FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Polyurethane" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Polyurethane

A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. Polyurethane polymers are formed by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two alcohol groups in the presence of a catalyst. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

PU polymer formed by reacting a diisocyanate with a polyol


Polyurethane formulations cover an extremely wide range of stiffness, hardness, and densities. These materials include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 109 pixelsFull resolution (1980 × 270 pixel, file size: 11 KB, MIME type: image/png) High-resolution black/white . ...

  • low density flexible foam used in upholstery and bedding,
  • low density rigid foam used for thermal insulation and e.g. automobile dashboards,
  • soft solid elastomers used for gel pads and print rollers, and
  • hard solid plastics used as electronic instrument bezels and structural parts.

Polyurethanes are widely used in high resiliency flexible foam seating, rigid foam insulation panels, microcellular foam seals and gaskets, durable elastomeric wheels and tires, electrical potting compounds, high performance adhesives and sealants, Spandex fibres, seals, gaskets, carpet underlay, and hard plastic parts. Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ... ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ...


Polyurethane products are often called "urethanes". They should not be confused with the specific substance urethane, also known as ethyl carbamate. Polyurethanes are not produced from ethyl carbamate, nor do they contain it. Urethane (also called ethyl carbamate) 1. ... Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is a substance first prepared in the nineteenth century. ...

Contents

History

The pioneering work on polyurethane polymers was conducted by Otto Bayer and his coworkers in 1937 at the laboratories of I.G. Farben in Leverkusen, Germany.[1] They recognized that using the polyaddition principle to produce polyurethanes from liquid diisocyanates and liquid polyether or polyester diols seemed to point to special opportunities, especially when compared to already existing plastics that were made by polymerizing olefins, or by polycondensation. The new monomer combination also circumvented existing patents obtained by Wallace Carothers on polyesters.[2] Initially, work focused on the production of fibres and flexible foams. With development constrained by World War II (when PU's were applied on a limited scale as aircraft coating[2]), it was not until 1952 that polyisocyanates became commercially available. Commercial production of flexible polyurethane foam began in 1954, based on toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyester polyols. The invention of these foams (initially called imitation swiss cheese by the inventors[2]) was thanks to water accidentally introduced in the reaction mix. These materials were also used to produce rigid foams, gum rubber, and elastomers. Linear fibres were produced from hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). Otto Bayer A German industrial chemist who in 1937 discovered how to make the very useful polyurethane plastics out of polyisocyanate and polyol. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... This article describes a kind of cheese produced primarily in the United States and Canada. ... For other uses of the abbreviation HDI, see HDI (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 1,4 Butanediol) Chemical structure of 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Butanediol (C4H10O2, molecular weight 90. ...


The first commercially available polyether polyol, poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol, was introduced by DuPont in 1956 by polymerizing tetrahydrofuran. Less expensive polyalkylene glycols were introduced by BASF and Dow Chemical the following year, 1957. These polyether polyols offered technical and commercial advantages such as low cost, ease of handling, and better hydrolytic stability; and quickly supplanted polyester polyols in the manufacture of polyurethane goods. Another early pioneer in PU's was the Mobay corporation.[2] In 1960 more than 45,000 tons of flexible polyurethane foams were produced. As the decade progressed, the availability of chlorofluoroalkane blowing agents, inexpensive polyether polyols, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) heralded the development and use of polyurethane rigid foams as high performance insulation materials. Rigid foams based on polymeric MDI (PMDI) offered better thermal stability and combustion characteristics than those based on TDI. In 1967, urethane modified polyisocyanurate rigid foams were introduced, offering even better thermal stability and flammability resistance to low density insulation products. Also during the 1960s, automotive interior safety components such as instrument and door panels were produced by back-filling thermoplastic skins with semi-rigid foam. This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. In terms of market capitalization, it is the second-largest chemical company in the world, smaller than only DuPont. ... Mobay Chemical Corporation, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was a joint venture of Monsanto and Bayer to market polyurethanes in the United States. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... Polyisocyanurate, also referred to as PIR, is essentially an improvement on polyurethane (PUR). ... DIN4102 Flammability Class B1 Vertical Shaft Furnace at Technische Universität Braunschweig, iBMB, Germany. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...


In 1969, Bayer AG exhibited an all plastic car in Dusseldorf, Germany. Parts of this car were manufactured using a new process called RIM, Reaction Injection Molding. RIM technology uses high-pressure impingement of liquid components followed by the rapid flow of the reaction mixture into a mold cavity. Large parts, such as automotive fascia and body panels, can be molded in this manner. Polyurethane RIM evolved into a number of different products and processes. Using diamine chain extenders and trimerization technology gave poly(urethane urea), poly(urethane isocyanurate), and polyurea RIM. The addition of fillers, such as milled glass, mica, and processed mineral fibres gave arise to RRIM, reinforced RIM, which provided improvements in flexural modulus (stiffness) and thermal stability. This technology allowed production of the first plastic-body automobile in the United Sates, the Pontiac Fiero, in 1983. Further improvements in flexural modulus were obtained by incorporating preplaced glass mats into the RIM mold cavity, also known as SRIM, or structural RIM. Reaction injection molding OR RIM Molding is similar to injection molding except that a reaction occurs within the mold. ... Fascia is specialized connective tissue layer which surrounds muscles, bones, and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Old Pontiac Fiero Base model Fiero gauge cluster The Pontiac Fiero is a mid-engined sports car that was built by the Pontiac division of General Motors from 1984 to 1988. ...


Starting in the early 1980s, water-blown microcellular flexible foam was used to mold gaskets for panel and radial seal air filters in the automotive industry. Since then, increasing energy prices and the desire to eliminate PVC plastisol from automotive applications have greatly increased market share. Costlier raw materials are offset by a significant decrease in part weight and in some cases, the elimination of metal end caps and filter housings. Highly filled polyurethane elastomers, and more recently unfilled polyurethane foams are now used in high-temperature oil filter applications. PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ...


Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) is often made by adding small amounts of volatile materials, so-called blowing agents, to the reaction mixture. These simple volatile chemicals yield important performance characteristics, primarily thermal insulation. In the early 1990s, because of their impact on ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol led to the greatly reduced use of many chlorine-containing blowing agents, such as trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). Other haloalkanes, such as the hydrochlorofluorocarbon 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), were used as interim replacements until their phase out under the IPPC directive on greenhouse gases in 1994 and by the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) directive of the EU in 1997 (See: Haloalkanes). By the late 1990s, the use of blowing agents such as carbon dioxide, pentane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) became more widespread in North America and the EU, although chlorinated blowing agents remained in use in many developing countries.[3] A foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liquid into a foam. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... R-11 redirects here, for the ballistic missile, see Scud. ... The haloalkanes (also known as Halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... The Internation Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is an international treaty organization that works to prevent the international spread of plant diseases. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane, R-134a or HFC-134a, is a refrigerant without an ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). ...


Building on existing polyurethane spray coating technology and polyetheramine chemistry, extensive development of two-component polyurea spray elastomers took place in the 1990s. Their fast reactivity and relative insensitivity to moisture make them useful coatings for large surface area projects, such as secondary containment, manhole and tunnel coatings, and tank liners. Excellent adhesion to concrete and steel is obtained with the proper primer and surface treatment. During the same period, new two-component polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane-polyurea elastomer technology was used to enter the marketplace of spray-in-place load bed liners. This technique for coating pickup truck beds and other cargo bays creates a durable, abrasion resistant composite with the metal substrate, and eliminates corrosion and brittleness associated with drop-in thermoplastic bed liners. Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... Dew drops adhering to a spider web For the medical condition see Adhesion (medicine) Adhesion is the molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contact. ... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


The use of polyols derived from vegetable oils to make polyurethane products began garnering attention beginning around 2004, partly due to the rising costs of petrochemical feedstocks and partially due to an enhanced public desire for environmentally friendly green products.[4] One of the most vocal supporters of these polyurethanes made using natural oil polyols is the Ford Motor Company.[5] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... “Ford” redirects here. ...


