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Encyclopedia > Pomaks
Pomaks
Помаци (българи мюсюлмани)
Total population

500,000 est. (2002)[1]

Regions with significant populations
Bulgaria:
   150–200,000[2]

Greece:
   30,000 (1981)[3]
Turkey:
   300,000 (2001)[4]

Languages
various closely related dialects of Bulgarian, Turkish
Religions
Muslim
Related ethnic groups
other Bulgarians, Torbesh, Gorani

The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. Their origins are obscure,[5] but they are generally believed to be Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the period of Ottoman rule in the Balkans.[6] The term can also be occasionally used to refer to the Torbesh. They are settled mainly in Bulgaria, but relevant presences exist also in Greece, Turkey and the Republic of Macedonia. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian peoples. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the 16th and the 18th century. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian peoples. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Contents

Etymologies

The origin of the term "Pomak" is uncertain. For the Bulgarian scholars the term could derive either from the Bulgarian word pomagach (помагач), meaning "helper" (the most commonly accepted interpretation[7]), referring to their role as auxiliary units of the Ottoman army; or from pomohamedancheni (помохамеданчени), which means "Islamized". As for Ahryani, a name the Pomaks once used for themselves, this should come from the Old Church Slavonic Agarjani, meaning "infidels", but it might actually derive from the para-religious Muslim brethren of the Ahi, very diffuse in the Rhodopes in the Ottoman period, as supposed by the Bulgarian scholar A. Ishirkov. Other versions still derive it from po măka (по мъка), that is "by pain", referring to an alleged forced conversion to Islam; or poturnyak, literally "one made a Turk". None of these etymologies appear to be trustworthy. Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative non-spiritual consequences. ...


The explanations made by Greek authors claim that Pomak comes from the Greek pomax, which means drinker. Whilst Ahryani would derive from the name of a supposedly Thracian tribe, the Agrianoi.[8] Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Agrianes were an ancient warrior-tribe who occupied, for a time, the territory north of the Thracian Maedi. ...


Conversion

Little is known for certain of the conversion of the Pomaks to Islam; what appears certain is that it was gradual and took place in different periods. A first important wave of conversions took place when, in the second half of the 14th century, the Ottomans conquered Bulgaria; many landholders are reported to have converted as a means to keep the possession of their lands. Other conversions took place under the Sultan Selim II (151220), but most important was the 17th century, when the Rhodopes passed to the Muslim faith. Pomak presence further gained strength through the 18th century, while the last waves of conversions in the Balkans took place in the early 19th century.[9] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


These conversions were often believed until the early 20th century to have been made under compulsion, a belief that modern historians have discredited observing that Ottoman authorities rarely took measures to promote Islamization, and believe the Pomaks' conversion to have been voluntary.[10] Official Bulgarian historiography instead has long claimed their conversion to have been forced against their fiercest resistance; this was seen as a mean to salvage the idea that all Bulgarians had been united in opposing the "Turkish yoke". This way the perfect "Bulgarianness" (bălgarshtina) of the Pomaks could be preserved, coining the official ethonym "Bulgarian Mohammedans" (bălgaromohamedani). An example of this sort of positions was expressed in 1989 by the nationalist historian Andrey Pechilkov: "After adopting Islam under the most terrible and harshest circumstances they (i.e. the Bulgarian Muslims) — people whose mind is full of tragedy, but who are hard as stones - did keep their beautiful Bulgarian language, their old Slavic traditions, their pure national character, despite brutal pressure and persecution throughout centuries."[11] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Up to the Balkan Wars

With the end of the process of conversion the Pomaks (and the Torbesh) found themselves concentrated in the Rhodopes, but with important settlements in eastern Macedonia and on the Danube districts, where they could be found centered around Lovech, Pleven and Oryahovo. The Pomaks in the Rhodopes appear then to have benefited from a large measure of autonomy, with an agha, a hereditary chieftain, governing from the mountain village of Tamrash. The agha in 1890 also had a permanent ambassador at Plovdiv that provided visitors with a special visa to the territory controlled by the Rhodope Pomaks.[12] The Czech historian Konstantin Jireček estimated at the turn of the 19th century that Torbesh and Pomaks were no less than half a million, even if Turkish sources reduce this number to 200,000.[13] The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Oryahovo (Bulgarian: , Romanian: Rahova) is a port city in northwestern Bulgaria, part of Vratsa Province. ... Look up aga in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Konstantin Josef Jireček (July 24, 1854 - January 10, 1918), son of Josef, taught history at Prague. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


