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Encyclopedia > Polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinyl chloride
Density 1380 kg/m3
Young's modulus (E) 2900-3300 MPa
Tensile strengtht) 50-80 MPa
Elongation @ break 20-40%
Notch test 2-5 kJ/m²
Glass temperature 87 °C
Melting point 80 °C
Vicat B1 85 °C
Heat transfer coefficient (λ) 0.16 W/(m·K)
Effective heat of combustion 17.95 MJ/kg
Linear expansion coefficient (α) 8 10-5/K
Specific heat (c) 0.9 kJ/(kg·K)
Water absorption (ASTM) 0.04-0.4
Price 0.5-1.25 /kg
1 Deformation temperature at 10 kN needle load.[1]
Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. In terms of revenue generated, it is one of the most valuable products of the chemical industry. Around the world, over 50% of PVC manufactured is used in construction. As a building material, PVC is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble. In recent years, PVC has been replacing traditional building materials such as wood, concrete and clay in many areas. PVC may refer to the following: The chemical compound polyvinyl chloride. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... The specific heat capacity (symbol c or s, also called specific heat) of a substance is defined as heat capacity per unit mass. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x398, 143 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyvinyl chloride ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x398, 143 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyvinyl chloride ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Polyvinyl chloride is used in a variety of applications. As a hard plastic, it is used as vinyl siding, magnetic stripe cards, window profiles, gramophone records (which is the source of the term vinyl records), pipe, plumbing and conduit fixtures. The material is often used in Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. PVC pipe plumbing is typically white, as opposed to ABS, which is commonly available in grey and black, as well as white. UPVC can sometimes be used as bulletproof glass for car windows as it is very hard and thick.[citation needed] Vinyl siding is a way of covering the sides of the houses in which vinyl plates are used. ... A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... Pipe is a tube or hollow cylinder for the conveyance of fluid, gas and sometimes other materials. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A conduit is a general term for a means of conveying something from one location to another or between persons. ... Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems have been in use since the 1950s. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Monomers in ABS polymer ABS plastic pipes in use in a wet basement of a paper mill, in Sault Ste. ...


It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely-used being phthalates. In this form, it is used in clothing and upholstery, and to make flexible hoses and tubing, flooring, to roofing membranes, and electrical cable insulation. Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... General chemical structure of phthalates. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. ... Look up hose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Preparation

Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride, as shown. Since about 57% of its mass is chlorine, creating a given mass of PVC requires less petroleum than many other polymers. A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Petro redirects here. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x389, 27 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyvinyl chloride ...

History

Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann. On both occasions, the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight. In the early 20th century, the Russian chemist Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatte of the German chemical company Griesheim-Elektron both attempted to use PVC (polyvinyl chloride) in commercial products, but difficulties in processing the rigid, sometimes brittle polymer blocked their efforts. In 1926, Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives. The result was a more flexible and more easily-processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use. Henri Victor Regnault (July 21, 1810 – January 19, 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. ... Eugen Baumann (December 12, 1846–November 3, 1896) was a German chemist. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Fritz Klatte (1880-1934) was the discoverer of polyvinyl acetate, with German patent (GP 281687 1912) for its preparation from acetylene gas. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Waldo Lonsbury Semon (September 10, 1898-May 26, 1999) was a renowned American inventor born in Demopolis, Alabama. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Stub | Aerospace manufacturing companies | Fortune 500 companies | Companies based in North Carolina ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ...


Applications

Electric wires

PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electric wires; the plastic used for this purpose needs to be plasticized. In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form HCl fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance. While HCl fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, HCl breaks down on surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe, and is not available for inhalation.[2] Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels) PVC-free LSOH (low-smoke, zero-halogen) cable insulation is used. The applicable building code should be consulted to determine the type of electrical wires approved for the intended use. Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... HCL or HCl can stand for: Hardware Compatibility List Chemical symbol for hydrochloric acid, written HCl Higher Chinese Language, an academic subject in Singapore An Indian software company (previously Hindustan Computers Ltd. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A fire retardant is a substance that helps to delay or prevent combustion. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ...


Pipes

PVC pipes in use with intumescent firestops at Nortown Casitas, North York, Ontario.

