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Encyclopedia > Polytechnic University

The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning "many" and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning "arts", is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers technical education, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. Polytechnics, in name, have existed since at least the 18th century but became increasingly popular since the post-WWII expansion in technical education. Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or vocation in which the learner participates. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


Polytechnics of the British tradition

Hong Kong

The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). A second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994 and 1995 respectively, and renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991. 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a document issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that is one of the following: A certificate testifying that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, A deed conferring an academic degree. ... The Graduate Diploma or Higher Diploma in Ireland is a postgraduate award taken after a Bachelors degree. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPU or PolyU) is a university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong. ... The City University of Hong Kong is one of the universities in Hong Kong, located in Kowloon Tong which can be reached by the Mass Transit Railway and Kowloon Canton Railway at the Kowloon Tong station. ... The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) was established in 1991 as the third university in Hong Kong. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also: Education in Hong Kong, List of universities in Hong Kong. Overview Hong Kong was a British colony until 1997; as a result, its education system follows the British education system. ... The following is a list of universities in Hong Kong: Government-funded Degree-granting Institute The Chinese University of Hong Kong City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong Institute of Education - dedicated solely to teacher education Hong Kong Polytechnic University The Hong Kong University of Science...

New Zealand

New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended, and are considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with universities, colleges of education, and wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology', while one has opted for 'University College of Learning' (UCOL), and another 'Unitec New Zealand' instead. Many if not all now issue at least bachelor-level degrees. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... In Polynesian mythology, Wananga is secret, occult knowledge of magic and sorcery. ... Unitec New Zealand is a major polytechnic tertiary education institute situated in Auckland, New Zealand. ...

Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.) Events and trends Technology The World Wide Web was born at CERN Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft... Massey University is based in Palmerston North, New Zealand with additional campuses in Te Aro, Wellington (inherited by absorbing ther former Wellington Polytechnic) and in Albany, to the north of Auckland. ... The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ...

Only one university has successfully been elevated to university status: the Auckland Institute of Technology, while Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The Auckland University of Technology (AUT) is New Zealand’s newest university, formed on 1 January 2000 when the Auckland Institute of Technology was granted university status. ... Unitec New Zealand is a major polytechnic tertiary education institute situated in Auckland, New Zealand. ...

See also: List of polytechnics and institutes of technology in New Zealand and Education in New Zealand State sector organisations in New Zealand (as at January 2004) are as follows: Parliamentary Offices Office of the Controller and Auditor-General (Tumuaki o te Mana Arotake) Office of the Ombudsmen (Nga Kaitiaki Mana Tangata) Office of the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (Te Kaitiaki Taiao a Te Whare Pāremata... Education in New Zealand is nominally free for all primary, intermediate and secondary schooling. ...


Singapore retains a system very similar to the British system distinguishing strictly between polytechnics and universities. Under this system, all Singaporean students sit for their 'O'-levels after four years of secondary school. They then apply for a place at either a polytechnic or a Junior College. Polytechnics offer three year diploma courses in subjects such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields. Junior Colleges, on the other hand, offer two year courses in more traditional subjects such as English, History, the pure sciences and others after which students take their 'A'-levels, a university entrance examination. High School also refers to the highest form of classical riding, High School Dressage. ... Community college in Canada and the United States Junior college in Singapore ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a document issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that is one of the following: A certificate testifying that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, A deed conferring an academic degree. ...

See also: Education in Singapore The education system in Singapore is spear-headed by the Ministry of Education (MOE) which directs the formulation and implementation of education policies. ...

United Kingdom

Polytechnics were tertiary education teaching institutions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland until the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992 allowed them to become universities, the comparable institutions in Scotland were collectively referred to as Central Institutions. Tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage or third level education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ... Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Further and Higher Education Acts 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within the United Kingdom. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ...

Academic degrees in polytechnics were validated by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) from 1965 to 1992. After this time, the new universities awarded their own degrees, with the Open University offering degrees outside the university system. Sub-degree courses at these institutions were validated by the Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC), and many of them contiue to offer BTEC qualifications. A degree is any of a wide range of awards made by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) was a degree awarding authority, from the 1965, in the United Kingdom until the early 1992. ... In the United Kingdom, the term New University has two meanings regarding British universities. ... Open University Logo © Open University The Open University (OU) is a distance learning university which has students all over the UK and accepted its first students in 1971. ... The Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) of the UK was a subdegree conferring council which had its functions transferred to Edexcel recently. ...

Many polytechnics were formed in the expansion of higher education in the 1960s, others can trace their history back much further than this. One of the most famous polytechnics was the London Polytechnic, which was originally founded in the 19th century. Ulster Polytechnic remains the only polytechnic to unite with a university, a trans-binary merger; this occurred in 1984. Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... The London Polytechnic also known as Polytechnic of Central London (PCL) was one of the British polytechnics. ... University of Ulster The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-site university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest university on the Island of Ireland. ... In mathematics and computer science, the binary (base_two) numeral system is a representation for numbers that uses only zeroes and ones as digits. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Historically, British polytechnics were seen as ranking below universities in the provision of higher education, due to their lack of degree-awarding powers and the fact that they concentrated on vocational rather than academic courses. Even since 1992 differences still remain between the former polytechnics (and other post-1992 universities) and the older universities in terms of pay, conditions for staff, public perception and research budgets. Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or vocation in which the learner participates. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...