But the situation started changing rapidly with the rising discontent among the Christian Bulgarian population regards Ottoman rule; this eventually brought in 1876 to the April Uprising. and the Pomaks found themselves in a difficult position, for their being Bulgarians, and as such near the rebels, and Muslims, and as such close to the Turks. At the end, the absence of a clear distinction between faith and nationality and their being perceived by the local Christians like Turks, brought them to side with the Bashi-bazouks in ruthlessly suppressing the revolt.[14] Pomak auxiliaries played a leading role in the massacres of Batak and Perushtitsa, among the worst made during the quelling of the uprising.[15] Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Development of the April Uprising The April Uprising (Bulgarian: Априлско въстание) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, the indirect result of which was the liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... A bashi-bazouk (in Turkish başıbozuk, meaning disorganized, leaderless) was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. ... Batak (Bulgarian Батак) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Townhall of Perushtitsa, the cultural centrum – 2 epochs, 1 goal: liberty Perushtitsa (Bulgarian: ) or Perushtitza is a Bulgarian town located in the Plovdiv Oblast at the foot of the Rhodopes. ...


The quelling of the uprising and the reaction among the European public opinion against the Bashi-bazouks and "the free actions of the Pomaks";[16] reaction was especially strong in Russia, bringing to the Russo-Turkish War (18778), with the formation of an independent kingdom of Bulgaria. The 1876 massacres brought during the war to harsh retalions from the Christian peasants and the advancing Russian army, with many Muslims killed and a substantial part of the Pomaks emigrating to the confines of the Ottoman empire, partly forced, partly refusing to live under the rule of the "giaurs" (i.e. infidels). Most hit were the Danube districts, that since the siege of Pleven, almost all Pomaks fled.[17] Many returned in 1880, but most, finding it impossible to regain what they had lost during the war, began to emigrate to Anatolia. Migrations like this was in time to reduce by 1926 the number of Pomaks in Bulgaria to a third.[18] World map showing the location of Europe. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolai Krudener King Carol I of Romania Osman Pasha Strength 100,000 30,000 Casualties 38,000 killed, wounded or captured 40,000 killed, wounded or captured {{{notes}}} Map The Siege of Pleven (or Plevna) during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the treaty of San Stefano in 1878 ended the war, many Pomaks took part to the "Rhodope mutiny", an organized counterattack of the Ottoman armed forces and the Muslim population of the Rhodopes, led by the former British consul in Varna and Burgas and volunteer officer in the Ottoman army with the active support of the British embassy in Constantinople. Much of the Rhodope region was to be included in the autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia, to be governed by a Christian Governor-General; to this prospective twenty Pomak villages rebelled, forming the so-called "Pomak republic". The republic ceased to exist in 1886, a year after the unification of Eastern Rumelia with the kingdom of Bulgaria; the Pomaks' main reason to revolt had ceased, since the demarcation of the southern borders of Bulgaria left these villages in Ottoman territory.[19] Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Position of Varna in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Province Varna Province Government  - Mayor Kiril Yordanov Area  - City 205 km²  (79. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Unification of Bulgaria in 1885 brought to a new wave of migration among the Pomaks.[20] As to the early behaviour of the Bulgarian government, in general it can be said that there were no attempts to assimilate the Pomaks, who were treated as indistinguishable from the larger Muslim group. This is proven by the census kept in 1880, 1885 and 1888, all of which counted the Pomaks with Turks. It was only in the 1905 census that a separate heading for the Bulgarian Muslims was made, under the voice "Pomaks".[21] A map of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia before the Unification. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


One of the worst moments for the Pomaks came with the start of the Balkan Wars, when Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia united against the Ottoman Empire in 1912. In October, almost simultaneously with the start of the war, the Bulgarian government subjected the Rhodope Pomaks to a wave of forced conversions. The action, known as Pokrustvane (meaning both "Christianisation" and "baptism"), affected 150,000 Pomaks, in an operation directed by a special state committee; in theory voluntary baptism should have been carried out by the Bulgarian Church, but in truth a key role was played by the local administration supported by the army and the insurgent bands, a fact that brought to bloody pogroms against the Pomaks in many villages.[22] Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


Brutal force and intimidation were applied to convert the people. Active part in the violence took the members of extremist political formations, such as the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (IMRO), whose regiments were sent in Drama region to forcefully Christianise the Pomaks. Muslims were also intimidated into conversion through promises to have their relatives released. But even worse was that the Pomak population was abandoned at the mercy of the army. Together with it, ordinary citizens participated to the Pokrustvane campaign as well. While the authorities were intent with Bulgarianising the Pomaks, they ignored their most essential needs—to feed, dress, and shelter them. As a result of the plundering and burning their homes during the Pokrustvane operation, the converts were left bare, starving and destitute.[23] The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Орг&#1072... Drama (Greek: Δράμα) is a town in northeastern Greece. ...


