of a ping-pong game, and his ideas were patented. Magnavox licensed the technology from Sanders Associates, and in the middle of 1972 the company began selling the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console. The Odyssey was capable of playing a dozen different games, including a basic version of table tennis and a slightly more complex version of tennis.[11][12] Ralph H. Baer (born 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ... Sanders Associates was a company in Nashua, New Hampshire. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Magnavox (Latin for great voice) is an electronics company founded by Edwin Pridham and Peter L. Jensen. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Ping Pong redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ...

The original Atari upright cabinet. The display was an ordinary black and white television set.

Displaying animated graphics on a television screen and reacting in real time to user input would have required more computing power than 1960s consumer products could deliver. Although technology had progressed significantly by 1970, the tasks performed by a modern-day cell phone would still have required a mainframe computer the size of a small apartment. Despite this, it was possible to create a tennis video game by restricting the graphics to just one line per paddle, a dotted line for the net and a square for the ball. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (678x1114, 107 KB) An original Atari Pong video game console on display at an exhibition in Vienna in 1998. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (678x1114, 107 KB) An original Atari Pong video game console on display at an exhibition in Vienna in 1998. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ...


In May 1972, the Magnavox Odyssey was demonstrated at a trade show in Burlingame, California. Nolan Bushnell attended the event and played the Odyssey's table tennis game.[13] In June 1972 Bushnell and Ted Dabney founded a new company which they named Atari, with a starting capital of $250 each. Bushnell was a keen player of the board game Go, and the word Atari in Japanese has a meaning similar to the term check in chess. Location in San Mateo County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Mateo Incorporated June 6, 1908 Government  - Mayor Terry Nagel  - City Manager Jim Nantell Area  - City  6. ... Nolan K. Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur who founded both Atari and the Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza-Time Theaters chain. ... Ted Dabney and Nolan Bushnell created the first arcade game, Computer Space, in 1971 and founded Atari Computers in 1972. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ... Go terms and concepts are important in the game of Go. ... In games such as chess, shogi, and xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king (or general in xiangqi). ... This article is about the Western board game. ...


Bushnell was concerned that his pioneering 1971 video arcade game, Computer Space, had been too complicated for some users. In an interview, he said of the game: "You had to read the instructions before you could play, people didn't want to read instructions. To be successful, I had to come up with a game people already knew how to play; something so simple that any drunk in any bar could play."[2] Bushnell envisioned creating a video car driving game for arcades and hired Allan (Al) Alcorn, an electronic engineer who had recently finished college. Concerned that this project would be too complex for his new employee, Bushnell's first request to Alcorn was to create a ping-pong game. The game that Alcorn created was fun to play and since the name Ping-Pong was already trademarked, it was called simply Pong. The dominant arcade game at the time was pinball, and unlike pinball Pong was conceived as a game for two players. Amusement industry experts were unsure about Pong's potential, and initially there was little interest in the product.[14][15] Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November, 1971 by Nutting Associates. ... Al Alcorn is a pioneering engineer and comptuter scientist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... This article is about the arcade game. ...


Before Bushnell departed on a trip to Chicago to meet with pinball machine manufacturers Williams and Bally/Midway, it was agreed that Pong should undergo a field test. Bushnell and Alcorn then added a coin-operated switch to the machine so that it could be used as an arcade game. The instructions of the game were simple: Avoid missing ball for high score.[16] Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Williams is a long-standing electronic gaming and amusement company based in Chicago, Illinois. ... Midway Games (NYSE: MWY) is a video game publisher known for such game series as Mortal Kombat, NBA Jam, and Spy Hunter. ...


The system was tested initially in a small bar in Grass Valley, California and Andy Capp's Tavern, a bar in Sunnyvale, California. After only one day the game's popularity had grown to the point where people lined up outside Andy Capp's waiting for it to open.[1] Grass Valley is a city in Nevada County, California, United States. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - City 22. ...


