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Encyclopedia > Pompeii
Archaeological Areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Torre Annunziata*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv, v
Reference 829
Region Europe and North America
Coordinates 40°45′04″N 14°29′13″E / 40.751, 14.487Coordinates: 40°45′04″N 14°29′13″E / 40.751, 14.487
Inscription history
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.


Pompeii is a buried and ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii may refer to Pompeii, a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania Pompeii, a historical novel by Robert Harris, set in Roman Pompeii around the days of the Vesuvius eruption Pompeii, a song by Sleater-Kinney from their 2000 album All Hands on the... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Torre Annunziata, population 52,875 (1991), is a city in the province of Naples, region of Campania in Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Download high resolution version (620x820, 105 KB)Street in Pompeii Author: Paul Vlaar Date: 2003-06-21 Source: http://www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... For the Roman ruins, see Pompeii Pompei is a city in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). ...


It, along with Herculaneum (its sister city), was destroyed, and completely buried, during a catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days on 24 August 79 .[1] Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ...


The volcano collapsed higher roof-lines and buried Pompeii under many meters of ash and pumice, and it was lost for nearly 1700 years before its accidental rediscovery in 1748. Since then, its excavation has provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city at the height of the Roman Empire. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Italy and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

Location

The ruins of Pompeii are situated at coordinates 40°45′00″N, 14°29′10″E, near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a spur formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River (known in ancient times as the Sarnus). Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times it would have been nearer to the coast. For the Roman ruins, see Pompeii Pompei is a city in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). ... Sarno is a river in Italy. ...

Pompeii and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.

ы Image File history File links Mt_Vesuvius_79_AD_eruption_3. ... Image File history File links Mt_Vesuvius_79_AD_eruption_3. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ...


History

Early history

The archaeological digs at the site extend to the street level of the 79 CE volcanic event; deeper digs in older parts of Pompeii and core samples of nearby drillings have exposed layers of jumbled sediment that suggest that the city had suffered from the volcano and other seismic events before then. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava bedrock that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of animal bone, pottery shards and plants. Using carbon dating, the oldest layer has been dated to the 8th-6th centuries BC, about the time that the city was founded. The other two layers are separated from the other layers by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BCE. The theory behind the layers of jumbled sediment is large landslides, perhaps triggered by extended rainfall.[2] This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... In archaeology, a sherd is a fragment of pottery or other ceramic. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ...


The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BCE by the Osci or Oscans, a people of central Italy, on what was an important crossroad between Cumae, Nola and Stabiae. It had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was also captured by the Etruscans, and in fact recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a 6th century necropolis. Pompeii was captured a first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, between 525 and 474 BCE. (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... The city of Stabiae was at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, and therefore was one of the communities damaged by its eruption in 79 AD. Some few people got away from the initial lava, and told others of the coming erruption, but succumbed to the ash as it started to... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology See also: Tyrrhenian, Lemnian, Pelasgian. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ...


In the 5th century BCE, the Samnites conquered it (and all the other towns of Campania); the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town. After the Samnite Wars (4th century), Pompeii was forced to accept the status of socium of Rome, maintaining however linguistic and administrative autonomy. In the 4th century BC it was fortified. Pompeii remained faithful to Rome during the Second Punic War. (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Samnium The Samnite Wars were three wars between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax...


Pompeii took part in the war that the towns of Campania initiated against Rome, but in 89 BCE it was besieged by Sulla. Although the troops of the Social League, headed by Lucius Cluentius, helped in resisting the Romans, in 80 BCE Pompeii was forced to surrender after the conquest of Nola. It became a Roman colony with the name of Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum. The town became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had to be sent toward Rome or Southern Italy along the nearby Appian Way. Also agriculture, oil and wine production was important. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC - 89 BC - 88 BC 87 BC 86... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Cornelius (fem. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ...