Following the Bulgarian defeat in the war, for both external (the peace negotiations with the Ottoman Empire on the status of Western Thrace) and internal (the upcoming parliamentary elections) reasons the government decided in autumn 1913 to reverse the policy of forced conversion and permitted the Pomaks to resume their former names, a thing they promptly did.[24] The unsuccess of the policy of forced conversion had already been glimpsed a few months before, when the short-lived Republic of Gumuljina was created in Western Thrace with the retreat of both Bulgarian and Ottoman forces; the Pomaks in the area had taken advantage of the situation to reconvert to Islam.[25] Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Capital Gümülcine Government Republic President Hoca Salih Efendi History  - Established August 31, 1913  - Disestablished October 25, 1913 Area 8,578 km² The Provisional Government of Western Thrace (Ottoman Turkish: غربی تراقیا حكومت موقته‌سی - Garbi Trakya Hükûmet-i Muvakkate) and after the official renaming the Independent Government of Western Thrace...


Greece

Pomak village in Xanthi, Western Thrace.

In World War I, Bulgaria sided with the Central Powers, while Greece allied itself with the Triple Entente. The latter's victory brought in 1919 to the treaty of Neuilly, under which Bulgaria ceded Western Thrace to Greece. Pomaks there have received status as part of the wider Muslim minority. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2559x1653, 770 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pomaks South Slavs Muslim minority of Greece ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2559x1653, 770 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pomaks South Slavs Muslim minority of Greece ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is a city in northern Greece, in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Map of the Greek Prefectures according to the 1991 census with the minority highlighted. ...


Turkey

Today the Pomaks are present in Turkey in both Eastern Thrace, where they have long been present, and in Anatolia, where they have started migrating since the independence of Bulgaria in 1878, but were not previously present. Major waves of Pomaks arrived from the Rhodopes in 1912, 195051 and 1989. Since their settlement in Anatolia they have mostly lost their language, and, together with the local Pomaks in Eastern Thrace, were assimilated to the Turks.[26] Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


This does not mean that the Pomaks have become completely indistinct from the rest of the Turks; and it appears they are politically well-organized. This is has partly expressed itself through associations of emigrants, like the Culture and Solidarity Association of the Rhodope Turks, a relatively well known if small organization founded by Pomaks before the 1980s; it later merged itself with a similar association of Danubian Turks to form the Culture and Solidarity Association of Rodope-Denube Turks.[27] It is also claimed that Kurdish immigrants settling in Eastern Thrace have brought the Pomaks and Bulgarian Turks living there to become more conscious of their identities.[28] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


More important still are the links that connect the Pomak villages in the Rhodopes with their twin villages in Anatolia; the Pomaks who leave Bulgaria often direct themselves to villages inhabited by his kin and friends, that can offer him security. These twin villages are often united by direct lines run by private bus companies.[29]


Differently from Bulgaria, where the Pomaks are reluctant to leave their mountain villages, in Turkey the Pomaks have largely settled in urban areas, notwithstanding past attempts by the authorities to settle them in Anatolian villages. In Yulian Konstantinov's view, this different behaviour should be seen in the light of shifting perceptions of security and insecurity: while Bulgaria is perceived as "insecure", Turkey is instead felt "secure" by the Pomaks.[30]


Coming to the number of Bulgarian-speaking Muslims in Turkey, it is claimed by Ethnologue that they are 300,000 at present.[31] The last linguistic census held in Turkey since 1965 recorded 27,226 people whose mother language was Bulgarian; but this number is almost certainly an undercount.[32] Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Regards the Pomaks, its history and identity has been subjected to reinterpretation by the Turks, following the models of appropriation and reinterpretation created among Bulgarians and Greeks. In this view, the Pomaks are really "mountain Turks", descendant of the Turkic peoples that entered the Balkans in the Middle Ages, such as the Avars, Bulgars, and, especially, the Cumans. As for the language, it is claimed that it is a Turkish dialect, very close to Anotolian vernacular dialects, in which 65% of the words are Turkish and only 25% Slavic. Regarding their conversion, it is held that the Cumans living in the Rhodopes came into contact with Muslim missionaries from North Africa and the Middle East and converted to Islam before the arrival of the Ottomans. Works supporting these arguments, while clearly on the outside margins of scholarship, are widely used as political propaganda.[33] This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