After a while the unit broke down, and the bar's owner called Al Alcorn at home to have him remove the game. When he opened the unit he discovered the problem - the milk carton placed inside to catch the coins was overflowing with quarters, causing the coin switch to become jammed. According to the account given by Nolan Bushnell, the Pong cabinet at Andy Capp's broke down the day after it was installed, while Alcorn remembers it working for two weeks before the breakdown occurred.[2][17] Bally/Midway turned down Pong after watching a demonstration, but the successful trial at Andy Capp's led Atari to manufacture the coin-operated games itself. The games were manufactured in a converted roller skating rink.[1][18] The quarter is 1/4th of a United States dollar or 25 cents. ... Blading redirects here. ...


The coin-operated Pong games manufactured by Atari were a great success, and by the end of March 1973 between 8,000 and 10,000 of the units had been sold.[1]


The makers of the Magnavox Odyssey insisted that they held a patent on the concept of a tennis video game, and in 1974 Sanders/Magnavox filed a lawsuit against Atari. This was the first lawsuit relating to intellectual property rights in the video game industry. Lawyers for Magnavox found witnesses who recalled seeing Nolan Bushnell playing the Odyssey's table tennis game at the trade show in Burlingame, California in 1972, and obtained a guestbook from the event that he had signed. Atari settled out of court by agreeing to pay $700,000 to license the patents that Magnavox held on the Odyssey.[19] On January 10, 1977, Judge John Grady of the Federal District Court in Chicago ruled in favor of Sanders/Magnavox on all counts relating to the lawsuit. The ruling upheld the claim that US patent #3,728,480 entitled Television Gaming and Training Apparatus was the pioneering design for a video game.[20][21] The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Civil action redirects here. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Location in San Mateo County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Mateo Incorporated June 6, 1908 Government  - Mayor Terry Nagel  - City Manager Jim Nantell Area  - City  6. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... The United States patent law is a first-to-invent patent legal framework in contrast to all other national patent laws. ...

Atari's Super Pong was a refinement with more options

The idea for a home console version of Pong was conceived in 1973 and a prototype was designed by Al Alcorn, Bob Brown and Harold Lee during 1975. The project was named Darlene after a female co-worker at Atari.[22] Pong had some important differences from the original Magnavox Odyssey, which had been discontinued in 1974. The Odyssey used discrete electronic components as a legacy of its 1960s roots, while Pong was based on an integrated circuit containing many components on a single chip. The chip in the home version of Pong was the most complex developed for a consumer product at the time. Pong boasted on-screen digital scoring, something the Odyssey lacked, but while the Odyssey offered a range of different games through plug-in circuit boards, the first Pong console played the table tennis game only. The Odyssey lacked sounds and Pong made a distinctive bleeping noise through an internal loudspeaker each time the ball was hit. The Odyssey could add spin to the tennis ball through a button on its controllers, while Pong could add eight levels of spin automatically depending on which part of the bat the ball hit. This was a feature found in the arcade version of Pong, and helped to produce varied play. In both the Odyssey and Pong, when the ball hit the top or bottom of the screen it bounced back in, a feature more like squash than tennis. The player gained a point in Pong when the opposing player failed to return the ball. Since domestic televisions in the 1970s lacked audiovisual inputs, the Pong console was connected to the television by converting its output to a radio frequency signal that was fed in through the antenna socket. Some consumers had been confused by the name of the Magnavox Odyssey, believing that it would work only with Magnavox televisions. However, both the Odyssey and Pong were compatible with any make of television that had an antenna socket.[22] Image File history File links Super_Pong. ... Image File history File links Super_Pong. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Look up discrete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A consumer product is generally any tangible personal property for sale and that is used for personal, family, or household purposes. ... Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ...