Chemistry

generalized polyurethane reaction

Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction polymers, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, and phenolics.[6][7][8][9][10] A urethane linkage is produced by reacting an isocyanate group, -N=C=O with a hydroxyl (alcohol) group, -OH. Polyurethanes are produced by the polyaddition reaction of a polyisocyanate with a polyalcohol (polyol) in the presence of a catalyst and other additives. In this case, a polyisocyanate is a molecule with two or more isocyanate functional groups, R-(N=C=O)n ≥ 2 and a polyol is a molecule with two or more hydroxyl functional groups, R'-(OH)n ≥ 2. The reaction product is a polymer containing the urethane linkage, -RNHCOOR'-. Isocyanates will react with any molecule that contains an active hydrogen. Importantly, isocyanates react with water to form a urea linkage and carbon dioxide gas; they also react with polyetheramines to form polyureas. Commercially, polyurethanes are produced by reacting a liquid isocyanate with a liquid blend of polyols, catalyst, and other additives. These two components are referred to as a polyurethane system, or simply a system. The isocyanate is commonly referred to in North America as the 'A-side' or just the 'iso'. The blend of polyols and other additives is commonly referred to as the 'B-side' or as the 'poly'. This mixture might also be called a 'resin' or 'resin blend'. In Europe the meanings for 'A-side' and 'B-side' are reversed. Resin blend additives may include chain extenders, cross linkers, surfactants, flame retardants, blowing agents, pigments, and fillers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 109 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 123 pixel, file size: 4 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{Information | Description=Chemical structure of Generalized Polyurethane Reaction | Source=Selfmade | Date= 26 May 2007 | Author=[[P Cottontail] | Permission=GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), Public domain (PD... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Urethane (also called ethyl carbamate) 1. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The general formula for polyureas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Socks made from flame retardant cotton. ... A foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liquid into a foam. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... In general, a filler is something that is used to fill gaps. ...


The first essential component of a polyurethane polymer is the isocyanate. Molecules that contain two isocyanate groups are called diisocyanates. These molecules are also referred to as monomers or monomer units, since they themselves are used to produce polymeric isocyanates that contain three or more isocyanate functional groups. Isocyanates can be classed as aromatic, such as diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) or toluene diisocyanate (TDI); or aliphatic, such as hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). An example of a polymeric isocyanate is polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, which is a blend of molecules with two-, three-, and four- or more isocyanate groups, with an average functionality of 2.7. Isocyanates can be further modified by partially reacting them with a polyol to form a prepolymer. A quasi-prepolymer is formed when the stoichiometric ratio of isocyanate to hydroxyl groups is greater than 2:1. A true prepolymer is formed when the stoichiometric ratio is equal to 2:1. Important characteristics of isocyanates are their molecular backbone, % NCO content, functionality, and viscosity. In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... For other uses of the abbreviation HDI, see HDI (disambiguation). ... Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) is an organic compound in the class known as isocyanates. ... In chemistry, stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ...


The second essential component of a polyurethane polymer is the polyol. Molecules that contain two hydroxyl groups are called diols, those with three hydroxyl groups are called triols, et cetera. In practice, polyols are distinguished from short chain or low-molecular weight glycol chain extenders and cross linkers such as ethylene glycol (EG), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), diethylene glycol (DEG), glycerine, and trimethylol propane (TMP). Polyols are polymers in their own right. They are formed by base-catalyzed addition of propylene oxide (PO), ethylene oxide (EO) onto a hydroxyl or amine containing initiator, or by polyesterification of a di-acid, such as adipic acid, with glycols, such as ethylene glycol or dipropylene glycol (DPG). Polyols extended with PO or EO are polyether polyols. Polyols formed by polyesterification are polyester polyols. The choice of initiator, extender, and molecular weight of the polyol greatly affect its physical state, and the physical properties of the polyurethane polymer. Important characteristics of polyols are their molecular backbone, initiator, molecular weight, % primary hydroxyl groups, functionality, and viscosity. A diol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH groups). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... (Redirected from 1,4 Butanediol) Chemical structure of 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Butanediol (C4H10O2, molecular weight 90. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound described by the structural formula HO-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH. It is a clear, hygroscopic, odorless liquid. ... Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ... In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalized by an acid or a base. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Adipic acid is the common name of 1,6-hexanedioic acid, a chemical compound of the class of carboxylic acids. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...

PU reaction mechanism catalyzed by a tertiary amine
carbon dioxide gas formed by reacting water and isocyanate

The polymerization reaction is catalyzed by tertiary amines, such as dimethylcyclohexylamine, and organometallic compounds, such as dibutyltin dilaurate or bismuth octanoate. Furthermore, catalysts can be chosen based on whether they favor the urethane (gel) reaction, such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (also called DABCO or TEDA), or the urea (blow) reaction, such as bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether, or specifically drive the isocyanate trimerization reaction, such as potassium octoate. An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ... DABCO or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2. ... Trimer might refer to: trimer (chemistry), a reaction product composed of three identical molecules trimer (biochemistry), a compound of three macromolecules non-covalently bound This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


One of the most desirable attributes of polyurethanes is their ability to be turned into foam. Blowing agents such as water, certain halocarbons such as HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), and hydrocarbons such as n-pentane, can be incorporated into the poly side or added as an auxiliary stream. Water reacts with the isocyanate to create carbon dioxide gas, which fills and expands cells created during the mixing process. The reaction is a three step process. A water molecule reacts with an isocyanate group to form a carbamic acid. Carbamic acids are unstable, and decompose forming carbon dioxide and an amine. The amine reacts with more isocyanate to give a substituted urea. Water has a very low molecular weight, so even though the weight percent of water may be small, the molar proportion of water may be high and considerable amounts of urea produced. The urea is not very soluble in the reaction mixture and tends to form separate "hard segment" phases consisting mostly of polyurea. The concentration and organization of these polyurea phases can have a significant impact on the properties of the polyurethane foam.[11] Halocarbons and hydrocarbons are chosen such that they have boiling points at or near room temperature. Since the polymerization reaction is exothermic, these blowing agents volatilize into a gas during the reaction process. They fill and expand the cellular polymer matrix, creating a foam. It is important to know that the blowing gas does not create the cells of a foam. Rather, foam cells are a result of blowing gas diffusing into bubbles that are nucleated or stirred into the system at the time of mixing. In fact, high density microcellular foams can be formed without the addition of blowing agents by mechanically frothing or nucleating the polyol component prior to use. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane, R-134a or HFC-134a, is a refrigerant without an ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). ... Pentane also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... carbamic acid ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... Microcellular means being composed of very small cells. ...


Surfactants are used to modify the characteristics of the polymer during the foaming process. They are used to emulsify the liquid components, regulate cell size, and stabilize the cell structure to prevent collapse and surface defects. Rigid foam surfactants are designed to produce very fine cells and a very high closed cell content. Flexible foam surfactants are designed to stabilize the reaction mass while at the same time maximizing open cell content to prevent the foam from shrinking. The need for surfactant can be affected by choice of isocyanate, polyol, component compatibility, system reactivity, process conditions and equipment, tooling, part shape, and shot weight. A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable...


Raw Materials

For the manufacture of polyurethane polymers, two groups of at least bifunctional substances are needed as reactants; compounds with isocyanate groups, and compounds with active hydrogen atoms. The physical and chemical character, structure, and molecular size of these compounds influence the polymerization reaction, as well as ease of processing and final physical properties of the finished polyurethane. In addition, additive such as catalysts, surfactants, blowing agents, cross linkers, flame retardants, light stabilizers, and fillers are used to control and modify the reaction process and performance characteristics of the polymer.


