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Encyclopedia > Polystyrene
Polystyrene
Density 1050 kg/m³
Density of EPS 25-200 kg/m³
Specific Gravity 1.05
Electrical conductivity (s) 10-16 S/m
Thermal conductivity (k) 0.08 W/(m·K)
Young's modulus (E) 3000-3600 MPa
Tensile strength (st) 46–60 MPa
Elongation at break 3–4%
Notch test 2–5 kJ/
Glass temperature 95 °C
Melting point[1] 240 °C
Vicat B 90 °C[2]
Heat transfer coefficient (Q) 0.17 W/(m2K)
Linear expansion coefficient (a) 8 10-5 /K
Specific heat (c) 1.3 kJ/(kg·K)
Water absorption (ASTM) 0.03–0.1
Decomposition X years, still decaying

Polystyrene IPA: /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/ (IUPAC Polyphenylethene) is an aromatic polymer made from the aromatic monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. Polystyrene is a thermoplastic substance, normally existing in solid state at room temperature, but melting if heated (for molding or extrusion), and becoming solid again when cooling off. Look up polystyrene in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... The siemens (symbol: S) is the SI derived unit of electric conductance. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... K value redirects here. ... K value redirects here. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... mega- (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... mega- (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Notch can refer to: a mountain pass Notch signaling This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... The heat transfer coefficient is used as a fudge factor in calculating heat transfer in thermodynamics. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Absorption, in chemistry, is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... C8H8 redirects here. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Petro redirects here. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ...


Pure solid polystyrene is a colorless, hard plastic with limited flexibility. It can be cast into molds with fine detail. Polystyrene can be transparent or can be made to take on various colours. It is economical and is used for producing plastic model assembly kits, license plate frames, plastic cutlery, CD "jewel" cases, and many other objects where a fairly rigid, economical plastic is desired. Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... 4-year-old boy starts painting a plastic model he has assembled of the South Goodwin Lightship Plastic models, often called scale models, are models manufactured as kits which are assembled by hobbyists, and intended for static display. ... CD and DVD packaging is the packaging that accompanies commercial CDs and DVDs. ...

Contents

History

Polystyrene was discovered in 1839 by Eduard Simon,[3] an apothecary in Berlin. From storax, the resin of Liquidambar orientalis, he distilled an oily substance, a monomer which he named styrol. Several days later Simon found that the styrol had thickened, presumably from oxidation, into a jelly he dubbed styrol oxide ("Styroloxyd"). By 1845 English chemist John Blyth and German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann showed that the same transformation of styrol took place in the absence of oxygen. They called their substance metastyrol. Analysis later showed that it was chemically identical to Styroloxyd. In 1866 Marcelin Berthelot correctly identified the formation of metastyrol from styrol as a polymerization process. About 80 years went by before it was realized that heating of styrol starts a chain reaction which produces macromolecules, following the thesis of German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881–1965). This eventually led to the substance receiving its present name, polystyrene. The I. G. Farben company began manufacturing polystyrene in Ludwigshafen, Germany, about 1931, hoping it would be a suitable replacement for die cast zinc in many applications. Success was achieved when they developed a reactor vessel that extruded polystyrene through a heated tube and cutter, producing polystyrene in pellet form. Polystyrene is about as strong as unalloyed aluminium, but much more flexible. Eduard Simon was an apothecary in Berlin, Germany who accidentally discovered Polystyrene in 1839. ... Storax is the resinous exudate of the Sweetgum, occasionally used in incense or as an aromatic fixative in perfumery. ... Species Liquidambar formosana Liquidambar orientalis Liquidambar styraciflua The sweetgums Liquidambar are a genus in the witch-hazel family Hamamelidaceae, with three species of large deciduous trees, 25-40m tall, with palmately lobed leaves: Liquidambar formosana - Chinese Sweetgum (central & southern China, Taiwan). ... John Blyth (or John Blythe) was a medieval Bishop of Salisbury. ... August Wilhelm von Hofmann (April 8, 1818 _ May 5, 1892) was a German chemist. ... Marcellin Berthelot Marcellin Pierre Eugène Berthelot (October 29, 1827 - March 18, 1907) was a French chemist and politician. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... Hermann Staudinger (March 23, 1881 in Worms- Sept. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Ludwigshafen am Rhein Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, with about 166,000 inhabitants. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


Structure

The chemical makeup of polystyrene is a long chain hydrocarbon with every other carbon connected to a Phenyl group (the name given to the aromatic ring benzene, when bonded to complex carbon substituents). The structure of the phenyl group In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic ring structure. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ...