The Pong console was demonstrated at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1975. The buyers from the major retail outlets showed little interest, believing that the public was not sufficiently interested in video games for the home. However, soon after the show Atari contacted Tom Quinn, the sporting goods buyer for Sears, Roebuck and Company. Quinn was familiar with the Pong game found in arcades and bars, and decided to take a chance on the new console. He met with Nolan Bushnell and asked how many units Atari could produce in time for the Christmas holiday season. Bushnell reckoned that they could produce 75,000, but Quinn wanted double that number of units and offered to pay to boost production to that level. In return, Sears would become the exclusive retailer of Pong under the Sears Tele-Games label.[22] The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company is an American mid-range chain of international department stores, founded by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck in the late 19th century. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

Sears Tele-Games Pong IV

Christmas 1975 turned out to be the most successful period for sales of Pong home consoles, with customers lined up outside Sears stores waiting for new shipments of the game to arrive. The first consoles retailed at $100, the equivalent of around $400 at today's prices. The burgeoning popularity of Pong caught the attention of Al Franken and Tom Davis during the first year of the television show Saturday Night Live. The comedy duo wrote and voiced several segments in which no actors were visible, and all that viewers saw was a Pong game in progress looking just as it would if they were playing the game themselves. Franken and Davis would talk to one other as friends, rarely mentioning the game itself, and with the conversation occasionally having a detrimental impact on their game skills.[22] Image File history File links Pong_iv. ... Image File history File links Pong_iv. ... Alan Stuart Al Franken (born May 21, 1951) is an Emmy Award–winning American comedian, actor, author, screenwriter, political commentator, radio host and, recently, politician. ... Tom Davis is a prolific comedy writer and performer. ... This article is about the American television series. ...


A consequence of the popularity of Pong was that enthusiasts would play the game for hours at a time on their home consoles, leading to damage to the television screen being used as the display. Since the white lines forming the tennis court were shown constantly, they could become burned into the phosphor coating on the cathode ray tube of the television, causing irreparable damage to the screen. After a number of incidents where this occurred, the instruction books of tennis video games mentioned the risk and advised against extended play, or suggested that the brightness and contrast controls of the television be turned down in order to reduce the risk of damage. Another feature of constant play was the tendency of the paddle controllers to wear out and require replacement.[23] Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ...


Cloned versions of the Pong home console soon appeared, with the AY-3-8500 chip launched by General Instrument in 1976 offering a range of pong-style games to any manufacturer. By 1977 the market was saturated with cloned pong consoles and demand was in decline. Seeking a quick exit from the industry, many companies sold off their games at discount prices. The result was the first crash in the video game market, an event later echoed by the Video game crash of 1983. The public's interest in pong consoles had waned by the late 1970s, and the units had ceased production by the early 1980s. By this time more sophisticated games such as Space Invaders and Pac-Man had become available, and the sound and graphics capabilities of pong consoles were seen as old-fashioned. The technology of the home video game market had also evolved in 1976 when the manufacturer Fairchild released its new programmable console, the Video Entertainment System or VES.[24] Unlike the dedicated pong consoles which had a fixed number of built-in games, the VES could offer a range of games via plug-in ROM cartridges. Atari launched its own programmable system in October 1977, the Atari Video Computer System or VCS. This later became known as the Atari 2600, and the use of plug-in cartridges was the defining feature of the second generation video consoles that dominated the market during the late 1970s and early 1980s. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Instrument (GI) was a diversified electronics manufacturer which specialised in semiconductors and cable television equipment. ... Black Monday (1987) on the Dow Jones Industrial Average A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ... ET for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... Space Invaders ) is an arcade video game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado in 1978. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... The Fairchild Channel F is the worlds second cartridge-based video game console, after the Magnavox Odyssey. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... The Fairchild Channel F is the worlds second cartridge-based video game console, after the Magnavox Odyssey. ... A dedicated console is a video game console that is dedicated to a built in game or games, and is not equipped for additional games, via cartridge or other media. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Cartridge for the VIC 20 homecomputer In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ...


Nolan Bushnell says that Atari sold a total of 38,000 coin-operated Pong games, although taking into account the large number of clones, it is estimated that over 100,000 units were sold, making it the most popular arcade game of all time.[25][26] Nolan K. Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur who founded both Atari and the Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza-Time Theaters chain. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ...