Isocyanates

Isocyanates with two or more functional groups are required for the formation of polyurethane polymers. Volume wise, aromatic isocyanates account for the vast majority of global diisocyanate production. Aliphatic and cycloaliphatic isocyanates are also important building blocks for polyurethane materials, but in much smaller volumes. There are a number of reasons for this. First, the aromatically linked isocyanate group is much more reactive than the aliphatic one. Second, aromatic isocyanates are more economical to use. Aliphatic isocyanates are used only if special properties are required for the final product. For example, light stable coatings and elastomers can only be obtained with aliphatic isocyanates. Even within the same class of isocyanates, there is a significant difference in reactivity of the functional groups based on steric hindrance. In the case of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, the isocyanate group in the para position to the methyl group is much more reactive than the isocyanate group in the ortho position. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Phosgenation of corresponding amines is the main technical process for the manufacture of isocyanates. The amine raw materials are generally manufactured by the hydrogenation of corresponding nitro compounds. For example, toluenediamine (TDA) is manufactured from dinitrotoluene, which then converted to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Diamino diphenylmethane or methylenedianiline (MDA) is manufactured from nitrobenzene via aniline, which is then converted to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Dinitrotoluene or Dinitro C6H3(CH3)(NO2)2. ... Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. ...


The two most important aromatic isocyanates are toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). TDI consists of a mixture of the 2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanatotoluene isomers. The most important product is TDI-80 (TD-80), consisting of 80% of the 2,4-isomer and 20% of the 2,6-isomer. This blend is used extensively in the manufacture of polyurethane flexible slabstock and molded foam.[12] TDI, and especially crude TDI and TDI/MDI blends can be used in rigid foam applications, but have been supplanted by polymeric MDI. TDI-polyether and TDI-polyester prepolymers are used in high performance coating and elastomer applications. Prepolymers are available that have been vacuum stripped of TDI monomer, which greatly reduces their toxicity. Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) has three isomers, 4,4'-MDI, 2,4'-MDI, and 2,2'-MDI, and is also polymerized to provide oligomers of functionality three and higher.

Only the 4,4'-MDI monomer is sold commercially as a single isomer. It is provided either as a frozen solid or flake, or in molten form, and is used to manufacture high performance prepolymers. Monomer blends, consisting of approximately 50% of the 4,4'-isomer and 50% of the 2,4'-isomer, are liquid at room temperature and are used to manufacture prepolymers for polyurea spray elastomer applications. 4,4'-MDI blends containing MDI uretonimine, carbodiimide, and allophonate moieties are also liquid at room temperature, and are used in the manufacture of integral skin and microcellular foams. 4,4'-MDI-glycol prepolymers offer increased mechanical properties in the same applications, but are prone to freezing at temperatures below 20°C. Polymeric MDI (PMDI) is used in rigid pour-in-place, spray foam, and molded foam applications. Polymeric MDI that contains a very high portion of high-functionality oligomers is used to manufacture polyurethane and polyisocyanurate rigid insulation boardstock. Modified PMDI, which contains high levels of MDI monomer, is used in the production of polyurethane flexible molded and microcellular foam. The relative percentage of the 4,4'- and 2,4'- isomers is adjusted to change the reactivity and storage stability of the isocyanate blend, as well as the firmness and other physical properties of the finished goods. Other aromatic isocyanate include p-phenylene diisocyante (PPDI), naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI), and o-tolidine diisocyanate (TODI).


The most important aliphatic and cycloaliphatic isocyanates are 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohexane (isophorone diisocyanate, IPDI), and 4,4'-diisocyanato dicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI). They are used to produce light stable, non-yellowing polyurethane coatings and elastomers. Because of their toxicity, aliphatic isocyanate monomers are converted into prepolymers, biurets, dimers, and trimers for commercial use. HDI adducts are used extensively for weather and abrasion resistant coatings and lacquers. IPDI is used in the manufacture of coatings, elastomeric adhesives and sealants. H12MDI prepolymers are used to produce high performance coatings and elastomers with optical clarity and hydrolysis resistance. Other aliphatic isocyanates include cyclohexane diisocyanate (CHDI), tetramethylxylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane (H6XDI). Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) is an organic compound in the class known as isocyanates. ...


Polyols

Polyols are higher molecular weight materials manufactured from an initiator and monomeric building blocks. They are most easily classified as polyether polyols, which are made by the reaction of epoxides (oxiranes) with an active hydrogen containing starter compounds, or polyester polyols, which are made by the polycondensation of multifunctional carboxylic acids and hydroxyl compounds. They can be further classified according to their end use as flexible or rigid polyols, depending on the functionality of the initiator and their molecular weight. Taking into account functionality, flexible polyols have molecular weights from 2,000 to 10,000 (OH# from 18 to 56). Rigid polyols have molecular weights from 250 to 700 (OH# from 300 to 700). Polyols with molecular weights from 700 to 2,000 (OH# 60 to 280) are used to add stiffness or flexibility to base systems, as well as increase solubility of low molecular weight glycols in high molecular weight polyols. Polyols are a catch-all for chemical compounds containing multiple hydroxyl groups. ... A category of ethers, epoxides exist as an oxygen doubly bonded to two carbon groups. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted...


Polyether polyols come in a wide variety of grades based on their end use, but are all constructed in a similar manner. Polyols for flexible applications use low functionality initiators such as dipropylene glycol (f=2) or glycerine (f=3). Polyols for rigid applications use high functionality initiators such sucrose (f=8), sorbitol (f=6), toluenediamine (f=4), and Mannich bases (f=4). Propylene oxide is then added to the initiators until the desired molecular weight is achieved. Polyols extended with propylene oxide are terminated with secondary hydroxyl groups. In order to change the compatibility, rheological properties, and reactivity of a polyol, ethylene oxide is used as a co-reactant to create random or mixed block heteropolymers. Polyols capped with ethylene oxide contain a high percentage of primary hydroxyl groups, which are more reactive than secondary hydroxyl groups. Because of their high viscosity (470 OH# sucrose polyol, 33,000 cps at 25°C), carbohydrate initiated polyols often use glycerine or diethylene glycol as a co-initiate in order to lower the viscosity to ease handling and processing (490 OH# sucrose-glycerine polyol, 5,500 cps at 25°C). Graft polyols (also called filled polyols or polymer polyols) contain finely dispersed styrene-acrylonitrile, acrylonitrile, or polyurea (PHD) polymer solids chemically grafted to a high molecular weight polyether backbone. They are used to increase the load bearing properties of low density high-resiliency (HR) foam, as well as add toughness to microcellular foams and cast elastomers. PHD polyols are also used to modify the combustion properties of HR flexible foam. Solids content ranges from 14% to 50%, with 22% and 43% being typical. Initiators such as ethylenediamine and triethanolamine are used to make low molecular weight rigid foam polyols that have built-in catalytic activity due to the presence of nitrogen atoms in the backbone. They are used to increase system reactivity and physical property build, and to reduce the friability of rigid foam molded parts. A special class of polyether polyols, poly(tetramethylene ether) glycols are made by polymerizing tetrahydrofuran. They are used in high performance coating and elastomer applications. Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... A mannich base is the reaction product of an amine and a carbonyl compound that engage in a nucleophilic addition reaction followed by elimination to the imine salt. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two (or more) different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain, as opposed to a homopolymer where only one monomer is used. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound described by the structural formula HO-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH. It is a clear, hygroscopic, odorless liquid. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ... Acrylonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN. This pungent-smelling colorless liquid often appears yellow due to impurities. ... Ethylene diamine (EDA), or 1,2-diaminoethane, is an organic compound from the amines group. ... Triethanolamine, often abbreviated as TEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a tertiary amine and a tri-alcohol. ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ...