Polyvinyl chloride is also widely used for producing pipes. In the water distribution market it accounts for 66 percent of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75 percent.[3] Its light weight, high strength, and low reactivity make it particularly well-suited to this purpose. In addition, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage. Despite PVC's many advantages, in cases where very high strength or ease of disassembly is necessary, metal pipes are still preferred. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 692 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (4528 × 3921 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 692 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (4528 × 3921 pixel, file size: 1. ... PIPE can refer to PIPE (explosive) PIPE Networks Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) Physical Interface for PCI Express (PIPE) For other meanings, see also pipe. ... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... North York forms the central part of the northern half of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


In February 2007, the California Building Standards Code was updated to approve the use of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe for use in residential water supply piping systems. CPVC has been a nationally-accepted material in the US since 1982; however, California has only permitted its use on a limited basis since 2001. The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an Environmental Impact Report resulting in a recommendation that the Commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. The Commission's vote was unanimous and CPVC will be placed in the 2007 California Plumbing Code.[4] Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is a thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. ...


Portable Electronic Accessories

PVC is finding increased use as a composite for the production of accessories or housings for portable electronics. Through a fusing process, it can adopt cleaning properties possessed by materials such as wool or cotton which can absorb dust particles and bacteria. Its inherent ability to absorb particles from the LCD screen and its form fitting characteristics make it effective.[citation needed]


Signs

In flat sheet form, polyvinyl chloride is formed in a variety of thicknesses and colors. As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and cost. Sheets are cut using saw and rotary cutting equipment (see CNC). Plasticized PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive-backed films referred to simply as vinyl. These films are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter or printed in a wide-format printer. These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products and markings on vehicles. For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plot. ... Wide-format printers are generally accepted to be any printer with a print width over 24. Several manufacturers have models capable of printing up to a 5-meter width. ... Multiple logos on the Virgin Megastore in San Francisco, California . Los Angeles famous Hollywood sign, now a symbol the entertainment industry, originally said Hollywoodland, and advertised a real estate development. ...


Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC)

Modern "Tudorbethan" house with uPVC gutters and downpipes, fascia, decorative imitation "half-timbering", windows and doors.

uPVC or Rigid PVC is often used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in the UK, and in the USA where it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding.[5][6]. The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single glazed windows. It has many other uses including fascia, and siding or weatherboarding. The same material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downpipes.[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1072x837, 79 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyvinyl chloride Tudorbethan architecture Wikipedia:Scottish Wikipedians notice board/New images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1072x837, 79 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyvinyl chloride Tudorbethan architecture Wikipedia:Scottish Wikipedians notice board/New images ... Ascott House, Buckinghamshire. ... Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Vinyl siding is a way of covering the sides of the houses in which vinyl plates are used. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... Sill may refer to: Sill (geology), a tabular mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between layers of older rock Architecture, a sill is the bottom edge of a window or door Construction, the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... Fascia is a term which generally describes any vertical surface which spans across the top of columns or across the top of a wall. ... Corrugated steel siding, for the side of a barn. ... In British usage, weatherboarding is the cladding or ‘siding’ of a house consisting of long thin boards that overlap one another horizontally on the outside of the wall. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Rain gutter A rain gutter (also known as eavestrough, guttering or just gutter) is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof. ...


Due to environmental concerns[8] use of PVC is discouraged by some local authorities[9] in countries such as Germany and The Netherlands. This concerns both flexible PVC and rigid uPVC as not only the plasticizers in PVC are a problem but also the emissions from manufacturing and disposal. The use of modern impact modifiers offer great stability. The issues of migration and brittleness of the PVC compound are overcome.[citation needed] PVC redirects here. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Health and safety

Phthalate plasticizers

Many vinyl products contain additional chemicals to change the chemical consistency of the product. Some of these additional chemicals called additives can leach out of vinyl products. Plasticizers that must be added to make PVC flexible have been an additive of particular concern. Look up Additive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary When used as a noun, additive refers to something that is introduced to a larger quantity of something else, usually to alter characteristics of the larger quantity. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ...