Although many of the former polytechnics remain at the bottom of the University League Tables, some former polytechnics have steadily moved up, and can now be found in the top half of the tables of all universities. Starting in the early 1990s, The Times newspaper started publishing league tables ranking British universities based on a number of criteria, such as the quality of their teaching and research (which were assessed by external inspectors), entry standards and dropout rates. ...

See also: British universities Most British universities can be classified into 5 main categories, Ancient universities - universities founded before the 19th century Red Brick universities - universities founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Polytechnic type institutions survive in many other countries, there is often not the same distinction between polytechnics and universities that was seen in Britain, some are often seen as being quite similar in terms of standards.

Écoles Polytechnique

In french a Polytechnic is an École Polytechnique.

The cadets of Polytechnique rushed to the defense of Paris against the foreign armies in 1814. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... LÉcole Polytechnique de Montréal is an engineering school in Montreal, Quebec. ...

Institute of Technology

The term institute of technology is used in many countries rather than polytechnic, and indeed in these countries the latter term may never have been common. For example in Canada the British Columbia Institute of Technology is one such institution. Indian Institutes of Technology is used in India to denote a number of specific institutes which were based on a post WWII recommendation for industrialisation. In Ireland the term Institute of Technology is more favored now to the term Regional Technical College though the latter is the legally correct term; Dublin Institute of Technology is a institute which is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law. The Federal Institute of Technology is located in Zurich and Lausanne, Switzerland. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA, USA is possibly one of the oldest institutions to use "institute of technology" in its title and is a university. An institute of technology is a higher education or vocational education institution similar in concept to a polytechnic and specialises in technical education, some institutes of technology are universities and award their own academic degrees. ... The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is a polytechnic institute in Burnaby, British Columbia that provides full- and part-time education leading to certificates, diplomas, and degrees in technologies and trades. ... Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are the premier educational institutions for science and technology in India . ... A Regional Technical College (RTC) is a type of college in Ireland now replaced by an Institute of Technology (IOT). ... The Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) was established officially under the Dublin Institute of Technology Act, 1992 been previously setup in 1978 on an ad-hoc basis, the institution can trace its origins back to 1887 with the estalishment of various technical institutions in Dublin, Ireland. ... General view showing Grossmünster church. ... Lausanne ( 46° 31′ 10″ N 6° 37′ 56″ E) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France). ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a research institution and university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts directly across the Charles River from Bostons Back Bay district. ... The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the regional centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


An Ammattikorkeakoulu is the common term in Finland, as is the alternative "Yrkeshögskola" - their focus is on bachelor degree level studies particularily in technology. Fachhochschule is the common term in a number of countries with German influences, these are Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland - the term is often translated as "University of Applied Sciences" to refect their role. Hogeschool is used in Belgium and in the Netherlands. Technical and Further Education is the term used in Australia and these institutions have a more vocational emphasis that traditional university courses. Ammattikorkeakoulu, short AMK, is a Finnish polytechnical institution. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course that generally lasts three or four years. ... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is something like a polytechnic. ... In Australia, Technical and Further Education or TAFE institutions are those which offer a wide range of post-secondary education and training, generally in vocational fields (such as hospitality, tourism, construction, woodwork, secretarial skills, community work, etc), often at a level of difficulty below that of a corresponding or related...

Their are also many universities that use the term polytechnic for historic reasons:

  Results from FactBites:
Anglia Ruskin University - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (348 words)
Anglia Ruskin University, formerly known as Anglia Polytechnic University, is a university in the United Kingdom, with campuses in Cambridge and Chelmsford.
It retained the word polytechnic in its title because of a pride in its history and inclusivity, although in 2000 there was some self-doubt about including the term polytechnic - it is the last university in the country to have done so.
This has lead to the university also having a higher than average number of graduates that go on to start their own businesses or be self-employed.
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Southern Polytechnic State University (810 words)
A member of the University System of Georgia, SPSU in fall 2004 had approximately 3,700 students pursuing education in such career-based areas as architecture, computer science, physics, international studies, technical communication, engineering technologies, software engineering, construction, quality assurance, information technology, apparel/textile engineering technology, management, and surveying and mapping, among others.
In the summer of 1980 SPSU achieved independence within the University System of Georgia by ending its ties with Georgia Tech and becoming the fourteenth senior college and the thirty-third independent unit of the university system.
The university offers both bachelor's and master's degrees, as well as continuing professional development, and focuses on the practical application of knowledge and technology to solve problems and contribute to the state's economic development.
  More results at FactBites »



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