Polyester polyols fall into two distinct categories according to composition and application. Conventional polyester polyols are based on virgin raw materials and are manufactured by the direct polyesterification of high-purity diacids and glycols, such as adipic acid and 1,4-butanediol. They are distinguished by the choice of monomers, molecular weight, and degree of branching. While costly and difficult to handle because of their high viscosity, they offer physical properties not obtainable with polyether polyols, including superior solvent, abrasion, and cut resistance. Other polyester polyols are based on reclaimed raw materials. They are manufactured by transesterification (glycolysis) of recycled poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) or dimethylterephthalate (DMT) distillation bottoms with glycols such as diethylene glycol. These low molecular weight, aromatic polyester polyols are used in the manufacture of rigid foam, and bring low cost and excellent flammability characteristics to polyisocyanurate (PIR) boardstock and polyurethane spray foam insulation. Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... PETE redirects here. ... Polyisocyanurate, also referred to as PIR, is essentially an improvement on polyurethane (PUR). ...


Specialty polyols include polycarbonate polyols, polycaprolactone polyols, polybutadiene polyols, and polysulfide polyols. The materials are used in elastomer, sealant, and adhesive applications that require superior weatherability, and resistance to chemical and environmental attack. Natural oil polyols derived from castor oil and other vegetable oils are used to make elastomers, flexible bunstock, and flexible molded foam. Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60°C. It must be raised to melting point to biodegrade, and so must be composted. ... Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber that has a high resistance to wear and is used especially in the manufacture of tires. ... Polysulfides are a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms. ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). ... A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ...


Chain extenders and cross linkers

Chain extenders (f=2) and cross linkers (f=3 or greater) are low molecular weight hydroxyl and amine terminated compounds that play an important role in the polymer morphology of polyurethane fibers, elastomers, adhesives, and certain integral skin and microcellular foams. The elastomeric properties of these materials are derived from the phase separation of the hard and soft copolymer segments of the polymer, such that the urethane hard segment domains serve as cross-links between the amorphous polyether (or polyester) soft segment domains. This phase separation occurs because the mainly non-polar, low melting soft segments are incompatible with the polar, high melting hard segments. The soft segments, which are formed from high molecular weight polyols, are mobile and are normally present in coiled formation, while the hard segments, which are formed from the isocyanate and chain extenders, are stiff and immobile. Because the hard segments are covalently coupled to the soft segments, they inhibit plastic flow of the polymer chains, thus creating elastomeric resiliency. Upon mechanical deformation, a portion of the soft segments are stressed by uncoiling, and the hard segments become aligned in the stress direction. This reorientation of the hard segments and consequent powerful hydrogen bonding contributes to high tensile strength, elongation, and tear resistance values.[13][14][15][16][17] The choice of chain extender also determines flexural, heat, and chemical resistance properties. The most important chain extenders are ethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO or BDO), 1,6-hexanediol, cyclohexane dimethanol and hydroquinone bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether (HQEE). All of these glycols form polyurethanes that phase separate well and form well defined hard segment domains, and are melt processable. They are all suitable for thermoplastic polyurethanes with the exception of ethylene glycol, since the its derived bis-phenyl urethane undergoes unfavorable degradation at high hard segment levels.[18] Diethanolamine and triethanolamine are used in flex molded foams to build firmness and add catalytic activity. Diethyltoluenediamine is used extensively in RIM, and in polyurethane and polyurea elastomer formulations. Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ...

table of chain extenders and cross linkers [19]
hydroxyl compounds – difunctional molecules
  MW s.g. f.p. °C b.p. °C
ethylene glycol 62.1 1.110 -13.4 197.4
diethylene glycol 106.1 1.111 -8.7 245.5
triethylene glycol 150.2 1.120 -7.2 287.8
tetraethylene glycol 194.2 1.123 -9.4 325.6
propylene glycol 76.1 1.032 supercools 187.4
dipropylene glycol 134.2 1.022 supercools 232.2
tripropylene glycol 192.3 1.110 supercools 265.1
1,3-propanediol 76.1 1.060 -28 210
1,3-butanediol 92.1 1.005 - 207.5
1,4-butanediol 92.1 1.017 20.1 235
neopentyl glycol 104.2 - 130 206
1,6-hexanediol 118.2 1.017 43 250
1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol - - - -
HQEE - - - -
ethanolamine 61.1 1.018 10.3 170
diethanolamine 105.1 1.097 28 271
methyldiethanolamine 119.1 1.043 -21 242
phenyldiethanolamine 181.2 - 58 228
hydroxyl compounds – trifunctional molecules
  MW s.g. f.p. °C b.p. °C
glycerol 92.1 1.261 18.0 290
trimethylolpropane - - - -
1,2,6-hexanetriol - - - -
triethanolamine 149.2 1.124 21 -
hydroxyl compounds – tetrafunctional molecules
  MW s.g. f.p. °C b.p. °C
pentaerythritol 136.2 - 260.5 -
N,N,N',N'-tetrakis
(2-hydroxypropyl)
ethylenediamine
- - - -
amine compounds – difunctional molecules
  MW s.g. f.p. °C b.p. °C
diethyltoluenediamine 178.3 1.022 - 308
dimethylthiotoluenediamine 214.0 1.208 - -

Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound described by the structural formula HO-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH. It is a clear, hygroscopic, odorless liquid. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG, 3-oxa-1,5-pentanediol, diglycol, ethylene diglycol, or dihydroxy diethyl ether) is a diol, an alcohol with two -OH groups, a dimer of ethylene glycol. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG, 3-oxa-1,5-pentanediol, diglycol, ethylene diglycol, or dihydroxy diethyl ether) is a diol, an alcohol with two -OH groups, a dimer of ethylene glycol. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... Supercool redirects here. ... 1,3-Propanediol, also propane-1,3-diol or trimethylene glycol, is a three-carbon diol. ... (Redirected from 1,4 Butanediol) Chemical structure of 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Butanediol (C4H10O2, molecular weight 90. ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a secondary amine and a dialcohol. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Triethanolamine, often abbreviated as TEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a tertiary amine and a tri-alcohol. ... Pentaerythritol is a polyol used in the fabrication of PETN and varnishes. ...

Catalysts

Polyurethane catalysts can be classified into two broad categories, amine compounds and organometallic complexes. They can be further classified as to their specificity, balance, and relative power or efficiency. Traditional amine catalysts have been tertiary amines such as triethylenediamine (TEDA, also known as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane or DABCO), dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). Tertiary amine catalysts are selected based on whether they drive the urethane (polyol+isocyanate, or gel) reaction, the urea (water+isocyanate, or blow) reaction, or the isocyanate trimerization reaction. Since most tertiary amine catalysts will drive all three reactions to some extent, they are also selected based on how much they favor one reaction over another. For example, tetramethylbutanediamine (TMBDA) preferentially drives the gel reaction over the blow reaction. On the other hand, both pentamethyldipropylenetriamine and N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N,N-diisopropanolamine balance the blow and gel reactions, although the former is more potent than the later on a weight basis. 1,3,5-(tris(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine is a trimerization catalyst that also strongly drives the blow reaction. Molecular structure gives some clue to the strength and selectivity of the catalyst. Blow catalysts generally have an ether linkage two carbons away from a tertiary nitrogen. Examples include bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether and N-ethylmorpholine. Strong gel catalysts contain alkyl-substituted nitrogens, such as triethylamine (TEA), 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undecene-7 (DBU), and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA). Weaker gel catalysts contain ring-substituted nitrogens, such as benzyldimethylamine (BDMA). Trimerization catalysts contain the triazine structure, or are quaternary ammonium salts. Two trends have emerged since the late 1980s. The requirement to fill large, complex tooling with increasing production rates has led to the use of blocked catalysts to delay front end reactivity while maintaining back end cure. In the United States, acid- and quaternary ammonium salt-blocked TEDA and bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether are common blocked catalysts used in molded flexible foam and microcellular integral skin foam applications. Increasing aesthetic and environmental awareness has led to the use of non-fugitive catalysts for vehicle interior and furnishing applications in order to reduce odor, fogging, and the staining of vinyl coverings. Catalysts that contain a hydroxyl group or an active amino hydrogen, such as N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-hydroxyethyl-bis(aminoethyl)ether and N'-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine that react into the polymer matrix can replace traditional catalysts in these applications.[20][21] A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ... DABCO or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2. ... DABCO or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2. ... Dimethylethanolamine is a nitrogen organic compound. ... Triethylamine is the chemical compound with the formula N(CH2CH3)3, commonly abbreviated Et3N. It is a commonly encountered in organic synthesis probably because it is the simplest symmetrically trisubstituted amine, i. ... R-phrases , , , , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point 55 °C Autoignition temperature 410 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dimethylbenzylamine is used as a catalyst for polyurethane foams and during polymerisation of epoxy resins as... A triazine is one of three organic chemicals, isomeric with each other, whose empirical formula is C3H3N3. ...


