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Encyclopedia > Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Capital
 - Coordinates
Pondicherry
 - 11.59° N 79.5° E
Largest city Pondicherry
Population (2001)
 - Density
973,829 (2nd)
 - 2,029/km²
Area
 - Districts
492 km² (3rd)
 - 4
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Establishment
 - Governor
 - Chief Minister
 - Legislature (seats)
1963-07-01
 - Mukut Mithi
 - N. Rangaswamy
 - Unicameral (30)
Official language(s) Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, French
Abbreviation (ISO) IN-PY
Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India
Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India

Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) pronunciation is a Union Territory of India. It is a former French colony. It consists of four non-contiguous districts or enclaves and is named for the largest, Pondicherry. Image File history File links WikiprojectIndiacities_pondicherry. ... This is a list of Indian state and union territory capitals. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... The city of Pondicherry (Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a union territory, a small town enclaved within the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Map showing the population density of each state in India India houses a population of 1. ... The city of Pondicherry (Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a union territory, a small town enclaved within the state of Tamil Nadu. ... World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Indian States Notes Note 1: — Excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur See also: States and territories of India References Census of India, final 2001 results Category: ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... The divisions of a district. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time zone for India. ... The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of Indias states and territories. ... Chief Ministers of Pondicherry See Also Pondicherry Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Pondicherry | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Mukut Mithi (born 1954) is the former Chief Minister of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... N. Rangaswamy is Chief Minister of Pondicherry, India. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) (also Telegu) belongs to the Dravidian language family but with ample influence from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories States and territories of India States: Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Pondicherry National Capital Territory of Delhi // History Pre-independence British India, which included all of modern-day India... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2284x2354, 1640 KB) Summary Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2284x2354, 1640 KB) Summary Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India. ... Tamil may refer to: Tamil language, one of the Dravidian languages primarily spoken in the South ASIA Tamil script, primarily used to write the Tamil language Tamil people The phrase Tamil country is used sometimes to refer to the regions with a significant population of Tamil-speaking people. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«; pronunciation: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Image File history File links Pondicherry. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The city of Pondicherry (Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a union territory, a small town enclaved within the state of Tamil Nadu. ...


The territory is currently undergoing a name change to the original name of the city, Puduchery meaning "new village" in the official Tamil language. The French spelled it "Poudichéry", which is the closest French approximation to the Tamil pronunciation. At some point, the hand-written 'u' was mistaken for an 'n', and the misspelling stuck. The territory is called புதுச்சேரி (Putuccēri) or பாண்டிச்சேரி (Pāṇṭiccēri) in Tamil, పుదుచ్చేరి (Puduccēri) in Telugu, and പോത്തുച്ചേരി (Pōttuccēri) or പോണ്ടിച്ചേരി (Pōṇṭiccēri) in Malayalam. It is also known as The French Riviera of the East. Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) (also Telegu) belongs to the Dravidian language family but with ample influence from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...

Contents


Geography

Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal, and Yanam on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé on the Arabian Sea. Pondicherry and Karaikal are by far the larger ones, and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala respectively. The territory has a total area of 492 km²: Pondicherry (city) 293 km², Karaikal 160 km², Mahé 9 km² and Yanam 30 km². It has 900 000 inhabitants (2001). The city of Pondicherry (Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a union territory, a small town enclaved within the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... Mahé, also known as Mayyazhi, is a former French colony in India. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalam: േകരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


History

See also: French India

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, of the early 2nd century AD, mentions a marketplace named Poduke (ch. 60), which G.W.B. Huntingford identified as possibly being Arikamedu, about 2 miles from the modern Pondicherry. Huntingford further notes that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937, and archeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century AD".1 French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei ) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Arikamedu is an archaeological site near Pondicherry, southern India, where Mortimer Wheeler conducted its best-known excavation in the 1940s. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... FN has several meanings; did you mean: an acronym for Front National, a French right wing political party. ...