Because soft PVC toys have been made for babies for years, there are concerns that these additives leach out of soft toys into the mouths of the children chewing on them. Additionally, adult sex toys have been demonstrated to leach significant additives.[citation needed] In January 2006, the European Union placed a ban on six types of phthalate softeners, including DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), used in toys (See directive 2005/84/EC). In the USA most companies have voluntarily stopped manufacturing PVC toys with DEHP and in 2003 the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) denied a petition for a ban on PVC toys made with an alternative plasticizer, DINP (diisononyl phthalate).[10] In April 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission published an assessment of DINP which found risk "unlikely" for children and newborns.[11] A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also BEHP, di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, DEHP, or dioctyl phthalate, DOP) is a phthalate , a branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol diester of phthalic acid. ... The European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) is located in Ispra, Italy. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical[1]. However, FDA is suggesting that manufacturers consider eliminating the use of DEHP in certain devices that can result in high aggregate exposures for sensitive patient populations such as neonates. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...


Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, but this information is preliminary, and further study is needed. Air redirects here. ... Outgassing (sometimes called Offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the slow release of a gas that was trapped, frozen, absorbed or adsorbed in some material. ...


In 2004, a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate), which is used in vinyl flooring.[12] In December 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission released a final draft risk assessment of BBzP which found "no concern" for consumer exposure including exposure to children.[13] Benzylbutylphthalate Benzylbutylphthalate (BBzP), also called n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) or benzyl butyl phthalate, is a phthalate, an ester of phthalic acid, benzyl alcohol and n-butanol. ...


In November 2005, one of the largest hospital networks in the U.S., Catholic Healthcare West, signed a contract with B.Braun for vinyl-free intravenous bags and tubing.[14] According to the Center for Health, Environment & Justice in Falls Church, VA, which helps to coordinate a "precautionary" " PVC Campaign", several major corporations including Microsoft, Wal-Mart, and Kaiser Permanente announced efforts to eliminate PVC from products and packaging in 2005. Even Target now does not sell items with PVC. (http://besafenet.com/pvc/newsreleases/target_to_reduce_use.htm) Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) is a California not-for-profit public benefit corporation that operates hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada[1]. As such, it is exempt from federal and state income taxes. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Falls Church is an independent city located in Virginia. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Kaiser Permanente is an integrated managed care organization, based in Oakland, California, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney R. Garfield. ...


According to an article on FOXNews.com, "PVC plastic has been used safely for more than 70 years in a variety of medical and commercial applications and humans. No reports of adverse human health effects have been reported from intravenous (IV) bags and medical tubing made with PVC, according to a 2002 report by the Food and Drug Administration."[15]


Vinyl chloride monomer

In the late 1960s, Dr. John Creech and Dr. Maurice Johnson were the first to clearly link and recognize the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride monomer to humans when workers in the polyvinyl chloride polymerization section of a B.F. Goodrich plant near Louisville, Kentucky, were diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma, a rare disease.[16] Since that time, studies of PVC workers in Australia, Italy, Germany, and the UK have all associated certain types of occupational cancers with exposure to vinyl chloride. The link between angiosarcoma of the liver and long-term exposure to vinyl chloride is the only one that has been confirmed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. All the cases of angiosarcoma developed from exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, were in workers who were exposed to very high VCM levels, routinely, for many years. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ...


A 1997 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report concluded that the development and acceptance by the PVC industry of a closed loop polymerization process in the late 1970s "almost completely eliminated worker exposures" and that "new cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride polymerization workers have been virtually eliminated."[17]


According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver."[18] EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site, and protection against liver cancer will protect against possible cancer induction in other tissues."[19] The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known by its old name of ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, chloroethene), the major precursor for PVC production. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ...


A 1998 front-page series in the Houston Chronicle claimed the vinyl industry has manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and to hide extensive and severe chemical spills into local communities.[20] Retesting of community residents in 2001 by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) found dioxin levels similar to those in a comparison community in Louisiana and to the U.S. population.[21] Cancer rates in the community were similar to Louisiana and US averages.[22] The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ...