Organometallic compounds based on mercury, lead, tin (dibutyltin dilaurate), bismuth (bismuth octanoate), and zinc are used as polyurethane catalysts. Mercury carboxylates, such as phenylmercuric neodeconate, are particularly effective catalysts for polyurethane elastomer, coating and sealant applications, since they are very highly selective towards the polyol+isocyanate reaction. Mercury catalysts can be used at low levels to give systems a long pot life while still giving excellent back-end cure. Lead catalysts are used in highly reactive rigid spray foam insulation applications, since they maintain their potency in low-temperature and high-humidity conditions. Due to their toxicity and the necessity to dispose of mercury and lead catalysts and catalyzed material as hazardous waste in the United States, formulators have been searching for suitable replacements. Since the 1990s, bismuth and zinc carboxylates have been used as alternatives but have short comings of their own. In elastomer applications, long pot life systems do not build green strength as fast as mercury catalyzed systems. In spray foam applications, bismuth and zinc do not drive the front end fast enough in cold weather conditions and must be otherwise augmented to replace lead. Alkyl tin carboxylates, oxides and mercaptides oxides are used in all types of polyurethane applications. For example, dibutyltin dilaurate is a standard catalyst for polyurethane adhesives and sealants, dioctyltin mercaptide is used in microcellular elastomer applications, and dibutyltin oxide is used in polyurethane paint and coating applications. Tin mercaptides are used in formulations that contain water, as tin carboxylates are susceptible to degradation from hydrolysis.[22][23] This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group and have the general chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH, also written as R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. ...


Surfactants

Surfactants are used to modify the characteristics of both foam and non-foam polyurethane polymers. They take the form of polydimethylsiloxane-polyoxyalkylene block copolymers, silicone oils, nonylphenol ethoxylates, and other organic compounds. In foams, they are used to emulsify the liquid components, regulate cell size, and stabilize the cell structure to prevent collapse and sub-surface voids. In non-foam applications they are used as air release and anti-foaming agents, as wetting agents, and are used to eliminate surface defects such as pin holes, orange peel, and sink marks. Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... Nonylphenol is an organic compound of the wider family of alkylphenols. ...


Production

The main polyurethane producing reaction is between a diisocyanate (aromatic and aliphatic types are available) and a polyol, typically a polypropylene glycol or polyester polyol, in the presence of catalysts and materials for controlling the cell structure, (surfactants) in the case of foams. Polyurethane can be made in a variety of densities and hardnesses by varying the type of monomer(s) used and adding other substances to modify their characteristics, notably density, or enhance their performance. Other additives can be used to improve the fire performance, stability in difficult chemical environments and other properties of the polyurethane products. Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... The name polyols refers to chemical compounds containing multiple hydroxyl groups. ... Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer of propylene glycol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... This article concerns the structure of covert cells. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


Though the properties of the polyurethane are determined mainly by the choice of polyol, the diisocyanate exerts some influence, and must be suited to the application. The cure rate is influenced by the functional group reactivity and the number of functional isocyanate groups. The mechanical properties are influenced by the functionality and the molecular shape. The choice of diisocyanate also affects the stability of the polyurethane upon exposure to light. Polyurethanes made with aromatic diisocyanates yellow with exposure to light, whereas those made with aliphatic diisocyanates are stable.[24]


Softer, elastic, and more flexible polyurethanes result when linear difunctional polyethylene glycol segments, commonly called polyether polyols, are used to create the urethane links. This strategy is used to make spandex elastomeric fibers and soft rubber parts, as well as foam rubber. More rigid products result if polyfunctional polyols are used, as these create a three-dimensional cross-linked structure which, again, can be in the form of a low-density foam. In solid mechanics, elasticity is the property of materials which undergo reversible deformations under applied loads. ... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ...


An even more rigid foam can be made with the use of specialty trimerization catalysts which create cyclic structures within the foam matrix, giving a harder, more thermally stable structure, designated as polyisocyanurate foams. Such properties are desired in rigid foam products used in the construction sector.


Careful control of viscoelastic properties — by modifying the catalysts and polyols used —can lead to memory foam, which is much softer at skin temperature than at room temperature.


There are then two main foam variants: one in which most of the foam bubbles (cells) remain closed, and the gas(es) remains trapped, the other being systems which have mostly open cells, resulting after a critical stage in the foam-making process (if cells did not form, or became open too soon, foam would not be created). This is a vitally important process: if the flexible foams have closed cells, their softness is severely compromised, they become pneumatic in feel, rather than soft; so, generally speaking, flexible foams are required to be open-celled.


The opposite is the case with most rigid foams. Here, retention of the cell gas is desired since this gas (especially the fluorocarbons referred to above) gives the foams their key characteristic: high thermal insulation performance.


A third foam variant, called microcellular foam, yields the tough elastomeric materials typically experienced in the coverings of car steering wheels and other interior automotive components.


Health and safety

Fully reacted polyurethane polymer, CAS # 9009-54-5 (CAS registry number), is chemically inert. In the United States, no exposure limits have been established by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) or ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). It is not regulated by OSHA for carcinogenicity. Polyurethane polymer is a combustible solid and will ignite if exposed to an open flame for a sufficient period of time. Decomposition products include carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and hydrogen cyanide. Firefighters should wear self-contained breathing apparatus in enclosed areas. When heated above about 200°C the PU polymer will thermally degrade and emit not only the isocyanates it was made from but also a number of mono isocyanates like methyl isocyanate (MIC) and isocyanic acid (ICA), depending on the type of PU being heated. Heating of any PU material (e. g. soft foam, paint dust after sanding, textiles, PU painted flooring etc.) should be avoided at any cost. Polyurethane polymer dust can cause mechanical irritation to the eyes and lungs. Proper hygiene controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, dust masks, respirators, mechanical ventilation, and protective clothing and eye wear should be used. Clothes should be changed and hands, hair and face should be cleaned before smoking. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) community of professionals advance worker safety and health through education and the development and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Methyl isocyanates structure 3D model of the MIC molecule Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula C2H3NO, arranged as H3C-N=C=O. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. It was discovered in 1888 as an ester of isocyanic acid. ... Cyanic acid is a colourless poisonous liquid with a boiling point of 23. ... // Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other gear designed to protect the wearers body or clothing from injury by electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in sports, martial arts, combat, etc. ...


Liquid resin blends and isocyanates may contain hazardous or regulated components. They should be handled in accordance with manufacturer recommendations found on product labels, and in MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) and product technical literature. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor. An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ...