Other versions and platforms

Breakout, seen here in its Atari 2600 version, is a single player variation of Pong where the player removes bricks from a wall

Many versions of Pong were released, including Pong Doubles (a four-player variant), Quadrapong (also four-player), Super Pong and Doctor Pong. Some of the later consoles offered color graphics, while the original Pong was in black and white. In 1976 Atari released Breakout, a single player variation of Pong where the object of the game is to remove bricks from a wall by hitting them with a ball. Breakout was updated successfully in 1986 by the Taito Corporation under the name Arkanoid. Image File history File links Breakout2600. ... Image File history File links Breakout2600. ... For other uses of this term, see Breakout (disambiguation). ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... Quadrapong was a four-player version of Pong by Atari, the last Pong-based game they would sell. ... Doctor Pong was a non-coin-operated tabletop version of Pong intended to occupy children in pediatricians’ waiting rooms. ... For other uses of this term, see Breakout (disambiguation). ... The Taito Corporation (タイトー株式会社, taitou kabushikigaisha) TYO: 9646 is a Japanese developer of video game software and arcade hardware. ... Arkanoid is an arcade game developed by Taito in 1986. ...


Pong has been reissued for a range of modern platforms, including:

  • There is a version for the PlayStation, and it has been included in the recent TV Games collections, which are console-on-a-chip systems featuring classic games from the Atari 2600 era.
  • Pong is also available on Arcade Classics for the Sega Genesis.
  • Atari's 1991 arcade game Off the Wall features a competitive bonus round that plays exactly like a round of Pong.
  • In the Atari game Test Drive Overdrive, users can play Pong when the game is loading. In single-player mode you play against the computer, but in multi-player mode you can play against the other player.

The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... Atari Anthology is a collection of over 80 Atari games released in 2003 for Windows PCs, and in 2004 for Xbox and Playstation 2. ... Windows redirects here. ... PS2 redirects here. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... The 7400 series of TTL integrated circuit SSI devices were historically important as the first widespread family of IC devices. ... A logic gate is an arrangement of electronically-controlled switches used to calculate operations in Boolean algebra. ... CPU redirects here. ... Off the Wall is an arcade game produced by Atari and released in North America in 1991. ... Screenshot of Test Drive I, Atari ST version. ...

In popular culture

Tennis star Andy Roddick played against Pong in a commercial for American Express
  • The opening song of Frank Black's album Teenager of the Year is entitled Whatever Happened to Pong? The lyrics detail the story of two brothers who place wagers on Pong competitions in bars.[28]
  • Tennis player Andy Roddick starred in a 2006 commercial for American Express in which his opponent was Pong. His trainer advises him: "He returns everything." Roddick seems stumped as to how to defeat the computer's bat, until he realizes that it has no forward movement. He then hits a drop shot over the net in order to win. The commercial was called Stop Pong and spawned a website where the player, as Roddick, tries to beat Pong in a five minute game.[29]
  • In the 1976 film Silent Movie, Dom Deluise and Marty Feldman tinker with the hospital bedside monitor to which the studio chief is hooked up, causing its display to turn into a Pong game.
  • In the film Airport '77, children can be seen playing a cocktail cabinet version of Pong Doubles. [30]
  • In an episode of King of the Hill, Peggy and Bobby are busy throughout the entire episode playing Pong. Without a pause button, they fall asleep with the ball bouncing back and forth.
  • In an episode of That '70s Show, Kelso and Red try to make the game more challenging by tinkering with the console and making the paddles smaller.
  • In May 1991 Bungie studios remade the game Pong into another version which was named "Gnop!" which was Pong! spelled backwards