Before this period nothing is known with certainty. The "Bahur Plates", issued in the 8th century speak of a Sanskrit University which was here from an earlier period. Legend has it that the sage Agastya established his Ashram here and the place was known as Agastiswaram. An inscription found near the Vedhapuriswara Temple hints at the credibility of this legend. The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


History continues at the beginning of the fourth century A. D. when the Pondicherry area is part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram. During the next centuries Pondicherry is occupied by different dynasties of the south: in the tenth century A.D. the Cholas of Thanjavur took over, only to be replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the thirteenth century. After a brief invasion by the Muslim rulers of the North, who established the Sultanate of Madurai, the Vijayanagar Empire took control of almost all the South of India and lasted till 1638, when the Sultan of Bijapur began to rule over Gingee. Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Thanjavur (தஞ்சாவூர் in Tamil), formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA : []) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ... Gingee is a town situated in the South Arcot district, in Tamil Nadu state, India. ...


Much of the credit for putting Pondicherry into the framework of strategic importance, as far as colonial scheme of things is concerned, should rest definitely with the French. The French East India Company set up a trading centre at Pondicherry in 1673. This outpost eventually became the chief French settlement in India. The French East India Company (French Compagnie des Indes Orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the British and Dutch East India companies. ...


Dutch and British trading companies also wanted trade with India. Wars raged between these European countries and spilled over into the Indian subcontinent. The Dutch captured Pondicherry in 1693 but returned it to France by the Treaty of Ryswick in 1699. The French acquired Mahe in the 1720's, Yanam in 1731, and Karaikal in 1738. During the Anglo-French wars (1742-1763), Pondicherry changed hands frequently. On January 16, 1761, the British captured Pondicherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned the city to the French. It was taken again by the British in 1793 amid the Wars of the French Revolution, but once again returned to France in 1814. When the British gained control of the whole of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country. Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam, Karaikal and Chandernagar remained a part of French India until 1954. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763 was signed on February 10, 1763, by the Kingdom of Great Britain, France and Spain with Portugal in agreement. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The independence of India in 1947 gave impetus to the union of France's Indian possessions with former British India. An agreement between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France's Indian possessions to choose their political future. The de jure union of French India with the Indian Union did not take place until 1962, although de facto, the bureaucracy had been united with India's on 01 November, 1954. It was organized as a Union Territory in 1963. The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Departure from France

Right from the time India gained its independence from British rule in 1947, the issue of the French settlements was raised with the Government of France. It took seven years for Pondicherry to effectively unite with independent India. However, even earlier there were agitations now and then against the French.


In 1787 and 1791, farmers of Karaikal agitated against the heavy land tax imposed by the French. The first war of Indian Independence had its impact in the French settlements but it did not attract the attention of the rulers, as the incidents were few and considered as local. People employed legal means to fight against the French. In 1873, an advocate, Ponnuthammbi Pillai, moved the Paris court and won the case in which he was fined by a French magistrate in Pondicherry for walking into the court with footwear.


There were student agitations in 1927 and 1930 which exhibited their sentiments. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Bal Gangadhar Tilak visited Pondicherry and its other enclaves and addressed the meetings. In 1934, "Swatantram", a monthly, was started by veteran freedom fighter and trade union leader V. Subbiah for the cause of workers and the country.


Police control, which warranted trade union unrest, further increased the anger of the people against their rulers. In the late 1930, grassroots organizations known as mahajana sabhas were opened in Pondicherry and Karaikal. These groups, along with trade unions, organized the Non-Cooperation Movement. During the Second World War, Pondicherry supported France with men and materiel. Deaths among French-Indian soldiers caused unrest in the enclaves. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ...


In 1946, the French India Congress was formed with the objective of integrating the French possessions with India. Later the following year, the French India Students Congress adopted a resolution on merger. In January 1948, the French People's Convention passed a resolution expressing its determination to merge the French possessions with India. The Communist Party also asked the people to accept only the merger.