See also

Banya Bashi mosque, built in 1576 by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, is the only functioning mosque that remains of 500 years of Ottoman domination in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Tatars, lives mainly in northeastern Bulgaria and in... A mosque in Madan in the Rhodopes, a region largely populated by Muslim Bulgarians The Bulgarian Muslims or Bulgarian-Mohammedans (Bulgarian: българи-мохамедани; locally called pomak, ahryan, poganets, marvak, poturnak) are Bulgarians of the Islamic faith. ... Cover of the first volume Cover of the second volume Veda Slovena (Веда Словена in Modern Bulgarian, originally written as Веда Словенахъ) is a collection of folk songs and legends of the Muslim Bulgarians in the Rhodopes and Aegean Macedonia, the first volume of which was printed in 1874 in Belgrade and the second... The term refers to a religious minority in western Thrace, in north-east Greece. ... Map of Greece. ... The Macedonian Muslims (Macedonian: Македонци Муслимани or Makedonski Muslimani), also known as Muslim Macedonians[3] or Torbesh (the later name is somewhat pejorative and means the bag carriers), are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Sunni Muslims, although not all espouse a Macedonian national identity. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Šar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian peoples. ... Müezzinzade Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pascha (born 1564 in Filibe in Ottoman Empire, today Plovdiv in Bulgaria; died 1632 in Istanbul) was an Ottoman Grand Vizier. ...

Notes

  1. ^ K. Gözler, "Les villages Pomaks de Lofça", (2002)
  2. ^ A. Popovic, "Pomaks", in Encyclopaedia of Islam
  3. ^ H. Poulton, The Balkans, Minorities and Governments in Conflict, (1993)
  4. ^ Ethnologue, "Languages of Turkey (Europe)"
  5. ^ F. De Jong, "The Muslim Minority in Western Thrace", (1980), p. 95
  6. ^ A Country Study: Bulgaria, "Pomaks", (1992)
  7. ^ Ibid.
  8. ^ A. Popović, ibid.; T. Seyppel, "Pomaks in Northeastern Greece: An Endangered Balkan Population", (1989), p. 47-8; A Country Study: Bulgaria, "Pomaks"; M. Apostolov, "The Pomaks: A Religious Minority in The Balkans", (1996)
  9. ^ A. Popovic, ibid.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ U. Brunnbauer, Histories and Identities: Nation-state and Minority Discourses — The Case of the Bulgarian Pomaks
  12. ^ S. Bonsal, "Bulgaria, 1890" in Balkan Reader
  13. ^ M. Apostolov, "The Pomaks: A Religious Minority in The Balkans", (1996)
  14. ^ A. Popovic. ibid.
  15. ^ U. Brunnbauer, Ibid.
  16. ^ W. E. Gladstone, Lessons in Massacre, (1877), p. 55
  17. ^ A. Popovic, ibid; M. Todorova, "Identity (trans)formation among Bulgarian Muslims"
  18. ^ S. Ansari, "Muhajir" in Encyclopaedia of Islam
  19. ^ M. Todorova, ibid.
  20. ^ A. Popovic, ibid.
  21. ^ M. Todorova, ibid.
  22. ^ E. Marushiakova & V. Popov, "Muslim Minorities in Bulgaria"; Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, (1914), ch. 2
  23. ^ Bulgarian Helsinki Committee — Alternative Report (2003)
  24. ^ E. Marushiakova & V. Popov, ibid.
  25. ^ Greek Helsinki Monitor — Pomaks
  26. ^ M. Apostolov, ibid.
  27. ^ M. Apostolov, ibid.; N. Ekici, "The Diaspora of the Turks of Bulgaria"
  28. ^ G.M. Winrow & K. Kirisci, The Kurdish Question and Turkey, (1997), p. 133
  29. ^ Y. Konstantinov, "Strategies for Sustaining a Vulnerable Identity" in H. Poulton (ed.), Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, (1997), p. 51
  30. ^ Y. Konstantinov & Andrei Simić, "Bulgaria: The Quest for Security" in The Anthropology of East Europe Review, (2003)
  31. ^ Ethnologue, "Languages of Turkey (Europe)"
  32. ^ S. Ansari, "Muhajir"
  33. ^ M. Todorova, ibid.; M. Apostolov, ibid.; M. Koinova, "Muslims of Bulgaria"

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ...

External links

  • Bulgarian Helsinki Committee
  • Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe — Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE)
  • The Pomaks
  • A History of Oppression — The plight of the Bulgarian Pomaks
  • In Search of a Homogeneous Nation: The Assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish Minority, 1984–1985



  Results from FactBites:
 
Pomaks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2193 words)
Pomak presence further gained strength through the 18th century, while the last waves of conversions in the Balkans took place in the early 19th century.
The Pomaks in the Rhodopes appear then to have benefited from a large measure of autonomy, with an agha, a hereditary chieftain, governing from the mountain village of Tamrash.
Pomak auxiliaries played a leading role in the massacres of Batak and Perushtitsa, among the worst made during the quelling of the uprising.
Pomaks (268 words)
Pomaks, who live in the provinces of Xanthe[?] and Rhodope in Greece, are probably the descendants of Agrianes[?], a Thracian tribe of Rhodope Mountains[?].
Pomaks were converted to Islam during the period of Ottoman Empire.
Now Pomaks carry a semi-nomadic[?], agricultural or pastoral life, and study in Turkish schools in Xanthe[?] and Komotine[?].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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