A 3-D model would show that each of the chiral backbone carbons lies at the center of a tetrahedron, with its 4 bonds pointing toward the vertices. Say the -C-C- bonds are rotated so that the backbone chain lies entirely in the plane of the diagram. From this flat schematic, it is not evident which of the phenyl (benzene) groups are angled toward us from the plane of the diagram, and which ones are angled away. The isomer where all of them are on the same side is called isotactic polystyrene, which is not produced commercially. Ordinary atactic polystyrene has these large phenyl groups randomly distributed on both sides of the chain. This random positioning prevents the chains from ever aligning with sufficient regularity to achieve any crystallinity, so the plastic has no melting temperature, Tm. But metallocene-catalyzed polymerization can produce an ordered syndiotactic polystyrene with the phenyl groups on alternating sides. This form is highly crystalline with a Tm of 270 °C. Image File history File links Polystyrene_formation. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... For the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal). ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 Picture where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic manner. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... Random redirects here. ... Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid. ... The dissociation of a double-stranded DNA molecule is often referred to as melting because it occurs quickly once a certain temperature has been reached. ... In chemistry, and in particular, in organometallic chemistry, a metallocene is a compound consisting of an aromatic organic ligand bound to a metal. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ...



Solid foam

Expanded polysterene tray with tomato seedlings
Expanded polystyrene packaging material

Polystyrene's most common use is as expanded polystyrene (EPS). Expanded polystyrene is produced from a mixture of about 90-95% polystyrene and 5-10% gaseous blowing agent, most commonly pentane or carbon dioxide[4]. The solid plastic is expanded into a foam through the use of heat, usually steam. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 107 KB)Example of tray used in horticulture: expanded polysterene tray with tomato seedlings Image created by Aris Papachristou, June 15, 2004. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 107 KB)Example of tray used in horticulture: expanded polysterene tray with tomato seedlings Image created by Aris Papachristou, June 15, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1303x1176, 168 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1303x1176, 168 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liquid into a foam. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Extruded polystyrene (XPS), which is different from expanded polystyrene (EPS), is commonly known by the trade name Styrofoam. The voids filled with trapped air give it low thermal conductivity. This makes it ideal as a construction material and it is therefore sometimes used in structural insulated panel building systems. It is also used as insulation in building structures, as molded packing material for cushioning fragile equipment inside boxes, as packing "peanuts", as non-weight-bearing architectural structures (such as pillars), and also in crafts and model building, particularly architectural models. Foamed between two sheets of paper, it makes a more-uniform substitute for corrugated cardboard, tradenamed Foamcore. A more unexpected use for the material is as a lightweight fill for embankments in the civil engineering industry [5]. Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... K value redirects here. ... Structural insulated panels (or structural insulating panels), SIPs, are a composite building material. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... Foam peanuts Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, are a common loose-fill packing material which is also used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Part of the one-tenth scale model of Bourton-on-the-Water at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A scale model of the Singapore City Centre. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Cardboard (called corrugated paper in the industry) is a heavy wood-based type of paper, notable for its stiffness and durability. ... Foamcore is a strong lightweight, easily cut material useful for backing, mounting photographic prints, framing, 3D design and painting. ...


Expanded polystyrene used to contain CFCs, but other, more environmentally-safe blowing agents are now used. Because it is an aromatic hydrocarbon, it burns with an orange-yellow flame, giving off soot, as opposed to non-aromatic hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene, which burn with a light yellow flame (often with a blue tinge) and no soot. For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Production methods include sheet stamping (PS) and injection molding (both PS and HIPS). Injection molding (British variant spelling: moulding) is a manufacturing technique for making parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials in production. ...


The density of expanded polystyrene varies greatly from around 25 kg/m³ to 200 kg/m³ depending on how much gas was admixed to create the foam. A density of 200 kg/m³ is typical for the expanded polystyrene used in surfboards.[6] A stack of boards in Waikiki during a surf competition lalalala yeshhhh Surfboards are long, buoyant decks used in the sport of surfing. ...