The post-independence government under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was anxious to integrate the French Indian territories with the country. India signed an agreement with France in June 1948 which gave power to the people for determining the political status of their land. Accordingly, the municipal elections in Pondicherry, Karaikal and Yanam were held in October, 1948. All municipalities except one were captured by the French India Socialist Party, a pro-French group. The new councillors at a meeting accepted the autonomy offered by the French Government. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl Nehrū) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Scholar, Teacher) Nehru, was one of the most important leaders of the Indian Independence Movement and, as the head of the Indian National Congress, became the first Prime Minister of India when India won its...


The Indian Government continued to press for unification, pledging a distinct status and help for Pondicherry after its merger with India.


As the unification movement gathered momentum under Subbiah, the pro-French leader Edouard Goubert switched his loyalty to the pro-merger camp. A momentous event in the freedom movement of Pondicherry occurred on March 18, 1954, when the members of the executive council and mayors of Pondicherry and seven adjoining communes proclaimed their decision to merge with India without a referendum. All the communes in Karaikal also followed suit. This decision was to be confirmed by the Representative Assembly and when the Socialist Party was preparing to move the merger resolution, the French governor scuttled it by postponing the session. Provoked by this, the Socialists planned to capture the outlying communes one by one and move to Pondicherry. The Communist Party was also ready to launch a campaign of direct action to merge Pondicherry with India. Accordingly, the leaders of the Socialist Party hoisted the Indian national flag atop the Nettapakkam police station on the last day of March in 1954. Subsequently, many villages in Mannadipet and Bahour communes came under the sway of the pro-merger forces. In the Karaikal region, all the communes and Karaikal municipality passed a resolution in favour of merger. The National Youth Congress began a Satyagraha. A freedom fighters' procession was lathi charged and the flags carried by the processionists were seized and torn by the French Indian Police. Edouard Goubert (July 29, 1894 to August 14, 1897) was former mayor and first chief minister of Pondichéry between July 1, 1963 - September 11, 1964. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lathi is an ancient armed martial art of India. ...


India and France, following talks, issued a joint statement on March 13, 1954 announcing a procedure for deciding the status of the French settlements. Five days later the elected members of the Representative Assembly and the municipal councillors of Pondicherry and Karaikkal took part in a referendum at Keeloor. Of the 178 members voting, an overwhelming majority of 170 members favoured the merger of French Indian territories with the motherland. Three days later, an agreement on the de facto transfer of the French territories to India was signed in New Delhi between the two countries. March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956. It was ratified by the French parliament in May 1962. On August 16, 1962 India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held. Pondicherry and the other enclaves of Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam came to be administered as the Union Territory of Pondicherry from July 1, 1963. August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Cession of Mahe and Yanam

Conditions became intolerable in Yanam after its mayor and other representatives of Yanam adopted the merger resolution. The mayor, deputy mayor, and over 200 people took refuge in the adjacent areas of the Indian Union. Police and hired hoodlums from Yanam assaulted refugees on Indian soil. It was then that the refugees marched into Yanam under the leadership of Dadala Raphael Ramanayya and took over the administration. After hoisting the Indian National Flag, they adopted a resolution declaring Yanam "liberated." Close on their heels, in Mahe, the Mahajana sabha under its president, I.K. Kumaran began a picketing programme. Some days later, hundreds of volunteers marched into Mahe to stage a demonstration in front of the administrator's residence. They were joined by citizens of the enclave. On July 16, 1954, Kumaran took over the administration from the French administrator marking the end of 224 years of French rule in Mahe. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Under the Indo-French Agreement of June 1948, the first municipal elections were held in Chandernagore, also a French territory. In August that year the Congress Karmaparishad won 22 of the 24 seats. The new municipal assembly overwhelmingly voted for its merger with the Indian Union and the Government of India took control of Chandernagore on June 9, 1952. Later, it became a part of the Hoogly district of West Bengal. Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


French Influence

A remarkable degree of French Influence in Pondicherry exists to this date. Pondicherry was designed based on the French grid pattern and features neat sectors and perpendicular streets. The entire town is divided into 2 sections, the French quarter and the Indian quarter. Many streets still retain their French names and French style villas are a common sight in Pondicherry. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically colonial style with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian (Tamil) quarter consists of houses lined with verandas, and houses with large doors and grills. French and Tamil are equally spoken, while Pondicherry is one of the few places where one can see the French flag fluttering in India [1].