Dioxins

The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage. The European Industry, however, asserts[citation needed] that it has improved production processes to minimize dioxin emissions. Dioxins are a global health threat because they persist in the environment and can travel long distances. At very low levels, near those to which the general population is exposed, dioxins have been linked[citation needed] to immune system suppression, reproductive disorders, a variety of cancers, and endometriosis. According to a 1994 report by the British firm, ICI Chemicals & Polymers Ltd., "It has been known since the publication of a paper in 1989 that these oxychlorination reactions [used to make vinyl chloride and some chlorinated solvents] generate polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The reactions include all of the ingredients and conditions necessary to form PCDD/PCDFs.... It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed." In other words, dioxins are an undesirable byproduct of polymerizing PVC and eliminating the production of dioxins while maintaining the polymerization reaction may be difficult. Dioxins created by vinyl chloride production are released by on-site incinerators, flares, boilers, wastewater treatment systems and even in trace quantities in vinyl resins.[23] The US EPA estimate of dioxin releases from the PVC industry was 13 grams TEQ in 1995, or less than 0.5% of the total dioxin emissions in the US; by 2002, PVC industry dioxin emissions had been further reduced by 23%.[24] Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ...


The largest well-quantified source of dioxin in the US EPA inventory of dioxin sources is barrel burning of household waste.[25] Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations.[26] According to the EPA dioxin inventory, landfill fires are likely to represent an even larger source of dioxin to the environment. A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC". Other EU studies indicate that PVC likely "accounts for the overwhelming majority of chlorine that is available for dioxin formation during landfill fires."[27]


The next largest sources of dioxin in the EPA inventory are medical and municipal waste incinerators.[28] Studies have shown a clear correlation between dioxin formation and chloride content and indicate that PVC is a significant contributor to the formation of both dioxin and PCB in incinerators.[29]


In February 2007, the Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee of the US Green Building Council (USGBC) released its report on a PVC avoidance related materials credit for the LEED Green Building Rating system. The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts." [30]


Bans

The State of California is currently considering a bill that would ban the use of PVC in consumer packaging due the threats it poses to human and environmental health and its effect on the recycling stream.[31]


Recycling

The symbol, or 'SPI code', for polyvinyl chloride developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry so that items can be labeled for easy recycling is: Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... The Society of the Plastics Industry developed symbols for plastics so that they could be recycled easier. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-3-V.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


The Unicode character for this symbol is U+2675 (HTML character reference ♵). The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ...


Post-consumer PVC is not typically recycled due to the prohibitive cost of regrinding and recompounding the resin compared to the cost of virgin (unrecycled) resin.[citation needed]


Some PVC manufacturers have placed vinyl recycling programs into action, recycling both manufacturing waste back into their products, as well as post consumer PVC construction materials to reduce the load on landfills.[citation needed]


The thermal depolymerization process can safely and efficiently convert PVC into fuel and minerals, according to the company that developed it. It is not yet in widespread use. Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ...


A new process of PVC Recycling is being developed in Europe and Japan called Texiloop.[32] This process consists of recovering PVC plastic from composite materials through dissolution and precipitation. It strives to be a closed loop system, recycling its key solvent and hopefully making PVC a future technical nutrient.


See also

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is a thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. ... Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems have been in use since the 1950s. ... Polyvinylidene chloride is a polymer derived from vinylidene chloride. ... Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) or -(CH2CHF)n- can be found in things like raincoats, solar panels, metal sheeting, and flammability-lowering coating of airplane interiors. ... PVDF, or PolyVinylidine DiFluoride, is a highly non-reactive and pure thermoplastic fluoropolymer. ... CyberSkinâ„¢ is the brand-name of a soft material that is intended to emulate the feel of human skin. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ...