In the United States, additional health and safety information can be found through organizations such as the Polyurethane Manufacturers Association (PMA) and the Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI), as well as from polyurethane system and raw material manufacturers. In Europe, health and safety information is available from ISOPA[25], the European Diisocyanate and Polyol Producers Association. Regulatory information can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 (Food and Drugs) and Title 40 (Protection of the Environment). The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States. ...


Uses

characteristics of polyurethane materials

Polyurethane products have many uses. Over three quarters of the global consumption of polyurethane products is in the form of foams, with flexible and rigid types being roughly equal in market size. In both cases, the foam is usually behind other materials: flexible foams are behind upholstery fabrics in commercial and domestic furniture; rigid foams are inside the metal and plastic walls of most refrigerators and freezers, or behind paper, metals and other surface materials in the case of thermal insulation panels in the construction sector. Its use in garments is growing: for example, in lining the cups of brassieres. Polyurethane is also used for moldings which include door frames, columns, balusters, window headers, pediments, medallions and rosettes. Fridge redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and...


The precursors of expanding polyurethane foam are available in many forms, for use in insulation, sound deadening, flotation, industrial coatings, packing material, and even cast-in-place upholstery padding. Since they adhere to most surfaces and automatically fill voids, they have become quite popular in these applications.


The following table shows how polyurethanes are used (US data from 2004):[26].

Application Amount of polyurethane used

(millions of pounds)

Percentage of total
Building & Construction 1,459 26.8%
Transportation 1,298 23.8%
Furniture & Bedding 1,127 20.7%
Appliances 278 5.1%
Packaging 251 4.6%
Textiles, Fibers & Apparel 181 3.3%
Machinery & Foundry 178 3.3%
Electronics 75 1.4%
Footwear 39 0.7%
Other uses 558 10.2%
Total 5,444 100.0%

Varnish

Polyurethane materials are commonly formulated as paints and varnishes for finishing coats to protect or seal wood. This use results in a hard, abrasion-resistant, and durable coating that is popular for hardwood floors, but considered by some to be difficult or unsuitable for finishing furniture or other detailed pieces. Relative to oil or shellac varnishes, polyurethane varnish forms a harder film which tends to de-laminate if subjected to heat or shock, fracturing the film and leaving white patches. This tendency increases when it is applied over softer woods like pine. This is also in part due to polyurethane's lesser penetration into the wood. Various priming techniques are employed to overcome this problem, including the use of certain oil varnishes, specified "dewaxed" shellac, clear penetrating epoxy, or "oil-modified" polyurethane designed for the purpose. Polyurethane varnish may also lack the "hand-rubbed" lustre of drying oils such as linseed or tung oil; in contrast, however, it is capable of a much faster and higher "build" of film, accomplishing in two coats what may require multiple applications of oil. Polyurethane may also be applied over a straight oil finish, but because of the relatively slow curing time of oils, the presence of volatile byproducts of curing, and the need for extended exposure of the oil to oxygen, care must be taken that the oils are sufficiently cured to accept the polyurethane. For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... This article is about varnish. ... Wood finishing refers to the process of embellishing and/or protecting the surface. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... For the post-punk band, see Shellac (band). ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum L. Linnaeus, 17?? Common flax (also known as linseed) is a member of the Linaceae family, which includes about 150 plant species widely distributed around the world. ... Tung oil is used as a wood finishing product. ...


Unlike drying oils and alkyds which cure, after evaporation of the solvent, upon reaction with oxygen from the air, polyurethane coatings cure after evaporation of the solvent by a variety of reactions of chemicals within the original mix, or by reaction with moisture from the air. Certain products are "hybrids" and combine different aspects of their parent components. "Oil-modified" polyurethanes, whether water-borne or solvent-borne, are currently the most widely used wood floor finishes. A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... Alkyd coatings are a class of polyester coatings derived from the reaction of an alcohol (alkohol) and an acid or acid anhydride hence the term alk-yd from alcohol and acid or anhydride] and are the dominant resin or binder in most oil-based coatings sold to the consumer market. ... In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation, Electron beam (EB) or heat. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A reaction is the following: In physics, a reaction (physics) is defined by Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The idea that any given force has a pair or opposite force. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ...


Exterior use of polyurethane varnish may be problematic due to its susceptibility to deterioration through ultra-violet light exposure. It must be noted, however, that all clear or transluscent varnishes, and indeed all film-polymer coatings (i.e.paint, stain, epoxy, synthetic plastic, etc.) are susceptible to this damage in varying degrees. Pigments in paints and stains protect against UV damage, while UV-absorbers are added to polyurethane and other varnishes (in particular "spar" varnish) to work against UV damage. Polyurethanes are typically the most resistant to water exposure, high humidity, temperature extremes, and fungus or mildew, which also adversely affect varnish and paint performance. Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stain (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stain (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... For other uses, see Spar (disambiguation). ... This article is about varnish. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Wheels

Polyurethane is also used in making solid tires. Modern roller blading and skateboarding became economical only with the introduction of tough, abrasion-resistant polyurethane parts, helping to usher in the permanent popularity of what had once been an obscure 60s craze. Skateboard wheels had previously been made of clay, and broke constantly. {Can somebody check this? I believe they were made of a phenolic material, and never knew of one breaking. The problem was that they were sensitive to debris, and every tiny stick or pebble would stop the board dead, while you went flying.} The durability of Polyurethane wheel allowed the range of tricks and stunts performed on skateboards to expand considerably. Other constructions have been developed for pneumatic tires, and microcellular foam variants are widely used in tires on wheelchairs, bicycles and other such uses. These latter foam types are also widely encountered in car steering wheels and other interior and exterior automotive parts, including bumpers and fenders. Tires may refer to: the plural of tire the Italian name for Tiers, Italy, a town in South Tyrol, Italy Category: ... Roller skating girl in Rome, Italy (soul grind) Roller skating is travelling on smooth terrain with roller skates. ... A standard skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... A standard skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... A modern skateboard. ...


Furniture

Polyurethane is also used in furniture manufacture for casting soft edges around table tops and panel that are stylish, very durable and prevent injury. These are used in school tables, hospital and bank furniture as well as shop counters and displays. It is used on the bottom of some mouse pads. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Much of the foam used in chairs (including beanbag chairs), couches, mattresses is polyurethane foam. This type of foam is made by mixing polyols, diisocyanates, catalysts, blowing agents and other additives and allowing the resulting foam to rise freely. This can be done in a batch process where relatively small blocks of foam are made in an open-topped mold, or continuously where the components are poured onto an inclined moving belt. The foam is then cut to the desired shape and size for use in making furniture. Safety concerns about the flammability of polyurethane foam, particularly in upholstered furniture, sometimes requires the addition of flame retardants to this foam. For other uses of the term chair, please see chair (disambiguation). ... A bean bag is a bag containing dried beans or PVC pellets, with various applications. ... For other uses, see Couch (disambiguation). ... A mattress is a piece of bedding on which to sleep or lie. ... Polyols are a catch-all for chemical compounds containing multiple hydroxyl groups. ... The isocyanate functional group Isocyanate is the functional group of atoms –N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), not to be confused with the cyanate functional group which is arranged as –O–C≡N. Any organic compound which contains an isocyanate group may also be referred to in... DIN4102 Flammability Class B1 Vertical Shaft Furnace at Technische Universität Braunschweig, iBMB, Germany. ... Socks made from flame retardant cotton. ...


Polyurethane is used for flooring in houses, offices and public areas. An example of a flooring job Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor. ...


Automobile seats

Flexible and semi-flexible polyurethane foams are used extensively for interior components of automobiles, in seats, headrests, armrests, roof liners, dashboards and instrument panels. Car redirects here. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and...

