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Encyclopedia > Pomegranate
Pomegranate

Fruit of pomegranate
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Myrtales
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Punica
Species: P. granatum
Binomial name
Punica granatum
L.

The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. The pomegranate is native to the region from Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and has been cultivated and naturalized over the whole Mediterranean region and the Caucasus since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, the drier parts of southeast Asia, Peninsular Malaysia, the East Indies, and tropical Africa. Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is now cultivated mainly in the drier parts of California and Arizona for its fruits exploited commercially as juice products gaining in popularity since 2001[1][2]. In the global functional food industry, pomegranate is included among a novel category of exotic plant sources called superfruits[3]. Download high resolution version (1600x1350, 374 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Orders See text The botanical Sub-class Rosidae is a large dicotyledonous flowering plant taxon, containing over 58,000 species grouped within 108 families. ... Families See text. ... Genera 32 (28); see text. ... Species L. Balf. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ... In 2004, the term superfoods was popularized by a best-selling book discussing 14 whole foods with extraordinary nutrition. ...


In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to January.[4] In the Southern hemisphere, it is in season from March to May.

Contents

Foliage and fruit

Illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé, 1885
Pomegranate flowers and leaves

The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). The fruit is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin and around 600 seeds.[5] The seeds and surrounding pulp, ranging in colour from white to deep red, called arils, are edible; indeed, the fruit of the pomegranate is a berry. There are some cultivars which have been introduced that have a range of pulp colours such as purple. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1421 × 2270 pixel, file size: 977 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name Punica granatum Family Lythraceae Original book source Prof. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1421 × 2270 pixel, file size: 977 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name Punica granatum Family Lythraceae Original book source Prof. ... Rosa canina L. Punica granatum L. Trifolium repens L. Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1840-1925) was a German botanist and botanical artist from Cologne best known for his compendium of botanical paintings Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz in Wort und Bild für Schule und Haus (Flora of Germany... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1305 pixel, file size: 620 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1305 pixel, file size: 620 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Punica granatum nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly used as Bonsai trees and as a patio plant. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. Pomegranates are drought tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they are prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They are tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −10°C (14°F). Maple Bonsai in Heidelberg, Germany Bonsai displayed at a garden show in Tatton Park in Cheshire, England Bonsai   (Japanese: , literally potted plant) is the art of aesthetic miniaturization of trees by growing them in containers. ... Species L. Balf. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; ) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of the Horm Africa some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Etymology

Pomegranate, aril only
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal   290 kJ
Carbohydrates     17.17 g
- Sugars  16.57 g
- Dietary fiber  0.6 g  
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 0.95 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.030 mg   2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.063 mg   4%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.300 mg   2%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.596 mg  12%
Vitamin B6  0.105 mg 8%
Folate (Vit. B9)  6 μg  2%
Vitamin C  6.1 mg 10%
Calcium  3 mg 0%
Iron  0.30 mg 2%
Magnesium  3 mg 1% 
Phosphorus  8 mg 1%
Potassium  259 mg   6%
Zinc  0.12 mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The name "pomegranate" derives from Latin pomum ("apple") and granatus ("seeded"). This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g. German Granatapfel, seeded apple). The genus name Punica is named for the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons. In classical Latin, where "malum" was broadly applied to many apple-like fruits, the pomegranate's name was malum punicum or malum granatum, the latter giving rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ...


A widespread root for "pomegranate" comes from the Ancient Egyptian rmn, from which derive the Hebrew rimmôn, and Arabic rummân. This root was given by Arabs to other languages, including Portuguese (romã)[6], Kabyle rrumman and Maltese "rummien". The pomegranate ('rimmôn') is mentioned in the Bible as one of the seven fruits/plants that Israel was blessed with, and in Hebrew, 'rimmôn' is also the name of the weapon now called the grenade. According to the OED, the word grenade originated about 1532 from the French name for the pomegranate, la grenade. La grenade also gives us the word grenadine, the name of a kind of fruit syrup, originally made from pomegranates, which is widely used as a cordial and in cocktails. Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ,  , pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Pomegranate fruit, opened Grenadine is traditionally a non-alcoholic red syrup. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... Look up cordial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ...