Standard markings

The resin identification code symbol for polystyrene, developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry so that items can be labeled for easy recycling, is . However, the majority of polystyrene products are currently not recycled because of a lack of suitable recycling facilities. Furthermore, when it is "recycled," it is not a closed loop — polystyrene cups and other packaging materials are usually recycled into fillers in other plastics, or other items that cannot themselves be recycled and are thrown away. Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... The Society of the Plastics Industry developed symbols for plastics so that they could be recycled easier. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-6-PS.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Copolymers

Structure of expanded polystyrene (microscope)

Pure polystyrene is brittle, but hard enough that a fairly high-performance product can be made by giving it some of the properties of a stretchier material, such as polybutadiene rubber. The two such materials can never normally be mixed because of the amplified effect of intermolecular forces on polymer insolubility (see plastic recycling), but if polybutadiene is added during polymerization it can become chemically bonded to the polystyrene, forming a graft copolymer which helps to incorporate normal polybutadiene into the final mix, resulting in high-impact polystyrene or HIPS, often called "high-impact plastic" in advertisements. One commercial name for HIPS is Bextrene. Common applications include use in toys and product casings. HIPS is usually injection molded in production. Autoclaving polystyrene can compress and harden the material. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 652 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2133 × 1960 pixel, file size: 587 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 652 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2133 × 1960 pixel, file size: 587 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber that has a high resistance to wear and is used especially in the manufacture of tires. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... A graft copolymer has polymer chains of one kind growing out of the sides of polymer chains with a different chemical composition. ... Injection moulding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from thermoplastic material in production. ...


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or ABS plastic is similar to HIPS: a copolymer of acrylonitrile and styrene, toughened with polybutadiene. Most electronics cases are made of this form of polystyrene, as are many sewer pipes. ABS pipes may become brittle over time. SAN is a copolymer of styrene with acrylonitrile and SMA one with maleic anhydride. Monomers in ABS polymer ABS plastic pipes in use in a wet basement of a paper mill, in Sault Ste. ... Styrene-acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile. ... Acrylonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN. This pungent-smelling colorless liquid often appears yellow due to impurities. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 102 °C RTECS number UE5950000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Styrene can be copolymerized with other monomers; for example, divinylbenzene for cross-linking the polystyrene chains. Divinylbenzene, systematically known as 1,3-diethenylbenzene, consists of a benzene ring bonded to two vinyl groups. ...


Cutting and shaping

Expanded polystyrene

Expanded polystyrene is very easily cut with a hot-wire foam cutter, which is easily made by a heated taut length of wire, usually nichrome because of nichrome's resistance to oxidation at high temperatures and its suitable electrical conductivity. The hot wire foam cutter works by heating the wire to the point where it can vaporize foam immediately adjacent to it. The foam gets vaporized before actually touching the heated wire, which yields exceptionally smooth cuts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1489x1117, 347 KB) e File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polystyrene Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1489x1117, 347 KB) e File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polystyrene Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A hot-wire foam cutter is a tool used to cut polystyrene foam and similar materials. ... Nichrome is a brand name for a nickel-chromium resistance wire, a non-magnetic alloy of nickel and chromium. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ...


Polystyrene, shaped and cut with hot wire foam cutters, is used in architecture models, actual signage, amusement parks, movie sets, airplane construction, and much more. Such cutters may cost just a few dollars (for a completely manual cutter) to tens of thousands of dollars for large CNC machines that can be used in high-volume industrial production. For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ...


Polystyrene can also be cut with a traditional cutter. In order to do this without ruining the sides of the blade one must first dip the blade in water and cut with the blade at an angle of about 30º. The procedure has to be repeated multiple times for best results.


Polystyrene can also be cut on 3 and 5-axis routers, enabling large-scale prototyping and model-making. Special polystyrene cutters are available that look more like large cylindrical rasps.


Use in biology

Petri dishes and other containers such as test tubes, made of polystyrene, play an important role in biomedical research and science. For these uses, articles are almost always made by injection molding, and often sterilized post molding, either by irradiation or treatment with ethylene oxide. Post mold surface modification, usually with oxygen rich plasmas, is often done to introduce polar groups. Much of modern biomedical research relies on the use of such products; they therefore play a critical role in pharmaceutical research. Injection molding (British variant spelling: moulding) is a manufacturing technique for making parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials in production. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ...


Finishing

In the United States, environmental protection regulations prohibit the use of solvents on polystyrene (which would dissolve the polystyrene and de-foam most of foams anyway).


Some acceptable finishing materials are

  • Water-based paint (artists have created paintings on polystyrene with gouache)
  • Mortar or acrylic/cement render, often used in the building industry as a weather-hard overcoat that hides the foam completely after finishing the objects.
  • Cotton wool or other fabrics used in conjunction with a stapling implement.