Pondicherry still has a large number of Tamil and a small number of non Tamil residents with French passports, whose ancestors were in French Governmental service and who chose to remain French at the time of Independence. This gives them some privileges with France that are not available to other Indians. Apart from the monuments pertaining to the French Period, there is the French Consulate in Pondicherry and several cultural organisations, and even the Foyer du Soldat for war veterans of the French Army.


Of the cultural organisations the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Pondicherry Centre of the École française d'Extrême-Orient and a branch of the Alliance Française are noteworthy. A French-medium school system, the Lycée Français de Pondichéry, continues to operate under the aegis of the French Minister of National Education (France). French Institute of Pondicherry (Institut Francais de Pondecherry) was established as a result of framework of the Cessation Treaty of French Territories in India, and was officially inaugurated on 20th March 1955. ... The École française dExtrême-Orient (EFEO) is a French institute dedicated to the study of Asian societies. ... The Alliance française is a non-profit organisation whose mission is to promote French language and culture outside France. ... The Lycée Français de Pondichéry in India is the most important French high school (lycée français) of Asia. ... Categories: French government | France-related stubs | Education in France ...


List of Governors of French Establishments in India

Commissaires: A Commissioner is one of various classes of persons who holds an office by virtue of a commission in the normally from the head of state, particularly of a state in the Commonwealth of Nations. ...

  • François Caron, 1668 - 1672
  • François Baron, 1672-1681
  • François Martin, 1681 – November 1693

Gouverneurs Généraux: A map of Japan in François Carons A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam. François Caron (1600-1673), was a French Huguenot refugee to the Netherlands who entered the Dutch East India Company, and becomes the first French person to set foot in... He is The First Governor General of Pondicherry. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... A Governor-General (in Canada, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the royally-appointed territorial governor of a region, or royal representative in a country...

  • Pierre Dulivier, January 1707-July 1708
  • Guillaume André d'Hébert, 1708 - 1712
  • Pierre Dulivier, 1712 -1717
  • Guillaume André d'Hébert, 1717 - 1718
  • Charles Joseph Pâtissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, 1783 - 1785
  • Le Vicomte, François de Souillac, 1785
  • L. Leroux de Touffreville, 1793
  • British occupation, August 1803 – September 1816 <-- Treaty of Paris (1814)
  • Paul de Nourquer du Camper, April 1840 - 1844
  • Louis Pujol, 1844 - 1849
  • Hyacinth Marie de Lalande de Calan, 1849 - 1850
  • Philippe Achille Bédier, 1851 - 1852
  • Raymond de Saint-Maur, August 1852 - April 1857
  • Alexandre Durand d'Ubraye, April 1857 - January 1863
  • Napoléon Joseph Louis Bontemps, January 1863 - June 1871
  • Michaux, June 1871 - November 1871
  • Pierre Aristide Faron, November 1871 - 1875
  • Adolph Joseph Antoine Trillard, 1875 - 1878
  • Léonce Laugier, February 1879 - April 1881
  • Théodore Drouhet, 1881 - October 1884
  • Étienne Richaud, October 1884 - 1886
  • Édouard Manès, 1886 - 1888
  • Georges Jules Piquet, 1888 - 1889
  • Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet, 1889 - 1891
  • Léon Émile Clément-Thomas, 1891 -1896
  • Louis Jean Girod, 1896 - February 1898
  • Victor Louis Marie Lanrezac, 1902 - 1904
  • Philema Lemaire, August 1904 - April 1905
  • Joseph Pascal François, April 1905 - October 1906
  • Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure, 1908 - 1909
  • Alfred Albert Martineau, July 9, 1910 - July 1911
  • Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat, July 1911 - November 1913
  • Pierre Jean Henri Didelot, 1926 - 1928
  • Robert Paul Marie de Guise, 1928 - 1931
  • François Adrien Juvanon, 1931 - 1934
  • Léon Solomiac, Août 1934 – 1936
  • Horace Valentin Crocicchia, 1936 -1938
  • Nicolas Ernest Marie Maurice Jeandin, 1945 - 1946