Even though this fruit does not originate from China, one common nickname is "Chinese apple." In German and Dutch, the term "Chinese Apple" (apfelsine in German), refers to the orange Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Cultivation and uses

Pomegranate leaves
Young Pomegranate tree

The pomegranate originated from Persia and has been cultivated in Georgia, Armenia and the Mediterranean region for several millennia.[7] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 205 KB) Name  Punica granatum Family Lythraceae Own work - photo made in Side (Turkey) by Georges Jansoone on 20 April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Pomegranate ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 205 KB) Name  Punica granatum Family Lythraceae Own work - photo made in Side (Turkey) by Georges Jansoone on 20 April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Pomegranate ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In Georgia, and Armenia to the east of the Black Sea, there are wild pomegranate groves outside of ancient abandoned settlements. The cultivation of the pomegranate has a long history in Armenia, where decayed remains of pomegranates dating back to 1000 BC have been found. [8] For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Carbonized exocarp of the fruit has been identified in Early Bronze Age levels of Jericho, as well as Late Bronze Age levels of Hala Sultan Tekke on Cyprus and Tiryns[citation needed]. A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-Third millennium BC onwards.[9] It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders. Exocarp or pericarp (Gr. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Mosque of Umm Haram or the Hala Sultan Tekke, as it is known, is the chief Muslim shrine in Larnaca, on the island of Cyprus. ... Plan of Tiryns excavations Tiryns (in ancient Greek Τίρυνς and in modern Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archeological site in the Greek nomos of Argolis in the Peloponnese peninsula, some kilometres north of Nauplion. ... Thoth, pronounced tot, is the Greek name given to Djehuty, the Egyptian god of the Moon (lunar deity), wisdom, writing, magic, and measurement of time, among other things. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Foundation of the city of Mari (Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in Sumeria... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ...


The ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America, but in the English colonies it was less at home: "Don't use the pomegranate inhospitably, a stranger that has come so far to pay his respects to thee," the English Quaker Peter Collinson wrote to the botanizing John Bartram in Philadelphia, 1762. "Plant it against the side of thy house, nail it close to the wall. In this manner it thrives wonderfully with us, and flowers beautifully, and bears fruit this hot year. I have twenty-four on one tree... Doctor Fothergill says, of all trees this is most salutiferous to mankind."[10] The pomegranate had been introduced as an exotic to England the previous century, by John Tradescant the elder, but the disappointment that it did not set fruit there led to its repeated introduction to the American colonies, even New England. It succeeded in the South: Bartram received a barrel of pomegranates and oranges from a correspondent in Charleston, South Carolina, 1764. Thomas Jefferson planted pomegranates at Monticello in 1771: he had them from George Wythe of Williamsburg.[11] For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... West Indies redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... British America may refer to: British North America, former British possessions in North America north of the United States, eventually consolidating into Canada British overseas territories in the Americas; also see British West Indies This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Peter Collinson can refer to the following people: Peter Collinson FRS, scientist and friend of Benjamin Franklin. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... John Fothergill (March 8, 1712 – December 26, 1780), English physician, was born of a Quaker family at Carr End in Yorkshire. ... John Tradescant the elder (ca 1570s – 15/16 April, 1638), father of John Tradescant the younger, was an English naturalist, gardener, collector and traveller, probably born in Suffolk, England. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This is about the Jefferson residence. ... George Wythe George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ...


Culinary use

Pomegranate fruit, opened
Pomegranate arils
A bowl of ash-e anar, a Persian soup made with pomegranate juice.

After opening the pomegranate by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the arils (seed casings) are separated from the skin (peel) and internal white supporting structures (pith and carpellary membrane). Separating the red arils can be simplified by performing this task in a bowl of water, whereby the arils will sink and the white structures will float to the top. The entire seed is consumed raw, though the fleshy outer portion of the seed is the part that is desired. The taste differs depending on the variety of pomegranate and its state of ripeness. It can be very sweet or it can be very sour or tangy, but most fruits lie somewhere in between, which is the characteristic taste, laced with notes of its tannin. Image:Pomegranate03 edit. ... Image:Pomegranate03 edit. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (823x805, 87 KB) Summary Pomegranate Seeds Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (823x805, 87 KB) Summary Pomegranate Seeds Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 444 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A bowl of ash-e anar (Persian pomegranate soup). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 444 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A bowl of ash-e anar (Persian pomegranate soup). ... Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... Sour redirects here. ... Sour redirects here. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ...