Polyurethane foam in the lower half of the mold in which it was made. When assembled into a car seat, this foam makes up the seat back. The forward-facing part of the seat back is the surface of the foam which face-down in the mold. The two holes in the foam at the top of the picture are for the headrest posts.
Foam after removal from the mold.

Polyurethanes are used to make automobile seats in a remarkable manner. The seat manufacturer has a mold for each seat model. The mold is a closeable "clamshell" sort of structure that will allow quick casting of the seat cushion, so-called molded flexible foam, which is then upholstered after removal from the mold. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken by Silverchemist of polyurethane foam in the bottom half of the mold in which it was made. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken by Silverchemist of polyurethane foam in the bottom half of the mold in which it was made. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 248 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken by Silverchemist. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 248 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken by Silverchemist. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ...


It is possible to combine these two steps, so-called in-situ, foam-in-fabric or direct moulding. A complete, fully-assembled seat cover is placed in the mold and held in place by vacuum drawn through small holes in the mold. Sometimes a thin pliable plastic film backing on the fabric is used to help the vacuum work more effectively. The metal seat frame is placed into the mold and the mold closed. At this point the mold contains what could be visualized as a "hollow seat", a seat fabric held in the correct position by the vacuum and containing a space with the metal frame in place.


Polyurethane chemicals are injected by a mixing head into the mold cavity. Then the mold is held at a preset reaction temperature until the chemical mixture has foamed, filled the mold, and formed a stable soft foam. The time required is two to three minutes, depending on the size of the seat and the precise formulation and operating conditions. Then the mold is usually opened slightly for a minute or two for an additional cure time, before the fully upholstered seat is removed.


Houses, sculptures, and decorations

The walls and ceiling (not just the insulation) of the futuristic Xanadu House were built out of polyurethane foam. Domed ceilings and other odd shapes are easier to make with foam than with wood. Foam was used to build oddly-shaped buildings, statues, and decorations in the Seuss Landing section of the Islands of Adventure theme park. Speciality rigid foam manufactures sell foam that replace wood in carved sign and 3D topography industries. For other uses, see Xanadu (disambiguation). ... Universals Islands of Adventure is a theme park located in Orlando, Florida. ...

Poyurethane being used as an insulator in house construction

PU foam is also used as an thermal insulator in many houses. In physics, thermal conductivity, λ, is the quantity of heat transmitted, due to unit temperature gradient, in unit time under steady conditions in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient thermal conductivity = heat flow rate / (distance × temperature...


Construction sealants and firestopping

Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint: the presence of penetrants demonstrates the need to have both operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint sealant and mechanical/electrical through-penetrations. In other words, it is easier to insist on the use of joint firestops that can also be used for penetration seals, as otherwise penetrants may be run by mechanical and electrical subtrades that unintentionally void the fire-resistance rating of the wall, which jeopardises the entire fire safety plan in place for a building.
Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint penetrated by both electrical and mechanical services, demonstrating the need for operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint firestop system and penetrants, be they electrical, mechanical or structural.

Polyurethane sealants are available in 1, 2 and even 3 part systems, either in cartridge, bucket or drum format. Polyurethane sealants are also sold for firestopping applications. Obviously, the sealant by itself provides no serious hindrance to fire, as its hydrocarbon bonds readily support combustion. However, when backed by inorganic insulation, such as rockwool or ceramic fibres, it can act as an effective seal to thwart smoke and hose-stream passage, particularly in inorganic joints. It is, however, advisable to avoid direct contact with metallic penetrants and through-penetrating cables, as the heat carried by the penetrants may jeopardise the sealant. This, however, requires a lot of vigilance. In concrete to concrete, or concrete to masonry joints, however, that are free of mechanical or electrical penetrants, it works well and dependably. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2273x1564, 301 KB)[edit] Summary Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint: Presence of penetrants demonstrate the need to have both operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint sealant and mechanical/electrical through penetrations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2273x1564, 301 KB)[edit] Summary Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint: Presence of penetrants demonstrate the need to have both operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint sealant and mechanical/electrical through penetrations. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... Perimeter slab edge building joint with incomplete firestop, between concrete floor and precast concrete facade. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2311x1504, 421 KB) Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint penetrated by both electrical and mechanical penetrants, demonstrating the need for operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint firestop system and penetrants, be they electrical, mechanical or structural. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2311x1504, 421 KB) Head-of-Wall Firestop Joint penetrated by both electrical and mechanical penetrants, demonstrating the need for operational and fire-tested compatibility between the joint firestop system and penetrants, be they electrical, mechanical or structural. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... A Fire Test is a means of determining whether or not fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. ... Perimeter slab edge building joint with incomplete firestop, between concrete floor and precast concrete facade. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... Mineral wool, means fibres made from minerals or metal oxides, be they synthetic or natural. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Fire Test is a means of determining whether or not fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... This article is about the construction material. ...


Watercraft

Some surfboards are made with a solid polyurethane core. A rigid foam blank is molded, shaped to specification, then covered with fiberglass cloth and polyester resin. A stack of boards in Waikiki during a surf competition lalalala yeshhhh Surfboards are long, buoyant decks used in the sport of surfing. ...


The hull of the Boston Whaler motorboat is polyurethane foam sandwiched in a fiberglass skin. The foam provides strength, buoyancy, and sound deadening. Boston Whaler outward bound in Boston Harbor, 2002. ... A 1962 Rebel. A wooden speedboat with an outboard engine. ...


Tennis Grips

Polyurethane has been used to make several Tennis Overgrips such as Yonex Supergrap, Wilson Pro Overgrip and many other grips. These grips are highly stretchable to ensure the grip wraps neatly around the racquet's handle.


Electronic Components

Often electronic components are protected from environmental influence and mechanical shock by enclosing them in polyurethane. Typically polyurethanes are selected for the excellent abrasion resistances, good electrical properties, excellent adhesion, impact strength,and low temperature flexibility. The disadvantage of polyurethanes is the limited upper service temperature (typically 250 °F (121 °C)). In production the electronic manufacture would purchase a two part urethane (resin and catalyst) that would be mixed and poured onto the circuit assembly (see Resin casting). In most cases, the final circuit board assembly would be unrepairable after the urethane has cured. Because of its physical properties and low cost, polyurethane encapsulation (potting) is a popular option in the automotive manufacturing sector for automotive circuits and sensors. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Adhesives

Polyurethane is used as an adhesive, especially as a woodworking glue. Its main advantage over more traditional wood glues is its water resistance. It was introduced in the general North American market in the 1990s as Gorilla Glue and Excel, but has been used much longer in Europe. For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... Wood glues are adhesives used to tightly bond pieces of wood together. ... Gorilla Glue is a brand of multipurpose polyurethane adhesive. ...


On the way to a new and better glue for bookbinders, a new adhesive system was introduced for the first time in 1985. The base for this system is polyether or polyester, whereas polyurethane (PUR) is used as prepolymer. Its special feature is the coagulation at room temperature and the reacting to moisture. Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of separate sheets of paper or other material. ...


1st Generation (1988 at the drupa) Drupa is the largest printing equipment exhibition in the world. ...

  • Low starting solidity
  • High viscosity
  • Cure time of more than 3 days

2nd Generation (1996 at the drupa)

  • Low starting solidity
  • High viscosity
  • Cure time of less than 3 days

3rd Generation (2000 at the drupa)

  • Good starting solidity
  • Low viscosity
  • Cure time between 6 and 16 hours

4th Generation (present)

  • Good starting solidity
  • Very low viscosity
  • Cure reached within a few seconds due to dual-core systems

Advantages of polyurethane glue in the bookbinding industry: PUR is real wonder compared to hotmelt and cold glue. Because of the missing moisture in the glue, papers with wrong grain direction can be processed without problems. Even printed and supercalandered paper can be bound without problems. It is the most economical glue with an application thickness of theoretical 0.01 mm. But in reality it is not possible to apply less than 0.03 mm. The PUR glue is very weather-proof and stable at temperatures from -40 °C to 100 °C.[citation needed]


Watch Band Wrapping

Polyurethane is used as a black wrapping for timepiece bracelets over the main material which is generally stainless steel. It is used for comfort, style, and durability.