References

  1. ^ A.K. vam der Vegt & L.E. Govaert, Polymeren, van keten tot kunstof, ISBN 90-407-2388-5
  2. ^ Galloway, F.M. et al (1992) "Surface parameters from small-scale experiments used for measuring HCl transport and decay in fire atmospheres", Fire Mater., 15:181-189
  3. ^ (http://www.vinylbydesign.com/site/page.asp?CID=14&DID=15)
  4. ^ (http://www.bsc.ca.gov/documents/PR07-02_final__pics.pdf)
  5. ^ uPVC Windows, Doors
  6. ^ PolyVinyl (Poly Vinyl Chloride) in Construction
  7. ^ Fascia, Guttering, Fascias, PVCu Soffits, Roofing, Cladding
  8. ^ PVC Products - Greenpeace international
  9. ^ Environmentally conscious buildings
  10. ^ Phthalates and childeren's toys,www.phthalates.org, undated (accessed 2 February 2007)
  11. ^ EU Risk assessment summary report
  12. ^ Bornehag et al. (2004). "The Association Between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case-Control Study". Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (14): 1393-1397. 
  13. ^ Phthalate Information Center Blog: More good news from Europe
  14. ^ Business Wire (Nov 2005). "CHW Switches to PVC/DEHP-Free Products to Improve Patient Safety and Protect the Environment". Business Wire. 
  15. ^ Enviros Target Target.
  16. ^ Creech and Johnson (Mar 1974). "Angiosarcoma of liver in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride.". Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association. 16 (3): 150-1. 
  17. ^ Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. 1997. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00046136.htm
  18. ^ National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186))
  19. ^ EPA Toxicologica Review of Vinyl Chloride i Support of Informaiton on the IRIS. May 2000
  20. ^ Jim Morris, "In Strictest Confidence . The chemical industry's secrets," Houston Chronicle. Part One: "Toxic Secrecy," June 28, 1998, pgs. 1A, 24A-27A; Part Two: "High-Level Crime," June 29, 1998, pgs. 1,A, 8A, 9A; and Part Three: "Bane on the Bayou," July 26, 1998, pgs. 1A, 16A.]
  21. ^ “ATSDR Study Finds Dioxin Levels in Calcasieu Parish Residents Similar to National Levels,” available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/NEWS/calcasieula031506.html; “ATSDR Study Finds Dioxin Levels Among Lafayette Parish Residents Similar to National Levels,” available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/NEWS/lafayettela031606.html; ATSDR Report: Serum Dioxin Levels In Residents Of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, October 2005, Publication Number PB2006-100561, available from the National Technical Information Services, Springfield, Virginia, phone: 1-800-553-6847/1-703-605-6244
  22. ^ "Calcasieu Cancer Rates Similar to State/National Averages." News Release, State of Louisiana Dept. of Health and Hospitals. January 17, 2002
  23. ^ Pat Costner etal, "PVC: A Primary Contributor to the U.S. Dioxin Burden; Comments submitted to the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment," (Washington, D.C. Greenpeace U.S.A., February 1995
  24. ^ US EPA, The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2002 Update, May 2007
  25. ^ US EPA2005
  26. ^ Costner, Pat, (2005), "Estimating Releases and Prioritizing Sources in the Context of the Stockholm Convention", International POPs Elimination Network, Mexico.
  27. ^ Costner 2005
  28. ^ Beychok, M.R., A data base of dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators, Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier B.V., January 1987
  29. ^ Katami, Takeo, et al. (2002) "Formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and Coplanar PCBs from Polyvinyl Chloride during Combustion in an Incinerator" Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1320-1324. and Wagner, J., Green, A. 1993. Correlation of chlorinated organic compound emissions from incineration with chlorinated organic input. Chemosphere 26 (11): 2039-2054. and Thornton, Joe (2002) "Environmental Impacts of polyvinyl Chloride Building Materials", Healthy Building Network, Washington, DC.
  30. ^ The USGBC document can be found on line at https://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2372 An analysis by the Healthy Building NEtwork is at http://www.pharosproject.net/wiki/index.php?title=USGBC_TSAC_PVC
  31. ^ AB 2505 Californians Against Waste http://www.cawrecycles.org/issues/current_legislation/ab2505_08
  32. ^ http://www.pvcinfo.be/bestanden/Progress%20report%202002_fr.pdf, Page 11, "Mise A Jour Du Projet, Projet Ferrari - Texiloop®

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Movies

  • Blue Vinyl (2002). Directed by Daniel B. Gold and Judith Helfand. Learn more about it at [2]
  • Sam Suds and the Case of PVC, the Poison Plastic (2006). Watch it at [3]
  • An Overview of the Benefits of Vinyl (2006) by Dr. Patrick Moore, founding member of Greenpeace and former Director of Greenpeace International. See it at [4]

Blue Vinyl is a 2002 documentary film directed by Daniel B. Gold and Judith Helfand. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Polyvinyl chloride Summary (2556 words)
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride, as shown.
Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.
According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness.
Polyvinyl chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2094 words)
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride, as shown.
Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.
According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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