Pomegranate juice is a popular drink in the Middle East, and is also used in Iranian and Indian cuisine; it began to be widely marketed in the United States in 2002 [12]. Fresh pomegranate arils are used in preparation of curd rice (Telugu: Dadhojanam) in Andhra Pradesh in India. Pomegranate concentrate is used in Syrian cuisine. Grenadine syrup is thickened and sweetened pomegranate juice; it is used in cocktail mixing. Before the tomato arrived in the Middle East, grenadine was widely used in many Persian foods; it can still be found in traditional recipes such as fesenjan (a thick sauce made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts, usually spooned over duck or other poultry and rice) and ash-e anar (pomegranate soup) [13]. Pomegranate juice is a juice taken from the pomegranate fruit. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Not to be confused with Native American cuisine. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Andhra redirects here. ... Pomegranate fruit, opened Grenadine is traditionally a non-alcoholic red syrup. ... For other uses, see Cocktail (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // See also duck (disambiguation) Duck refers to the meat of several species of bird in the Anatidae family, found in both fresh and salt water. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Ash-e anār (Persian language: آش انار) is a Persian soup made from pomegranate juice and seeds, yellow split peas, ground beef, mint leaves, spices, and other ingredients. ...


Wild pomegranate seeds are sometimes used as a spice, known as anardana (which literally means pomegranate (anar) seeds (dana) in Persian), most notably in Indian and Pakistani cuisine but also as a replacement for pomegranate syrup in Persian and Middle Eastern cuisine. As a result of this, the dried whole seeds can often be obtained in ethnic markets. The seeds are separated from the flesh, dried for 10–15 days and used as an acidic agent for chutney and curry production. The seeds may also be ground in order to avoid seeds becoming stuck in the teeth when eating dishes prepared with them. The seeds of the wild pomegranate daru from the Himalayas are considered the highest quality source for this spice. Anar is the penname of Anar RÉ™sul oÄŸlu Rzayev - an Azerbaijan Writer an Elfen name for the Sun in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth the Urdu, Farsi, and Hindi word for The Pomegranate Category: ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the condiment. ... This article is about the dish. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


In Armenia and the Caucasus, pomegranate (Armenian: nur) is used in a variety of ways, notably as pomegranate juice. [12] In Turkey pomegranate sauce, (Turkish: nar ekşisi) is used as a salad dressing, to marinate meat, or simply to drink straight. Pomegranate seeds are also used in salads and sometimes to garnish desserts such as Güllaç.[13] Pomegranate syrup or molasses are used in Muhammara, a Roasted Red Pepper, Walnut, and Garlic Spread popular in Syria as well as Turkey. [14] In Azerbaijan and Armenia, pomegranate is also used to make high-quality wine which is successfully exported to other countries. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ...


In Greece, pomegranate (Greek: ροδι, rodi) is used in many recipes; such as kollivozoumi, a creamy broth made from boiled wheat, pomegranates and raisins; legume salad with wheat and pomegranate; traditional Middle Eastern lamb kebabs with pomegranate glaze; pomegranate eggplant relish; avocado and pomegranate dip; are just some of the dishes in which it is used. Pomegranate is also made into a liqueur and popular fruit confectionery that can be used as ice cream topping, or mixed with yogurt, and even spread as jams over toast for breakfast.In Cyprus ροδι is used to make kolliva which is wheat, pomegranate and sugar along with almonds and other seeds (offered after someone has died and people do a eulogy in church on the deaths anniversary) Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Kebab (kebap in Turkish, kabab in Iran and India/Pakistan, also spelled kebob, kabob) means grilled (or broiled) meat in Persian and Turkish. ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Greek Sweets of the Spoon Sweets of the Spoon (Greek: Γλυκό Του Κουταλιού) is a Greek traditional homemade fruit confectionery called spoon sweets, fruits stewed down with sugar to a desired consistency and available in a wide range of flavors. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Three varieties of fruit preserves: strawberry, quince, and red plum Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared, canned or jarred for long term storage. ...