Commissaires: He is The First Governor General of Pondicherry. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... // Events The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Events By place Roman Empire Germania Inferior and the Rhine secured by Germanicus Augustus abandons his plan to create a defensive border at the Elbe, in order to reinforce the Roman defence along the Rhine and the Danube. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Pierre Christoph Le Noir was Governor General of Pondicherry for two times (first times as acting governor). ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant was Governor general of Pondicherry and Réunion in French Colonial Empire. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Pierre Christoph Le Noir was Governor General of Pondicherry for two times (first times as acting governor). ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Intridcution Pierre Benoît Dumas was born in 1668 and died in 1745 was French Governor General for Pondichéry and Réunion. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Joseph François Dupleix Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Octobre is a 1994 Quebecois movie by filmmaker Pierre Falardeau. ... Events Valerius Gratus is appointed Prefect of Iudaea. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Georges Duval de Leyrit was Governor General of Pondicherry between 1754 and 1758. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, baron de Tollendal (January, 1702 - 1766), French general, was born at Romans, Dauphin, being the son of Sir Gerald Lally, an Irish Jacobite from Tuam, County Galway, who married a French lady of noble family, from whom the son inherited his titles. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Many treaties have been negotiated and signed in Paris, including: Treaty of Paris (1229) - ended the Albigensian Crusade Treaty of Paris (1259) - between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France Treaty of Paris (1763) - ended the Seven Years War Treaty of Paris (1783) - ended the American Revolutionary War... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Law De Lauriston, Baron De was Born on Oct 5 1719 in Paris. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Law De Lauriston, Baron De was Born on Oct 5 1719 in Paris. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... January is the first month of the year and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe was Governor General of Réunion, Haiti and Pondichéry. ... January is the first month of the year and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, French Governor General between (1783 - 1785) , born in 1718, died in 1785 for Pondichéry. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... François, Vicomte de Souillac was born on July 2 1732 in Périgord. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... David Charpentier de Cossigny was born in Gaillac in the Tarn on 9 February 1740. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Conway (1734-1800) was a French soldier from Ireland who served as a General of the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... --69. ... Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen, French general, was born in 1769 to Caen and dead in 1832. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... --69. ... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Louis François Binot was born on 7 April 1771. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Many treaties have been negotiated and signed in Paris, including: Treaty of Paris (1229) - ended the Albigensian Crusade Treaty of Paris (1259) - between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France Treaty of Paris (1763) - ended the Seven Years War Treaty of Paris (1783) - ended the American Revolutionary War... André Julien, Comte Dupuy was born on 1753. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Cordier was born on 1773. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eugène Panon who was born in 29 March 1800 in Paris, was Governor General of Pondicherry between 1826 – August 2, 1828. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Cordier was born on 1773. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see April (disambiguation). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... A Commissioner is one of various classes of persons who holds an office by virtue of a commission in the normally from the head of state, particularly of a state in the Commonwealth of Nations. ...

August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Government & Administration

Pondicherry is a Union Territory of India, not a separate State, which implies that the governance and administration of the territory falls directly under the federal authority in New Delhi. However, along with Delhi, Pondicherry is one of the few two union territories in India, which is entitled by special constitutional amendments to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby enjoying partial statehood powers. Under the special provision, the government is permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislations may require the ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India. A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... The Humayuns Tomb, situated in New Delhi, has an architectural design similar to the Taj Mahal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Delhi. ... This article is about the term as used within the Commonwealth of Nations; there is also an Legislative Assembly in Oregon and there used to be a Legislative Assembly in France during the French Revolution. ... Standard of the President of India The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


The Centre is represented by the Lt. Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas at the Park, the former palace of the French Governor. The Central government is more directly involved in the financial well-being of the territory, as against the states where financial administration, given a budgeted central grant is the responsibility to the state governments. Consequently, Pondicherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect category. An indirect tax (such as sales tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is collected from the person who bears the tax by intermediaries and the proceeds passed on to government. ...