1st century

The Forum seen from inside the basilica
Portrait on the wall of a Pompeii house
Teatro Grande with a large audience capacity, next to Teatro Piccolo.
Pompeii palestra (exercise court) as seen from the top of the amphitheater

The excavated town offers a snapshot of Roman life in the 1st century, frozen at the moment it was buried on 24 August 79. The Forum, the baths, many houses, and some out-of-town villas like the Villa of the Mysteries remain surprisingly well preserved. Download high resolution version (1172x782, 557 KB)Pompeii under dark skies I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (1172x782, 557 KB)Pompeii under dark skies I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Pompeii, House VII, 2, 6: Paquius Proculus and his wife. ... Pompeii, House VII, 2, 6: Paquius Proculus and his wife. ... Amphitheatre at Pompeii This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Amphitheatre at Pompeii This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 79. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... The Villa of the Mysteries or Villa dei Misteri is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 800 metres north-west of Pompeii. ...


Pompeii was a lively place, and evidence abounds of literally the smallest details of everyday life. For example, on the floor of one of the houses (Sirico's), a famous inscription Salve, lucru (Welcome, money), perhaps humorously intended, shows us a trading company owned by two partners, Sirico and Nummianus (but this could be a nickname, since nummus means coin, money). In other houses, details abound concerning professions and categories, such as for the "laundry" workers (Fullones). Wine jars have been found bearing what is apparently the world's earliest known marketing pun, Vesuvinum (combining Vesuvius and the Latin for wine, vinum). Graffiti carved on the walls shows us real street Latin (Vulgar Latin, a different dialect than the literary or classical Latin). In 89 BC, after the final occupation of the city by Roman General Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompeii was finally annexed to the Roman Republic. Under this period, Pompeii underwent a vast process of infrastructural development, most of which was built during the Augustan period. Worth noting are an amphitheatre, a Palaestra with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses. The amphitheatre has been cited by modern scholars as a model of sophisticated design particularly in the area of crowd control.[3] The aqueduct branched out through three main pipes from the Castellum Aquae, where the waters were collected before being distributed to the city; although it did much more than distribute the waters, it did so with the prerequisite that in the case of extreme drought, the water supply would first fail to reach the public baths (the least vital service), then private houses and businesses, and when there would be no water flow at all, the system would then at last fail to supply the public fountains (the most vital service) in the streets of Pompeii. For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


The large number of well-preserved frescoes throw a great light on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second/Third Style). Some aspects of the culture were distinctly erotic(Erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum), including phallic worship[citation needed]. A large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes were found at Pompeii. Many were removed and kept until recently in a secret collection at the University of Naples. For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Prehistoric erotic art The pre-historic era doesnt have much information available, taking in to account the kind of communication humans used to have. ...


At the time of the eruption, the town could have had some 20,000 inhabitants, and was located in an area in which Romans had their holiday villas. Prof. William Abbott explains, "At the time of the eruption, Pompeii had reached its high point in society as many Romans frequently visited Pompeii on vacations." It is the only ancient town of which the whole topographic structure is known precisely as it was, with no later modifications or additions. It was not distributed on a regular plan as we are used to seeing in Roman towns, due to the difficult terrain. But its streets are straight and laid out in a grid, in the purest Roman tradition; they are laid with polygonal stones, and have houses and shops on both sides of the street. It followed its decumanus and its cardo, centered on the forum. Palmyra in Syria In Roman city planning, a Decumanus Maximus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, military camp, or colonia. ... For the crustacean genus Cardus, see Polychelidae. ...


Besides the forum, many other services were found: the Macellum (great food market), the Pistrinum (mill), the Thermopolium (sort of bar that served cold and hot beverages), and cauponae (small restaurants). An amphitheatre and two theatres have been found, along with a palaestra or gymnasium. A hotel (of 1,000 square metres) was found a short distance from the town; it is now nicknamed the "Grand Hotel Murecine". The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... The gymnasium functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ...


In 2002 another important discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes, within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice to some scientists. These studies are just beginning to produce results. Sarno is a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, 15 miles northeast from that city and 30 miles east of Naples by the main railway. ... A palafitte is traditionally a small, single-storeyed house, that sits on stilts imbedded into the ground. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


62-79 CE

Fresco of a Roman woman from Pompeii, c. 50 CE.