For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Corridor in the Asylum, black chalk and gouache on pink paper by Van Gogh Gouache (from the Italian guazzo, water paint, splash) or Bodycolour (or Bodycolor, the terms preferred by Art historians) is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ...

Dangers and fire hazard

Benzene, a material used in the production of polystyrene, is a known human carcinogen. Moreover, butadiene and styrene (in ABS), when combined, become benzene-like in both form and function.[citation needed] Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ...


The EPA claims EPA redirects here. ...

"Styrene is primarily used in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. Acute (short-term) exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and eye irritation, and gastrointestinal effects. Chronic (long-term) exposure to styrene in humans results in effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as headache, fatigue, weakness, and depression, CSN dysfunction, hearing loss, and peripheral neuropathy. Human studies are inconclusive on the reproductive and developmental effects of styrene; several studies did not report an increase in developmental effects in women who worked in the plastics industry, while an increased frequency of spontaneous abortions and decreased frequency of births were reported in another study. Several epidemiologic studies suggest there may be an association between styrene exposure and an increased risk of leukemia and lymphoma. However, the evidence is inconclusive due to confounding factors. EPA has not given a formal carcinogen classification to styrene."

[7]


Polystyrene is classified according to DIN4102 as a "B3" product, meaning highly flammable or "easily ignited". Consequently, though it is an efficient insulator at low temperatures, it is prohibited from being used in any exposed installations in building construction as long the material is not flame retarded e.g. with hexabromocyclododecane. It must be concealed behind drywall, sheet metal or concrete. Foamed plastic materials have been accidentally ignited and caused huge fires and losses. Examples include the Düsseldorf International Airport, the Channel tunnel, where it was inside a railcar and caught on fire, and the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, where fire reached through a fire retardant, reached the foamed plastic underneath, inside a firestop that had not been tested and certified in accordance with the final installation. Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... Socks made from flame retardant cotton. ... Structure of HBCD Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant. ... For the musical group Drywall, see Drywall (musical project) Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. ... This article is about the construction material. ... LTU Airbus A330-200 aircraft at DUS Düsseldorf International Airport (German: ) (IATA: DUS, ICAO: EDDL), is the third largest airport in Germany with 16. ... The Channel Tunnel (French: ), also known as Chunnel or Eurotunnel, is a 50. ... The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant is located on the Tennessee River near Athens, Alabama. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ...


In addition to fire hazard, substances that contain acetone (such as most aerosol paint sprays), and cyanoacrylate glues can dissolve polystyrene. For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... A tube of Super glue Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for substances such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate, which is typically sold under trademarks like Superglue and Krazy Glue, and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, which are used in medical glues such as Dermabond and Traumaseal. ...


Environmental concerns and bans

Expanded polystyrene is not easily recyclable because of its light weight and low scrap value. It is generally not accepted in curbside programs. Expanded polystyrene foam takes 900 years to decompose in the environment and has been documented to cause starvation in birds and other marine wildlife[citation needed]. According to the California Coastal Commission, it is a principal component of marine debris. A CIWMB (California Integrated Waste Management Board) Report finds that “in the categories of energy consumption, greenhouse gas effect, and total environmental effect, EPS’s environmental impacts were second highest, behind aluminum.”[8] Restricting the use of foamed polystyrene takeout food packaging is a priority of many solid waste environmentalist organizations, like Californians Against Waste.[9] The international symbol for recycling. ... Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, with a population of about 375,000, has one of the most complex kerbside collection programs in North America. ... The California Coastal Commission is a state agency in the U.S. state of California with quasi-judicial regulatory influence over land use and public access in the California coastal zone. ... A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Californians Against Waste is an American environmental advocacy organization that takes action against on local, state and national levels to conserve natural resources and prevent pollution through the expansion of a recycling economy. ...


The city of Berkeley, California was one of the first cities in the world to ban polystyrene food packaging (called Styrofoam in the media announcements).[10][11] It was also banned in Portland, OR, and Suffolk County, NY in 1990.[12] Now, over 20 US cities have banned polystyrene food packaging, including Oakland, CA on Jan 1st 2007.[13] San Francisco introduced a ban on the packaging on June 1st 2007:[14] Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Mayor Tom Potter County Multnomah County Population (2003) 538,544 Time zone Pacific (UTC−8) Portland is the largest city in Oregon, and county seat of Multnomah County. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Aerial view looking west over downtown Oakland, Lake Merritt and the Port of Oakland in the upper left portion of the image. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

"This is a long time coming," Peskin said Monday. "Polystyrene foam products rely on nonrenewable sources for production, are nearly indestructible and leave a legacy of pollution on our urban and natural environments. If McDonald's could see the light and phase out polystyrene foam more than a decade ago, it's about time San Francisco got with the program." Board of Supervisors President, Aaron Peskin[15] McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ...