Pondicherry in literature

Pondicherry was the setting for the first third of the Booker prize-winning novel Life of Pi by Yann Martel. Life of Pi is a novel by Canadian author Yann Martel. ... Yann Martel Yann Martel (born June 25, 1963) is a Canadian author. ...


Economy

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Pondicherry at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 1,840
1985 3,420
1990 6,030
1995 13,200
2000 37,810

Pondicherry's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2 billion in current prices.


See also

The French East India Company (French Compagnie des Indes Orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the British and Dutch East India companies. ... -1... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Life of Pi is a novel by Canadian author Yann Martel. ... JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institue of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research) Pondicherry, India. ...

External links

Notes

  • Note 1: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, transl. G.W.B. Huntingford (Hakluyt Society, 1980), p. 119.
States and territories of India Flag of India
States: Andhra PradeshArunachal PradeshAssamBiharChhattisgarhGoaGujaratHaryana • Himachal Pradesh • Jammu and KashmirJharkhandKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraManipurMeghalayaMizoramNagalandOrissaPunjabRajasthanSikkimTamil NaduTripuraUttaranchalUttar PradeshWest Bengal
Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar IslandsChandigarhDadra and Nagar HaveliNational Capital Territory of DelhiDaman and DiuLakshadweepPondicherry
French Colonial Empire v·d·e ]
I- Former French protectorates and colonial possessions:
Africa & Indian Ocean: Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) | Arguin Island (off Morocco) | French West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Dahomey, French Sudan (Mali), Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta) & French Togoland & James Island (The Gambia) | French Equatorial Africa (Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo, Oubangui-Chari) | French Somaliland (Djibouti) | Comoros (Anjouan- Grande Comore- Mohéli) | Madagascar | Mascarene Islands : Ile de France (Mauritus) & Seychelles
The Americas (French colonization of the Americas): New France (Acadia, Louisiana, Québec, Terre Neuve) | Inini | Berbice | Haiti & Saint-Domingue | Tobago | Virgin Islands (part) | France Antarctique (part of Brazil)