The inhabitants of Pompeii, as those of the area today, had long been used to minor tremors (indeed, the writer Pliny the Younger wrote that earth tremors "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania"), but on 5 February 62, [1] there was a severe earthquake which did considerable damage around the bay and particularly to Pompeii. The earthquake, which took place on the afternoon of the 5th, is believed to have registered over 7.5 on the Richter scale. On 5 February in Pompeii there were to be two sacrifices, as it was the anniversary of Augustus being named "Father of the Nation" and also a feast day to honor the guardian spirits of the city. Chaos followed the earthquake. Fires, caused by oil lamps that had fallen during the quake, added to the panic. Nearby cities of Herculaneum and Nuceria were also affected. Temples, houses, bridges, and roads were destroyed. It is believed that almost all buildings in the city of Pompeii were affected. In the days after the earthquake, anarchy ruled the city, where theft and starvation plagued the survivors. In the time between 62 and the eruption in 79, some rebuilding was done, but some of the damage had still not been repaired at the time of the eruption [2]. It is unknown how many people left the city after the earthquake, but a considerable number did indeed leave the devastation behind and move to other cities within the Roman Empire. Those willing to rebuild and take their chances in their beloved city moved back and began the long process of reviving the city. This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ...


An important field of current research concerns structures that were being restored at the time of the eruption (presumably damaged during the earthquake of 62). Some of the older, damaged, paintings could have been covered with newer ones, and modern instruments are being used to catch a glimpse of the long hidden frescoes. The probable reason why these structures were still being repaired around 17 years after the earthquake was the increasing frequency of smaller quakes that led up to the eruption.


Vesuvius eruption

A computer-generated depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 which buried Pompeii (from BBC's Pompeii: The Last Day). The depiction of the Temple of Jupiter, facing the forum, and the Temple of Apollo, across the portico to the left, are nonetheless inaccurate, and the shown state of the porticoes around the forum is also at least questionable, as they all appear intact during this recreation of the 79 eruption; it is widely known that at least the Temples of Jupiter and Apollo had been destroyed 17 years before, during the 62 earthquake, and that they had not been rebuilt by the time the city was finally destroyed in the 79 eruption

By the 1st century, Pompeii was one of a number of towns located around the base of Mount Vesuvius. The area had a substantial population which grew prosperous from the region's renowned agricultural fertility. Many of Pompeii's neighbouring communities, most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during the 79 eruption. This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... From the Discovery Channels Pompeii: The Last Day, courtesy of Crew Creative, Ltd. ... From the Discovery Channels Pompeii: The Last Day, courtesy of Crew Creative, Ltd. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... This article is about the year 79. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Pompeii: The Last Day is a dramatized documentary by the BBC that tells of the eruption of the Vesuvius in the year 79 AD. This eruption covered the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in ash and lava, killing all those trapped between the vulcano and the sea. ... The Temple of Jupiter in Pompeii See Temple of Jupiter for other temples to him. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ...


The people of Pompeii were covered in up to twelve different layers of soil. Pliny the Younger provides a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius from his position across the Bay of Naples at Misenum (although he has been criticised by many historians because his version was written 25 years after the event).


Rediscovery

"Garden of the Fugitives". Some plaster casts of victims of the eruption still in actual Pompeii; many are in the Archaeological Museum of Naples. (Casts can also be found, amongst other places, near the forum, inside the baths, and at the Villa of the Mysteries.)

After thick layers of ash covered the two towns, they were abandoned and eventually their names and locations were forgotten. Then Herculaneum was rediscovered in 1738 by workmen working on the foundation of a summer palace for the King of Naples, Charles of Bourbon, and Pompeii in 1748.[citation needed] These towns have since been excavated to reveal many intact buildings and wall paintings. The towns were actually found in 1599 by Domenico Fontana, who was digging a new course for the river Sarno, but it took more than 150 years before a serious campaign was started to unearth them.[citation needed] Charles III took great interest in the findings even after becoming king of Spain.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x852, 103 KB) Garden of the Fugitives, Pompeii. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x852, 103 KB) Garden of the Fugitives, Pompeii. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was an Italian architect of the late Renaissance. ... Sarno is a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, 15 miles northeast from that city and 30 miles east of Naples by the main railway. ...