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Andrew Stephen Andy Roddick (born August 30, 1982) is an American professional tennis player and a former World No. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... For other persons named Frank Black, see Frank Black (disambiguation). ... Released in 1994, Teenager of the Year was Frank Blacks second solo album and features fellow Pixies guitarist Joey Santiago on four tracks. ... Andrew Stephen Andy Roddick (born August 30, 1982) is an American professional tennis player and a former World No. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... A drop shot in tennis is tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run fast enough to retrieve it. ... This article is about the comedy film. ... Dominick Dom DeLuise (born August 1, 1933) is an American actor, comedian, film director, television producer and chef. ... Martin Alan Marty Feldman (8 July 1934[1] – 2 December 1982) was an English writer, comedian and BAFTA award winning actor, notable for his bulging eyes, which were the result of a thyroid condition known as Graves Disease. ... This article is about the television program. ... That 70s Show, an American television sitcom, centers on the lives of a group of teenagers living in Point Place, Wisconsin, a fictional suburb of either Kenosha or Green Bay[1] from May 17, 1976 to December 31, 1979. ...

Further reading

  • Zap! The Rise and Fall of Atari by Scott Cohen ISBN 978-0070115439
  • The Ultimate History of Video Games by Steven L. Kent ISBN 0-7615-3643-4
  • Phoenix: The Fall & Rise of Videogames by Leonard Herman ISBN 978-0964384828

See also

v  d  e
Selected home game consoles
First generation
Magnavox OdysseyPhilips Odyssey
PongColeco Telstar
Second generation
Fairchild Channel FAtari 2600Interton VC 4000Odyssey²IntellivisionArcadia 2001Atari 5200ColecoVisionVectrex • SG-1000
Third generation
NESMaster SystemAtari 7800
Fourth Generation
TurboGrafx-16Genesis/Mega Drive
CD-i • Neo GeoSNES
Fifth generation
3DOAmiga CD32JaguarSaturn
PlayStation • NEC PC-FX • Nintendo 64
Sixth generation
DreamcastPlayStation 2XboxGameCube
Seventh generation
PlayStation 3WiiXbox 360
History of…
Video games
Console, handheld, and personal computer games

First generation (1972–1977)
Second generation (1976–1984)
Video game crash of 1983
Third generation (1983–1992)
Fourth generation (1987–1996)
Fifth generation (1993–2002)
Sixth generation (1998–2006)
Seventh generation (2004–)
This is a list of video game consoles by the era they appeared in. ... The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Philips Videopac G7000 shown playing Pickaxe Pete The Magnavox Odyssey², known in Europe as the Philips Videopac G7000, in Brazil as the Philips Odyssey, and also by many other names, was a video game console released in 1978. ... The Telstar is a video game console produced by Coleco which first went on sale in 1976. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... The Fairchild Channel F is the worlds second cartridge-based video game console, after the Magnavox Odyssey. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The VC 4000 is an early 8-bit cartridge-based game console released in Germany in 1978 by Interton. ... Magnavox Odyssey² video game console The Magnavox Odyssey², known in Europe as the Philips Videopac G7000, in Brazil as the Philips Odyssey, in the United States as the Magnavox Odyssey² and the Philips Odyssey², and also by many other names, is a video game console released in 1978. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1979. ... Emerson Arcadia 2001, intended as a portable game console, the Arcadia 2001 was released by Emerson Radio Corp in mid-1982. ... The Atari 5200 SuperSystem, or simply Atari 5200, is a video game console that was introduced in 1982 by Atari as a replacement for the famous Atari 2600. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Vectrex is an 8-bit video game console developed by General Consumer Electric (GCE) and later bought by Milton Bradley Company. ... The SG-1000, which stands for Sega Game 1000, is a cartridge-based video game console manufactured by Sega. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... “NES” redirects here. ... The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ... The Atari 7800 is a video game console released by Atari in June 1986 (a test market release occurred two years earlier). ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... For information on the Japanese version of this console, see PC Engine The TurboGrafx 16 is a video game console released by NEC in 1989, for the North American market. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit /3D era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... 3DO Interactive Multiplayer (most commonly referred to as the 3DO) is a line of video game consoles which were released in 1993 and 1994 by Panasonic, Sanyo and Goldstar, among other companies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Atari Jaguar is a video game console that was released in November 1993 to rival the Mega Drive/Genesis and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System as a powerful next generation platform. ... The Sega Saturn ) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... The PC-FX is a video game console released in Japan on 23 December 1994 by NEC Corporation. ... The Nintendo 64 ), often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... The sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see Number of bits below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century. ... The Dreamcast , code-named White Belt, Black Belt, Dural, Dricas, Vortex, Katana, Shark and Guppy during development) is Segas last video game console and the successor to the Sega Saturn. ... PS2 redirects here. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Nintendo GameCube (GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 21, 2004 with the United States release of the Nintendo DS, followed by the PlayStation Portable on March 24, 2005. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Video games were introduced as a commercial entertainment medium in 1971, becoming the basis for an important entertainment industry in the late 1970s/early 1980s in the United States, Japan, and Europe. ... This article is about games played on consoles. ... A handheld video game is a video game designed primarily for handheld game consoles such as Nintendos Game Boy line. ... The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... E.T. for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit /3D era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... The sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see Number of bits below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 21, 2004 with the United States release of the Nintendo DS, followed by the PlayStation Portable on March 24, 2005. ...

