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Encyclopedia > Pond
A pond in central Europe

A pond is a body of water smaller than a lake. In the United Kingdom, where the charity Pond Conservation has made some of the most extensive studies of ponds, the now widely adopted definition of a pond is 'A man-made or natural waterbody which is between 1m2 and 2 hectares in area, which holds water for four months of the year or more'.[1] In other parts of Europe some biologists prefer to set the upper size limit at 5 ha [2], and in North America even larger waterbodies are often called ponds. The international Ramsar wetland convention sets the upper size limit for ponds as 8 ha. Although the size cutoff between ponds and lakes is partly subjective both are formed by ponding water. Ponds may be man-made or natural in origin and can be made by excavating a hollow in which water may lie, filling an existing depression with ground or surface water or by retaining water from a stream, or by forming a dam to impound the water in a valley. Ponds can be made by a very wide range of natural processes, although in many parts of the world these are now severely constrained by human activity. In some countries backyard ponds or garden ponds are popular and common. Pond may have the following meanings. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... A garden pond is a water feature constructed in a garden, normally either for aesthetic purposes or to provide wildlife habitat. ...


The techniques may be combined to form a reservoir in flat country by enclosing an area with an embankment. Such a pond, unless very small, is usually called a reservoir. In some cultures, the meaning has been extended to include small bodies of water impounded naturally. [3] ...


The many different definitions traditionally applied by freshwater biologists to ponds (such as a body of water where light penetrates to the bottom of the waterbody, a waterbody shallow enough for rooted water plants to grow throughout its area, a water body which lacks wave action on the shoreline) are very difficult to apply in practice, and may vary according to season, pollution or the presence of trees around the waterbody. For example, when a pond is too heavily shaded by trees for plants to grow throughout, does it cease to be a pond? If the waterbody is polluted, light may be prevented from penetrating to the bottom of even quite shallow ponds by dense blooms of algae - yet the waterbody is still a pond. For this reason more practical definitions based on size, which can be easily measured at all times and change only if the pond is physically modified, are now widely used. In the same way, lakes can simply be defined as waterbodies which are larger than ponds. A review of old definitions of ponds is provided by Biggs et al 2005.

Contents

Nomenclature

Pond in winter

In origin, pond is a variant form of the word pound, meaning a confining enclosure. As straying cattle are enclosed in a pound so water is enclosed in a pond. In earlier times, ponds were man-made and utilitarian; as stew ponds, mill ponds and so on. The significance of this feature seems in some cases, to have been lost when the word was carried abroad with emigrants so that in places like the United States, natural pools are often called ponds. [4]

An Australian rock pond. Heathcote National Park
Two people reflected in a fish pond

A pond is sometimes characterized as being a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom, permitting the growth of rooted plants at its deepest point. [5] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Heathcote is a national park in New South Wales (Australia), 34 km southwest of Sydney. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 4452 KB) Summary Photograph of two people reflected in the surface of the water in a fish pond behind the Birch Aquarium of Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Deigo, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 4452 KB) Summary Photograph of two people reflected in the surface of the water in a fish pond behind the Birch Aquarium of Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Deigo, California. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Fishponds (see water garden) Fishpond is also a term for harmless & humorous taunt, typically a one-liner, which is given to any individual during a group game. ...


Pond usually implies quite small bodies of water, generally smaller than one would require a boat to cross. Another definition is that a pond is a body of water where even its deepest areas are reached by sunlight or where a human can walk across the entire body of water without being submerged. In some dialects of English, pond normally refers to small artificially created bodies of water. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Though not generally accepted, some regions of the United States define a pond as a body of water with a surface area of less than 10 acres (40,000 m²).


Regional differences include the use of the word pond in New England, and Maine in particular, for relatively large water bodies. For example, Great Pond, Maine, is over 10 square miles (26 km²) in area.[6] A great pond is defined in Maine state statute as any inland body of water which in a natural state has a surface area in excess of 10 acres and any inland body of water artificially formed or increased which has a surface area in excess of 30 acres except...


In areas which were covered by glaciers in the past, some ponds were created when the glaciers retreated. These ponds are known as kettle ponds. Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts is a well known example. Kettle ponds are usually quite deep and clean because they are fed by underground aquifers rather than surface streams. Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... A kettle is a landform feature in glaciated terrain. ... Thoreaus Cove, Concord, Mass. ...


The term is also used for temporary accumulation of water from surface runoff (ponded water). Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ...