Karl Weber directed the first real excavations[4] and he was followed in 1764 by the military engineer, Franscisco la Vega. Franscisco la Vega was succeeded by his brother, Pietro, in 1804.[5] During the French occupation Pietro worked with Christophe Saliceti.[6] Karl Jakob Weber (12 August 1712 — 1764) was a Swiss architect and engineer who was in charge of the first organized excavations at Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae, under the patronage of Carlo III of Naples. ... Pietro la Vega (? - 1810) was a Spainish archaeologist and artist known for his drawings of the ruins of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae. ...


Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the excavations in 1860. During early excavations of the site, occasional voids in the ash layer had been found that contained human remains. It was Fiorelli who realised these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the technique of injecting plaster into them to perfectly recreate the forms of Vesuvius's victims. What resulted were highly accurate and eerie forms of the doomed Pompeiani who failed to escape, in their last moment of life, with the expression of terror often quite clearly visible ([3], [4], [5]). This technique is still in use today, with resin now used instead of plaster because it is more durable. An archaeologist, born in Naples, South West Italy. ... This article is about the building material. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some have theorized that Fontana found some of the famous erotic frescoes and, due to the strict modesty prevalent during his time, reburied them in an attempt at archaeological censorship. This view is bolstered by reports of later excavators who felt that sites they were working on had already been visited and reburied. A detailed discussion of the erotic art of Pompeii, with pictures, can be found in a separate article. For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Prehistoric erotic art The pre-historic era doesnt have much information available, taking in to account the kind of communication humans used to have. ...


Pompeii today

The Circumvesuviana stop at Pompeii, a popular tourist destination.

Pompeii has become a popular tourist destination; with approximately 2.5 million visitors a year, it is the most popular tourist attraction in Italy.[citation needed] It is now part of a larger Vesuvius National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. To combat problems associated with tourism, the governing body for Pompeii, the Soprintendenza Archaeological di Pompei have begun issuing new tickets that allow for tourists to also visit cities such as Herculaneum and Stabiae as well as the Villa Poppaea, to encourage visitors to see these sites and reduce pressure on Pompeii. Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... The city of Stabiae was at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, and therefore was one of the communities damaged by its eruption in 79 AD. Some few people got away from the initial lava, and told others of the coming erruption, but succumbed to the ash as it started to... The Villa Poppaea is a Roman villa situated between Naples and Sorrento, in southern Italy, which dates from the early Imperial period. ...


Pompeii is also a driving force behind the economy of the nearby town of Pompei. Many residents are employed in the tourism and hospitality business, serving as taxi or bus drivers, waiters or hotel operators. The ruins can be reached by simply walking from the modern town to the various entrances, there are adequate car parks and the entrances are also accessible to tourists through the train line to the modern town, or else a private train line, the Circumvesuviana, that runs directly to the ancient site. Circumvesuviana is a narrow-gauge railway connecting cities near Naples, Italy. ...

A paved street

Excavations in the site have generally ceased due to the moratorium imposed by the superintendent of the site, Professor Pietro Giovanni Guzzo. Additionally, the site is generally less accessible to tourists, with less than a third of all buildings open in the 1960s being available for public viewing today. Nevertheless, the sections of the ancient city open to the public are extensive, and tourists can spend many days exploring the whole site.


Issues of conservation

When Pompeii was buried under the ash and rubble of Mount Vesuvius, the objects buried beneath it were remarkably well-preserved for almost two thousand years. The lack of air and moisture allowed for the objects to remain underground with little to no deterioration, which meant that, once excavated, the site had a wealth of sources and evidence for analysis, giving remarkable detail into the lives of the Pompeiians. Unfortunately, once exposed, Pompeii has been subject to both natural and man-made forces which have rapidly increased their rate of deterioration. Pompeii and Herculaneum were once thriving towns in the Bay of Naples. ...