Arcade games

Golden Age of Arcade Games
This article contains a timeline of notable events in the history of video arcade gaming: // 1971 The Galaxy Game, the earliest known coin-operated arcade video game, makes its debut on the campus of Stanford University. ... The Golden Age of Arcade Games was a peak era of arcade game popularity and innovation, lasting from January 18, 1982 to January 5, 1986. ...

  • History of computer and video games

Home video-game systems became popular during the 1970s and 80s. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Winter, David. Atari PONG - The first steps. pong-story.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  2. ^ a b c Hart, Sam. Atari Pong (Arcade Version). Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  3. ^ Atari Threatens Pong Clock Makers. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  4. ^ Atari Retro Classics. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  5. ^ Atari Anthology. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  6. ^ KLOV Computer Space entry. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  7. ^ A history of first generation video games. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  8. ^ The first video game. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  9. ^ Ralph Baer's design for a home video game system written in September 1966. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  10. ^ http://pong-story.com/intro.htm The History of Pong
  11. ^ The First Video Game. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  12. ^ The 1972 Magnavox Odyssey. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  13. ^ (April, 2005) Video Games: In The Beginning. New Jersey, USA: Rolenta Press, 81. ISBN 0-9643848-1-7. 
  14. ^ Rapp, David (2006-11-29). Atari: The Lost Years of the Coin-Op, 1971 – 1975 (Parts I - IV). Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  15. ^ Fulton, Steve (2006-06-30). The Mother Of All Video Games. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  16. ^ Avoid missing ball for high score. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  17. ^ ATARI'S PONG - A LEGEND BEGINS. computermuseum.50megs.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  18. ^ History of Atari. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  19. ^ Patent infringement lawsuit. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  20. ^ The 1976 patent infringement ruling. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  21. ^ US Patent #3,728,480 April 17, 1973 - TELEVISION GAMING AND TRAINING APPARATUS. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  22. ^ a b c d Atari Pong Codename: "Darlene". atarimuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  23. ^ History of Screensavers. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  24. ^ Goldberg, Martin. ClassicGaming.Com ChannelF Museum Entry. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  25. ^ Interview with Nolan Bushnell, Founder of Atari. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  26. ^ Atari Pong Coin-op. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  27. ^ Emulating Pong. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  28. ^ Whatever happened to Pong?. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  29. ^ Stop Pong. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  30. ^ Arcade at the Movies. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
PONG-Story: Main page (1463 words)
The history of PONG games and derivates just started, would spread all over the globe, and die in the early 1980s.
Once General Instruments released the first low-cost chip allowing to build a complete PONG system with few external components, a whole industry was launched and hundreds of manufacturers released their own line of PONG video games all over the world.
Here's the answer to the most common problem that people encounter when they find their old PONG game sitting in their garage many years after, or when they buy a loose PONG game for the nostalgia and are missing the switch-box.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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