Abrasion Resistance

Thermoset polyurethanes are also used as a protective coating against abrasion. Cast polyurethane over materials such as steel will absorb particle impact more effieciently. Polyurethanes have been proven to last in excess of 25 years in abrasisive environments where non-coated steel would erode in less than 8 years. Polyurethanes are used in industries such as:

  • Mining & Mineral Processisng
  • Aggregate
  • Transportation
  • Concrete
  • Paper Processing
  • Power

Testing

Effects of visible light

Polyurethanes, especially those made using aromatic isocyanates, contain chromophores which interact with light. This is of particular interest in the area of polyurethane coatings, where light stability is a critical factor and is the main reason that aliphatic isocyanates are used in making polyurethane coatings. When PU foam, which is made using aromatic isocyanates, is exposed to visible light it discolors, turning from off-white to yellow to reddish brown. It has been generally accepted that apart from yellowing, visible light has little effect on foam properties.[27] [28] This is especially the case if the yellowing happens on the outer portions of a large foam, as the deterioration of properties in the outer portion has little effect on the overall bulk properties of the foam itself. In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ...


It has been reported that exposure to visible light can affect the variability of some physical property test results.[29] Increasing exposure time and/or light intensity during the storage of foam samples under ambient laboratory conditions increased the amount of permanent set induced in some compression set tests (the samples did not fully return to their original size and/or shape). Variability resulted from uncontrolled light exposure of cut samples prior to being compressed. Other foam properties were not substantively affected. It was recommended that specimen preparation and testing be done rapidly to minimize variation in results or if specimens are prepared but not tested for a week or more, that the samples should be protected from light exposure.


Higher-energy UV radiation promotes chemical reactions in foam, some of which are detrimental to the foam structure. [30] Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


See also

Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ...

References

  1. ^ see German Patent 728.981 (1937) I.G. Farben
  2. ^ a b c d Polyurethanes: A Class of Modern Versatile Materials Raymond B. Seymour George B. Kauffman J. Chem. Ed. 69, 909 1992
  3. ^ Feske, Bert (October 2004). "The Use of Saytex RB-9130/9170 Low Viscosity Brominated Flame Retardant Polyols in HFC-245fa and High Water Formulations"., Las Vegas, NV: Alliance for the Polyurethane Industry Technical Conference. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  4. ^ Niemeyer, Timothy; Patel, Munjal and Geiger, Eric (September, 2006). "A Further Examination of Soy-Based Polyols in Polyurethane Systems"., Salt Lake City, UT: Alliance for the Polyurethane Industry Technical Conference. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  5. ^ "New Twist on Green: 2008 Ford Mustang Seats Will Be Soy-Based Foam", Edmunds inside line, July 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
  6. ^ Gum, Wilson; Riese, Wolfram; Ulrich, Henri (1992). Reaction Polymers. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-520933-8. 
  7. ^ Harrington, Ron; Hock, Kathy (1991). Flexible Polyurethane Foams. Midland: The Dow Chemical Company. 
  8. ^ Oertel, Gunter (1985). Polyurethane Handbook. New York: Macmillen Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-02-948920-2. 
  9. ^ Ulrich, Henri (1996). Chemistry and Technology of Isocyanates. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0-471-96371-2. 
  10. ^ Woods, George (1990). The ICI Polyurethanes Book. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0-471-92658-2. 
  11. ^ Kaushiva, Byran D. (August 15, 1999). "Structure-Property Relationships of Flexible Polyurethane Foams". PhD Thesis. . Virginia Polytechnic Institute
  12. ^ Technical data sheet from Dow Chemical. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  13. ^ Oertel, Gunter (1985). Polyurethane Handbook. New York: Macmillen Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-02-948920-2. 
  14. ^ Blackwell, J.; M.R. Nagarajan and T.B. Hoitink (1981). "The Structure of the Hard Segments in MDI/diol/PTMA Polyurethane Elastomers". Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 0097-6156/81/0172-0179. 
  15. ^ Blackwell, John; Kenncorwin H. Gardner (1979). "Structure of the hard segments in polyurethane elastomers". IPC Business Press. 0032-3861/79/010013-05. 
  16. ^ Grillo, D.J.; Housel, T.L. (1992). "Physical Properties of Polyurethanes from Polyesters and Other Polyols". Polyurethanes '92 Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, LA: The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. 
  17. ^ Musselman, S.G.; Santosusso, T.M. and Sperling, L.H. (1998). "Structure Versus Performance Properties of Cast Elastomers". Polyurethanes '98 Conference Proceedings, Dallas, TX: The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. 
  18. ^ Gum, Wilson; Riese, Wolfram; Ulrich, Henri (1992). Reaction Polymers. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-520933-8. 
  19. ^ A Guide To Glycols, The Dow Chemical Company, 1992 
  20. ^ Jeffcat Amine Catalysts for the Polyurethane Industry (pdf) (2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  21. ^ Building quality with Air Products trimerisation catalysts (pdf) (2003). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  22. ^ FOMREZ Specialty Tin Catalysts for Polyurethane Applications, Crompton Corporation, 2001-01 
  23. ^ FOMREZ Specialty Tin Catalysts for Polyurethane Applications (leaflet insert), Crompton Corporation, 2001-01 
  24. ^ Randall, David; Lee, Steve (2002). The Polyurethanes Book. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-85041-8. 
  25. ^ http://www.isopa.org ISOPA
  26. ^ The Socio-Economic Impact of Polyurethanes in the United States from the American Chemistry Council. The Polyurethanes Recycle and Recovery Council (PURRC), a committee of the Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (February 2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  27. ^ Discoloration of polyurethane foam. Foamex Information sheet. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
  28. ^ Valentine, C; Craig, T.A.; Hager, S.L (1993). "Inhibition of the Discoloration of Polyurethane Foam Caused by Ultraviolet Light". J. Cellular Plastics 29: 569–590. doi:10.1177/0021955X9302900605. 
  29. ^ Blair, G. Ron; Bob Dawe,Jim McEvoy, Roy Pask, Marcela Rusan de Priamus, Carol Wright (2007). "The Effect of Visible Light on the Variability of Flexible Foam Compression Sets"., Orlando, Florida: Center for the Polyurethane Industry. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 
  30. ^ Newman, C.R.; Forciniti, D. (2001). "Modeling the Ultraviolet Photodegradation of Rigid Polyurethane Foams". Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40: 3336–3352. doi:10.1021/ie0009738. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Polyurethane foam
  • Center for the Polyurethanes Industry: information for EH&S issues related to polyurethanes
  • Polyurethane synthesis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polyurethane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (407 words)
Polyurethane can be made in a variety of textures and hardnesses by varying the particular monomers used and adding other substances.
Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) can be produced by adding a small amount of water to one of the liquid precursors of polyurethane before they are mixed together.
A polyurethane is frequently employed as a finishing coat to protect or seal wood.
Polyurethane Foam Association (4839 words)
The purpose of the PURRC is to reduce polyurethane foam in landfills, and educate end users on the recyclable aspects of polyurethane foam.
Polyester polyurethanes are more readily degraded by microbial action than polyether polyurethanes because of the susceptibility of the ester group to hydrolysis which a large number of microbial enzymes (hydrolyses) catalyst.
Polyurethane foams could be loaded with TDI to a level of approximately 1.0 ppm (w/w) by passing air containing 50-75 ppb (v/v) TDI through them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m