Weathering, erosion, light exposure, water damage, poor methods of excavation and reconstruction, introduced plants and animals, tourism, vandalism and theft have all damaged the site in some way. Two-thirds of the city has been excavated, but the remnants of the city are rapidly deteriorating. The concern for conservation has continually troubled archaeologists. Today, funding is mostly directed into conservation of the site; however, due to the expanse of Pompeii and the scale of the problems, this is inadequate in halting the slow decay of the materials. An estimated US$335 million is needed for all necessary work on Pompeii.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Briullovs The Last Day of Pompeii File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Briullovs The Last Day of Pompeii File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Karl Pavlovich Briullov (Карл Павлович Брюллов), called by his friends the Great Karl (December 12, 1799, St Petersburg - June 11, 1852, Rome), was the first Russian painter of international standing. ... The Last Day of Pompeii is the most famous painting by Russian Karl Briullov, painted in 1830-1833. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

See also

For the Roman ruins, see Pompeii Pompei is a city in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Karl Brullov, The Last Day of Pompeii (1830-33) The ancient Roman city of Pompeii has frequently featured in literature and culture since its modern rediscovery. ... Prehistoric erotic art The pre-historic era doesnt have much information available, taking in to account the kind of communication humans used to have. ... Pompeii and Herculaneum were once thriving towns in the Bay of Naples. ... Pompeii: The Last Day is a dramatized documentary by the BBC that tells of the eruption of the Vesuvius in the year 79 AD. This eruption covered the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in ash and lava, killing all those trapped between the vulcano and the sea. ... The House of the Faun is the largest private residence to be discovered in the ruins of Pompeii. ... In Pompeii one of the most famous of the luxurious residences is the so-called House of the Vettii, preserved, like the rest of the Roman city, by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. The house is named for its owners, two successful freedmen: Aulus Vettius Conviva and Aulus... The Villa of the Mysteries or Villa dei Misteri is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 800 metres north-west of Pompeii. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Not to be confused with the similarly named volcano on Io. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Armero, the aftermath. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The 24 August is the traditional day for the eruption, based on a version of the letter by Pliny the Younger; recent scholarity, however, support another version of the letter, which reports another day, at the end of October/beginning of November (Stefani, Grete, "La vera data dell'eruzione", Archeo, October 2006, pp. 10-14.
  2. ^ Senatore, et al., 2004
  3. ^ Crowd Control in Ancient Pompeii
  4. ^ Parslow, Christopher Charles (1995) Rediscovering antiquity: Karl Weber and the excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 0-521-47150-8
  5. ^ *Pagano, Mario (1997) I Diari di Scavo di Pompeii, Ercolano e Stabiae di Francesco e Pietro la Vega (1764-1810) "L'Erma" di Bretschneidein, Rome, ISBN 88-7062-967-8 (in Italian)
  6. ^ POMPEIA d'Ernest Breton (3eme éd. 1870) "Introduction - La résurrection de la ville" in French

Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ...

References

  • Zarmati, Louise (2005). Heinemann ancient and medieval history: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Heinemann. ISBN 1-74081-195-X. 
  • Butterworth, Alex and Ray Laurence. Pompeii: The Living City. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-312-35585-2
  • Ellis, Steven J.R., 'The distribution of bars at Pompeii: archaeological, spatial and viewshed analyses' in: Journal of Roman Archaeology 17, 2004, 371-384.
  • Senatore, M.R., J.-D. Stanley, and T.S. Pescatore. 2004. Avalanche-associated mass flows damaged Pompeii several times before the Vesuvius catastrophic eruption in the 79 C.E. Geological Society of America meeting. Nov. 7-10. Denver. Abstract.
  • Maiuri, Amedeo, Pompeii, pp, 78-85, in Scientific American, Special Issue: Ancient Cities, c. 1994.
  • Cioni, R.; Gurioli, L.; Lanza, R.; Zanella, E. (2004). "Temperatures of the A.D. 79 pyroclastic density current deposits (Vesuvius, Italy)". Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 109.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pompeii (1138 words)
With the coast to the west and the Apennine Mountains to the east, Campania is a fertile plain, traversed by two major rivers and blessed with soil rich in phosphorus and potash.
Pompeii reluctantly accepted this situation for centuries; finally, when the Social War began in 90 B.C., they saw a chance at freedom and joined forces with other Roman "allies" against the city that oppressed them.
Some people of Pompeii grabbed their beasts of burden and attempted to flee the area; others perhaps chose to wait until the streets were clear of the panicked masses; still others sealed themselves up in rooms, supposing that the ashes and poisonous gasses would not harm them there.
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