The overall benefits of the ban in Portland have been questioned [16], as have the general environmental concepts of the use of paper versus polystyrene.[17] Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


A campaign to achieve the first ban of polystyrene foam from the food & beverage industry in Canada has been launched in Toronto as of January 2007, by local non-profit organization NaturoPack.[18]


Other cities that have banned expanded polystyrene include Portland, Oakland, and Santa Monica. Both the California and New York legislatures are currently considering bills which would effectively ban expanded polystyrene in all takeout food packaging state-wide.[19]. Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in Los Angeles County, California USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ...


Explosives

Polystyrene is used in some polymer-bonded explosives: A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which particles of explosive are set into a matrix of a synthetic polymer (plastic). Polymer-bonded explosives have several potential advantages: If the polymer matrix is an elastomer (rubbery material), it tends to absorb...

Some Polystyrene PBX Examples
Name Explosive Ingredients Binder Ingredients Usage
PBX-9205 RDX 92% Polystyrene 6%; DOP 2%
PBX-9007 RDX 90% Polystyrene 9.1%; DOP 0.5%; resin 0.4%

It is also a component of Napalm and a component of most designs of hydrogen bombs. RDX redirects here. ... RDX redirects here. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ...


Cleaning

Polystyrene can be dishwashed at 70 °C without deformation since it has a glass transition temperature of 95 °C A Dishwasher A two drawer DishDrawer dishwasher. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ...


See also

Structural insulated panels (or structural insulating panels), SIPs, are a composite building material. ... ThermaSAVE is a panel building system using 4- to 12-inch-thick core of expanded polystyrene (similiar to styrofoam) sandwiched between two stress skinned half-inch sheets of cement. ... Greatpac Sdn. ...

References

  1. ^ International Labour Organisation chemical safety card for polystyrene
  2. ^ A.K. van der Vegt & L.E. Govaert, Polymeren, van keten tot kunstof, ISBN 90-407-2388-5
  3. ^ The history of plastics
  4. ^ process plastics Moulding Expanded Polystyrene
  5. ^ Expanded polystyrene civil engineering products for roads, bridges and culverts: Vencel Resil
  6. ^ Jed Norton. Blue Foam, Pink Foam and Foam Board. Antenociti's Workshop. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  7. ^ Styrene | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPA
  8. ^ CIWMB Report
  9. ^ "Business Gives Styrofoam a Rare Redemption.", Stockton Record, 21 September 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
  10. ^ The Berkeley Daily Planet
  11. ^ Styrofoam food packaging banned in Oakland
  12. ^ Californians Against Waste website
  13. ^ San Francisco Chronical article, June 28, 2006
  14. ^ San Francisco Chronical article, November 7, 2006
  15. ^ San Francisco Chronical Article, June 27, 2006
  16. ^ Eckhardt, Angela (November, 1998). Paper Waste: Why Portland's Ban on Polystyrene Foam Products Has Been a Costly Failure. Cascade Policy Institute. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  17. ^ Thomas, Robert A. (March 8, 2005). Where Might We Look for Environmental Heroes?. Center for Environmental Communications, Loyola University, New Orleans. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  18. ^ Naturopack Campaign Page
  19. ^ AB 904

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Polystyrene (117 words)
As a global leader in polystyrene in the injection molding, extrusion and thermoforming markets, The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) offers a range of STYRON™ resins and STYRON A-TECH™ Advanced Technology Polystyrene Resins designed to provide versatile, viable solutions to customers across a variety of applications.
You can select from a variety of general purpose, high impact and ignition resistant polystyrene resins to meet your needs for performance, economics and aesthetics across applications, including appliances, packaging, consumer electronics, building and construction, and health and hygiene.
Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated company of Dow
Polystyrene - Online Machine Shop - Polystyrene Parts (196 words)
Polystyrene resin was discovered in 1845 and it is being used extensively for packaging of food items, toys, automotive parts and building insulation.
Food and protective packaging: As polystyrene is shock resistant, non toxic and odorless and immune to bacteria and insects, it is used for fresh food packaging and transportation applications.
Polystyrene is used for protective packaging such as industrial, pharmaceutical and retail applications as it has excellent cushioning properties and heat resistant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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