Health benefits

Providing 16% of an adult's daily vitamin C requirement per 100 ml serving, pomegranate aril juice is also a good source of the B vitamin, pantothenic acid, potassium and antioxidant polyphenols. Overall, however, pomegranate is not a significant source of nutrients.[15] This article is about the nutrient. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ...


The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called punicalagins shown in 39 peer-reviewed research publications over 1990-2007 (August) to have potent free-radical scavenging ability in laboratory studies.[16] Antioxidant punicalagins absorb into the human body after consumption of pomegranate extracts,[17] and an ex vivo study of human plasma after consumption of a pomegranate extract standardized to punicalagins indicated an average 32% increase in plasma antioxidant capacity.[18] A bottle of tannic acid. ... Punicalagins are tannins, large polyphenol compound which are isomers of 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-4,6-(S,S)-gallagyl-D-glucose, hydrolysable tannins with a molecular weight of 1038. ... Radical (chemistry) Free Radical Design This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Ex vivo is a term used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism. ...


Many food and dietary supplement makers have found advantages of using pomegranate extracts (which have no sugar, calories, or additives), instead of juice, as healthy ingredients in their products. Many pomegranate extracts are essentially ellagic acid which absorbs into the body after parent molecule punicalagins are hydrolyzed. A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Punicalagins are dimeric hydrolysable tannins that are found in abundance in pomegranate (Punica granatum). ...


In preliminary laboratory research and human pilot studies, juice of the pomegranate has been found effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation,[19] all of which are steps in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Tannins such as punicalagins have been identified as the primary components responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress which led to these risk factors.[20] Pomegranate has been shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).[21] Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Foam cells are cells in an atheroma derived form both macrophages and smooth muscle cells which have accumulated LDLs by endocytosis. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ... Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ...


Metabolites of pomegranate juice ellagitannins localize specifically in the prostate gland, colon and intestinal tissues of mice,[22] leading to speculation that pomegranate juice may be effective against prostate cancer[23][24] and osteoarthritis.[25] In 2007, five clinical trials in the United States and Norway were conducted to examine the effects of pomegranate juice consumption on parameters of prostate cancer or prostatic hyperplasia, diabetes or lymphoma.[26]. The studies have not concluded (December 2007) but interim reports released to the public media were that pomegranate juice may slow onset or development of prostate cancer (above). HRPC redirects here. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen in e. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ...


Containing polyphenols which inhibit estrogen synthesis, pomegranate seed oil was effective against proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.[27] Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Estriol. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


The juice may also have antiviral[28] and antibacterial effects against dental plaque.[29] Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ...


Pomegranates and symbolism

Pomegranates from eastern Afghanistan packaged for export to Dubai.

Exodus 28:33–34 directed that images of pomegranates be woven onto the borders of Hebrew priestly robes. 1 Kings 7:13–22 describes pomegranates depicted in the temple King Solomon built in Jerusalem. Jewish tradition teaches that the pomegranate is a symbol for righteousness, because it is said to have 613 seeds which corresponds with the 613 mitzvot or commandments of the Torah. However, the actual number of seeds varies with individual fruits.[30] For this reason and others, many Jews eat pomegranates on Rosh Hashanah. The pomegranate is one of the few images which appear on ancient coins of Judea as a holy symbol, and today many Torah scrolls are stored while not in use with a pair of decorative hollow silver "pomegranates" (rimmonim) slid down over the two upper scroll handles. Some Jewish scholars believe that it was the pomegranate, not the apple, that was the forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This article is about the Hebrew people. ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Look up Rosh Hashanah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sefer Torah (in Hebrew: Book [of] Torah) (plural: sifrei Torah) is a specially hand-written copy of the Torah or Pentateuch being the holiest book within Judaism and venerated by Jews. ... Rimmon (Hebrew pomegranate) is the proper name for a number of people or objects in the Hebrew Bible: Torah with rimmonim A man of Beeroth (2 Samuel 4:2), one of the four Gibeonite cities. ... The term forbidden fruit is a metaphor that describes any object of desire whose appeal is a direct result of the knowledge that cannot or should not be obtained or something that someone may want but cannot have. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


For the same reason, pomegranates are a motif found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric on vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ... The altar in St. ...