Asia: Alaouites | Alexandretta-Hatay | Ceylon | French India (Chandannagar, Coromandel Coast | Madras | Malabar, Mahé, Pondicherry, Karaikal, Yanaon) | Kwangchowan (lease in China) | French Indochina (Cambodia-Kampuchea | Laos | Vietnam: Annam, Cochinchina, Tonkin) Oceania: New Caledonia | New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories States and territories of India States: Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Pondicherry National Capital Territory of Delhi // History Pre-independence British India, which included all of modern-day India... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories States and territories of India States: Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Pondicherry National Capital Territory of Delhi // History Pre-independence British India, which included all of modern-day India... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... Arunachal Pradesh (Hindi: अरुणाचल प्रदेश) is a state of India. ... Assam now renamed to Asom (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: / /) , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath. ... Haryana (Hindi: , IPA: / /) is a state in north India. ... Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ), formerly the Punjab Hill States, is a mostly mountainous state in northwest India. ... Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu:جموں Ùˆ کشمیر, Hindi:जम्मू और कश्मीर) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern-most state of Republic of India, lying mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... | state_name=Jharkhand | | capital=Ranchi | latd = 23. ... Karnātakā (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: / /) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalam: േകരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ... Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र mahārāṣṭra, literally: Great Nation; IPA: )( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Meghalaya (मेघालय in DevanāgarÄ«) is a small state in north-eastern India. ... Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North-Eastern India on the border with Burma. ... Nagaland (Hindi: नागालैंड) is the farthest-lying state in northeast India. ... Orissa (Hindi: ) (2001 provisional pop. ... Punjab (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬ/پنجاب, Hindi: पंजाब, IPA: / /) is a state in northwest India. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: ) is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Sikkim (also Sikhim) (Hindi: सिक्किम) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tripura Tripura/Tipra (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Uttaranchal (Hindi: उत्तरांचल) became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: اتر پردیش, IPA: ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Hindi: पश्चिम बंगाल, Poshchim Bôngo) is a state in the eastern region of India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Tamil: அந்தமான், Hindi: अंडमान और निकोबार द्वीप) is a union territory of India. ... Chandigarh (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called The City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Delhi. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Lakshadweep (Malayalam: ലക്ഷദ്വീപ് []) is the smallest Union Territory of India. ... Created by Fr:Utilisateur:Rinaldum for the French wikipedia. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, or AOF) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), Guinea, Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... French Sudan (Fr. ... Map showing the Volta river in Upper Volta Upper Volta (French: ) was the name of the African country now called Burkina Faso. ... French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. ... James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffure, The Gambia. ... French Equatorial Africa (French: ) was the federation of French colonial possessions in Middle Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River to the Sahara Desert. ... First settled by Mbuti, Congo was later settled by Bantu groups that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, forming the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those states. ... Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African Republic on August 13, 1960. ... The Republic of Djibouti gained its independence on June 27, 1977. ... Map of Anjouan Anjouan (also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani) is an island in the Comoros. ... Map of Comoros and Southern Africa Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Map of Mohéli Mohéli, also known as Mwali, is one of the three islands which make up the nation of Comoros. ... Motto: Stella Clavisque Maris Indici (Latin: Star and Key of the Indian Ocean) Anthem: Motherland Capital Port Louis Largest city Port Louis Official language(s) English Government Republic  - President Anerood Jugnauth  - Prime Minister Navinchandra Ramgoolam Independence From United Kingdom   - Date March 12, 1968  Area    - Total 2,040 km² (179th)   787... North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Territory of French Louisiane in 1803. ... Quebec has played a special role in Canada, and its history has taken a somewhat different path to the rest of Canada. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the northeast coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Inini (1941 pop. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Alaouites, or the Alawite State, was a French mandate in the coastal area of present-day Syria after World War I. It was renamed Latakia in 1930 and became part of Syria in 1937. ... shows the Location of the Province Hatay Flag of the Republic of Hatay (1938-1939) Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and Syria to the south and east. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... Chennai (Tamil: சென்னை, formerly known as Madras , is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest metropolitan city. ... Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and comprising the northern half of the state of Kerala. ... Mahé, also known as Mayyazhi, is a former French colony in India. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... Location of Yanam Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... French Indochina was a federation of protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... // French Colonial Occupation In October of 1887, the French announced the formation of the Union Indochinoise (Indochinese Union), which at that time comprised Cambodia, already an autonomous French possession, and the three regions of Vietnam (Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ...

II- Present overseas territories and possessions:
Americas: French Guiana | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Saint-Pierre and Miquelon | Oceania: French Polynesia | New Caledonia | Wallis and Futuna | Indian Ocean: Mayotte | La Réunion (Mascarene- formerly Île Bourbon)
See also: French colonisation of the Americas | Chartered company | French East India Company

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pondicherry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2820 words)
Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal, and Yanam on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé on the Arabian Sea.
Of the cultural organisations the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Pondicherry Centre of the École Française d'Extrême-Orient and a branch of the Alliance Française are noteworthy.
Pondicherry is a Union Territory of India, not a separate State, which implies that the governance and administration of the territory falls directly under the federal authority in New Delhi.
Pondicherry - definition of Pondicherry in Encyclopedia (425 words)
Pondicherry (पॉंडिचेरी in Hindi), currently undergoing a name change to Puduchery, is a union territory in the south of India.
Pondicherry proudly houses the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, a spiritual community dedicated to The Mother and Sri Aurobindo's teachings and vision.
Pondicherry is also the birthplace and home of the titular character in Yann Martel's Life of Pi, before he emigrates to Canada.
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