There are various regional names for naturally occurring ponds. In Scotland, one of the terms is lochan, which may also apply to a large body of water such as a lake. This article is about the country. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ...


The word "pond" is sometimes also used to refer to the Atlantic Ocean in the expression "across the pond" (a deliberate idiomatic understatement). An idiom is an expression (i. ... Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. ...


Ponds' calm waters are ideal for insects and other water dwelling invertebrates. This includes the pondskater, the water boatman, the diving beetle, the whirligig beetle and the water scorpion. Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... Water Boatmen, formally the family Corixidae, are a type of insect. ... Genera at least 160, see text The predaceous diving beetles (also spelled predacious) are a family (Dytiscidae) of water beetles. ... Genera Spanglerogyrus Dineutus Gyrinus Gyretes (eight others) The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that normally live on the surface of the water. ... Genera Nepa Ranatra Nepidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Heteroptera. ...


Characteristics

Typically, a pond has no surface outflow draining off water and ponds are often spring-fed. Hence, because of the closed environment of ponds, such small bodies of water normally develop self contained eco-systems. Ponds in heavily vegetated areas also display the formation of "scum", which is a common term for dead and decaying vegetation condensing on top of the water. A contributor to this is the presence of algae, which multiply quickly in a nutrient-rich eutrophic pond exposed to strong daylight. Decaying flora provide significant amounts of such nutrients. A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Aerial view of mixed aspen-spruce forest in Alaska Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial extent or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Uses

In the Indian subcontinent, Hindu temples usually have a pond nearby so that pilgrims can take baths. These ponds are considered sacred. In medieval times in Europe, it was typical for many monasteries and castles (small, partly self-sufficient communities) to have fish ponds. These are still common in Europe and in East Asia (notably Japan), where koi may be kept. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Koi can also mean a virtual pet species in Neopets. ...


Another use is in agriculture. In agriculture, treatment ponds combined with irrigation reservoirs are used as a self-purifying irrigation reservoir to allow irrigation at times of drought. A treatment pond is a small lake-sized body of water designed to treat fouled water by anaerobic bacteria. ... ... Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from a raw water source. ...


Examples

Thousands of examples worldwide are available to illustrate the pond; a few of these are:

Antonelli Pond is a century old, human-made pond on the west side of the city of Santa Cruz, California that now has ecological and cultural significance. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Big Pond is a small Canadian rural community located on the south shore of Bras dOr Lake in Nova Scotias Cape Breton Island. ... Christian Pond is a small freshwater lacustrine water body in the Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA. The pond is known for its diversity of waterfowl including the Trumpeter Swan, who nests here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Hampstead Ponds are actually known in London as Highgate Ponds (see the Corporation of Londons own official guide map to Hampstead Heath and see also Ordnance Survey and AtoZ mapping as well as references in local press, and also note that there are vastly more search results for Highgate... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Petes Pond is a pond in Botswana named for Pete Le Roux, general manager of Mashatu Game Reserve. ... Location of Rožmberk in the Czech Republic See other places named Rožmberk. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

See also

A waste pond or chemical pond is a small impounded water body used for the disposal of water pollutants, and sometimes utilized as a method of recycling or decomposing toxic substances. ... A duck pond is a pond for ducks and other water birds. ... Generally, a cooling pond is regarded as a man-made body of water primarily formed for the purpose of providing cooling water for a nearby power plant. ... A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... Pond aeration is a process that pumps air bubbles into a pond to increase the oxygen content of the water. ... Fig. ... Triad Lake in Glacier Peak Wilderness View of Tarn Hows, Cumbria A tarn (or corrie loch) is a mountain lake or pool, formed in a corrie excavated by a glacier. ... A treatment pond is a small lake-sized body of water designed to treat fouled water by anaerobic bacteria. ... A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars Tide pools (also tidal pools or rock pools) are rocky pools by oceans that are filled with seawater. ... This water garden features water lilies and elephant ear. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Biggs J., Williams P., Whitfield M., Nicolet P. and Weatherby, A. (2005). 15 years of pond assessment in Britain: results and lessons learned from the work of Pond Conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15: 693-714.
  2. ^ Céréghino, R., J. Biggs, B. Oertli, and S. Declerck. 2008. The ecology of European ponds: Defining the characteristics of a neglected freshwater habitat. Hydrobiologia 597:1-6.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ But mere may be thought a better term for this.
  6. ^ This appears to be, in its present form at least, artificially dammed. It is therefore a pond in the original sense of the word.

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links

  • Pond Conservation
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Ponds

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