The wild pomegranate did not grow natively in the Aegean area in Neolithic times. It originated in eastern Iran and came to the Aegean world along the same cultural pathways that brought the goddess whom the Anatolians worshipped as Cybele and the Mesopotamians as Ishtar. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ...


The myth of Persephone, the dark goddess of the Underworld, also prominently features the pomegranate. In one version of Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades and taken off to live in the underworld as his wife. Her mother, Demeter (goddess of the Harvest), went into mourning for her lost daughter and thus all green things ceased to grow. Zeus, the highest ranking of the Greek gods, could not leave the Earth to die, so he commanded Hades to return Persephone. It was the rule of the Fates that anyone who consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone had no food, but Hades tricked her into eating four pomegranate seeds while she was still his prisoner and so, because of this, she was condemned to spend four months in the Underworld every year. During these four months, when Persephone is sitting on the throne of the Underworld next to her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourns and no longer gives fertility to the earth. This became an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Persephona depicts Persephone holding the fatal fruit. It should be noted that the number of seeds that Persephone ate is varied, depending on which version of the story is told. The number of seeds she is said to have eaten ranges from three to seven, which accounts for just one barren season if it is just three or four seeds, or two barren seasons (half the year) if she ate six or seven seeds. There is no set number. This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Hermes Psykhopompos: sitting on a rock, the god is preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld, Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the white-robed Moirae or Moerae (Greek Μοίραι – the Apportioners, often called the Fates) were the personifications of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, sparing ones, or Fatae; also equivalent to the Germanic Norns). ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 253 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (689 × 1633 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dante Gabriel Rossetti - Proserpine (Oil on canvas, 1874) - Tate Gallery, London العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski...


The pomegranate also evoked the presence of the Aegean Triple Goddess who evolved into the Olympian Hera, who is sometimes represented offering the pomegranate, as in the Polykleitos' cult image of the Argive Heraion (see below). According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior.[31] On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology 1964, figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. Other Greek dialects call the pomegranate rhoa; its possible connection with the name of the earth goddess Rhea, inexplicable in Greek, proved suggestive for the mythographer Karl Kerenyi, who suggested that the consonance might ultimately derive from a deeper, pre-Indo-European language layer. A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heraion redirects here. ... Carl A. P. Ruck is a professor in the Classical Studies department at Boston University. ... (Blaise) Daniel Danny Staples (13 July 1948 — December 2005[1]) was a Classical mythologist; a native of Somerset, Massachusetts, he received a B.A. in Comparative Religion and a Ph. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... Not to be confused with Arion. ... An ancient time This page is about the town Side on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ...

Pomegranate — opened up

In the 6th century BC, Polykleitos took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a royal orb, in the other. "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is something of a mystery." Indeed, in the Orion story we hear that Hera cast pomegranate-Side (an ancient city in Antalya) into dim Erebus — "for daring to rival Hera's beauty", which forms the probable point of connection with the older Osiris/Isis story. Since the ancient Egyptians identified the Orion constellation in the sky as Sah the "soul of Osiris", the identification of this section of the myth seems relatively complete. Hera wears, not a wreath nor a tiara nor a diadem, but clearly the calyx of the pomegranate that has become her serrated crown.[32] In some artistic depictions, the pomegranate is found in the hand of Mary, mother of Jesus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1413 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pomegranate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1413 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pomegranate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Polykleitos (or Polycletus, Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus) the Elder was a Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC and the early 4th century BC. Next to famous Phidias, Myron and Kresilas he is the most important sculptor of the Classical antiquity. ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... An ancient time This page is about the town Side on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Deep blackness/darkness or shadow from Ancient Greek Έρεβος) was the son of a primordial God, Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


In modern times the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. On important days in the Greek Orthodox calendar, such as the Presentation of the Virgin Mary and on Christmas Day, it is traditional to have at the dinner table "polysporia", also known by their ancient name "panspermia," in some regions of Greece. In ancient times they were offered to Demeter[citation needed] and to the other gods for fertile land, for the spirits of the dead and in honor of compassionate Dionysus. When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi, (home altar), of the house, as it is a symbol of abundance, fertility and good luck. Pomegranates are also prominent at Greek weddings and funerals. When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate. It is also traditional in Greece to break a pomegranate on the ground at weddings and on New Years. Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most homegoods stores [15]. Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... A fairly elaborate Orthodox Christian icon corner as would be found in a private home The Icon Corner (Greek: Ikonostasi) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox or Greek-Catholic Christians. ... In Orthodox Christianity, koliva is the ritual food offered following the memorial liturgy performed at various intervals after a death. ...


Other

Tree of the white pomegranate
  • The pomegranate is the symbol and heraldic device of the city of Granada in Andalusia, Spain.
  • In South Africa, the pomegranate is sometimes referred to as 'the poor man's cranberry'.
  • Pomegranate is one of the symbols of Armenia, representing fertility, abundance and marriage.
  • It is the official logo of many cities in Turkey.
  • The Immortals, an elite infantry unit in ancient Persia, had spears with pomegranate-shaped counterweights at the butt made of gold (for officers) and silver (for regular infantry). In modern Iran the fruit is still believed to a give long and healthy life.[citation needed]
  • The Qur'an mentions pomegranates three times (6:99, 6:141, 55:068) — twice as examples of the good things God creates, once as a fruit found in the Garden of Paradise.
  • Pomegranate juice is used for natural dyeing of non-synthetic fabrics.
  • Pomegranate juice is sold in the USA under several labels, and is available in health food stores and supermarkets across the country.
  • Pomegranate juice will turn blue when subjected to basic (ie alkaline) conditions (similar to litmus paper).
  • Although not native to China, Korea or Japan, the pomegranate is widely grown there and many cultivars have been developed. It is widely used for bonsai, because of its flowers and for the unusual twisted bark that older specimens can attain.
  • Balaustines are the red rose-like flowers of the pomegranate, which are very bitter to the taste. In medicine, its dried form has been used as an astringent.[33] (The term "balaustine" (Latin: balaustinus) is also used for a pomegranate-red colour.[34])
  • The pomegranate was the personal emblem of the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, and of Catherine of Aragon.
  • With the rise in popularity of the pomegranate in American markets, Starbucks introduced a pomegranate frappuccino in the summer of 2006.
  • The pomegranate is a divine symbol in Pinto Ricardo's series, The Stone Dance of the Chameleon.
  • The pomegranate is also called the Food of the Dead.
  • In Orthodox Christian memorial services pomegranate seeds will often be put in the koliva which is blessed after the service and eaten by all of the mourners.
  • In the Hindu epic Caitanya-caritamrita (Adi-lila, 5.188), Sri Nityananda's teeth were described as resembling pomegranate seeds.
  • In Mexico, they are an essential ingredient of chiles en nogada, one of its most important national dishes, used to symbolize the red component of the national flag.
  • Kandahar is famous all over Afghanistan for its high quality pomegranates.
  • The pomegranate is also known as a Wine Apple in Ireland.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1622 KB) Summary White pomegranate tree. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1622 KB) Summary White pomegranate tree. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... A Persian Immortal wielding a spear, wicker shield, dagger, and bow. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... This article is about the colour. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... The term litmus test can be literal or metaphorical. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Maple Bonsai in Heidelberg, Germany Bonsai displayed at a garden show in Tatton Park in Cheshire, England Bonsai   (Japanese: , literally potted plant) is the art of aesthetic miniaturization of trees by growing them in containers. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... For other uses of Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A memorial service (Greek: μνημόσυνο, mnemósyno, memorial, or παραστάς, parastás, wake; Church Slavonic: панахіда, panahída, панихїда, panikhída) is a liturgical observance in honor of the departed which is served in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... In Orthodox Christianity, koliva is the ritual food offered following the memorial liturgy performed at various intervals after a death. ... Chiles en nogada is a dish from Mexican cuisine. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...

References

  1. ^ Fletcher A. Super fruits set to dominate flavour market, FoodNavigator.com-Europe, March 2006[1]
  2. ^ Staff Reporter. Fresh, super and organic top trends for 2008, FoodNavigator.com-USA, November 2007 [2]
  3. ^ Gross PM. Tracking market meteors: exotic superfruits, Natural Products Insider, November 2007[3]
  4. ^ LaRue, James H. (1980). Growing Pomegranates in California. California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  5. ^ How many seeds does a pomegranate have? (statistical analysis), demonstrating parietal placentation.
  6. ^ Habeeb Salloum Arabian Memories in Portugal
  7. ^ S. D. Doijode, Seed Storage of Horticultural Crops, p. 77
  8. ^ The pomegranate in mythology
  9. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 171.
  10. ^ Quoted in Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or for Delight", (University of Massachusetts, 1986), p. 242.
  11. ^ Leighton, American Gardens, p. 272.
  12. ^ Bulletin - Page 52 by United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Plant Industry, Queensland
  13. ^ Akgün, Müge. ""Güllaç, a dainty and light dessert"", Turkish Daily News, Istanbul: DYH, 2006-09-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 
  14. ^ Malouf, Greg and Lucy (2006). Saha. Australia: Hardie Grant Books, 46. ISBN 0794604900. 
  15. ^ [4] Nutrition data
  16. ^ [5] Gross PM. Pomegranate punicalagins
  17. ^ Seeram NP, Henning SM, Zhang Y, Suchard M, Li Z, Heber D. Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours. J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2481-5.
  18. ^ Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, Hingorani L, Derendorf H. Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 15;54(23):8956-61.
  19. ^ [6] [7] [8]
  20. ^ [9] Gross PM. Pomegranate punicalagins
  21. ^ Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure Atherosclerosis 2001 Sep;158(1):195–8
  22. ^ Seeram NP, Aronson WJ, Zhang Y et al. Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived metabolites inhibit prostate cancer growth and localize to the mouse prostate gland. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 19;55(19):7732-7. Abstract
  23. ^ Can pomegranates prevent prostate cancer? A new study offers promise 26 September 2005
  24. ^ BBC Juice 'can slow prostate cancer' 1 July 2006
  25. ^ Pomegranate Fruit Shown To Slow Cartilage Deterioration In Osteoarthritis
  26. ^ [10] NIH-listed human clinical trials on pomegranate
  27. ^ Kim ND et al. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002 Feb;71(3):203-17. 9 January 2008
  28. ^ Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY, Debnath AK (2004). "Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide". BMC Infect. Dis. 4: 41. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-4-41. PMID 15485580. 
  29. ^ Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS (2006). "Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque". Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy 6 (2): 79-92. PMID 17182487. 
  30. ^ Alexander Haubold, How many seeds does a pomegranate have? And does a larger pomegranate yield proportionally more seed volume?
  31. ^ Ruck and Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994.
  32. ^ The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown. [11]
  33. ^ History of Science: Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences…
  34. ^ Pavey, Don and Roy Osborne. 2003. On Colours 1528: A Translation from Latin. ISBN 1-58112-580-1

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Further reading

  • Graham, S. A., J. Hall, K. Sytsma & S. Shi. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 166: 995–1017.

External links

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Pomegranate (2785 words)
In California, commercial pomegranate cultivation is concentrated in Tulare, Fresno and Kern counties, with small plantings in Imperial and Riverside counties.
The pomegranate may begin to bear in 1 year after planting out, but 2 1/2 to 3 years is more common.
Pomegranate juice enters into preparations for treating dyspepsia and is considered beneficial in leprosy.
POMEGRANATE Fruit Facts (1479 words)
Adaptation: Pomegranates prefer a semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate and are naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers.
The pomegranate is self-pollinated as well as cross-pollinated by insects.
Location: Pomegranates should be placed in the sunniest, warmest part of the yard or orchard for the best fruit, although they will grow and flower in part shade.
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