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Encyclopedia > Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. Glycans are polysaccharides. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic links. They are therefore very large, often branched, molecules. They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in water, and have no sweet taste. Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ...


When all the constituent monosaccharides are of the same type they are termed homopolysaccharides; when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are termed heteropolysaccharides.


Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Starch(CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... Structure of chitin molecule Chitin (IPA: ) is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods, and in some other animals. ...


Polysaccharides have a general formula of Cn(H2O)n-1 where n is usually a large number between 200 and 2500. The general formula can also be represented as (C6H10O5)n where n=100-3000.

Contents

Starches

Starches are glucose polymers in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is made up of a mixture of Amylose and Amylopectin. Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made of several thousand glucose units.
Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested by hydrolysis catalyzed by enzymes called amylases, which can break the alpha-linkages. Humans and other animals have amylases, so they can digest starches. Potato, rice, wheat, and maize are major sources of starch in the human diet. Starch(CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Insoluble Not soluble ... Water is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild species... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ...


Glycogen

Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals. It is a branched polymer of glucose. Glycogen can be broken down to form substrates for respiration, through the process of glycogenolysis. This involves the breaking of most of the C-O-C bonds between the glucose molecules by the addition of a phosphate, rather than a water as in hydrolysis. This process yields phosphorylated glucose molecules, which can be metabolized with a saving of one ATP. Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Phyla Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann,[1] is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...


Cellulose

The structural components of plants are formed primarily from cellulose. Wood is largely cellulose and lignin, while paper and cotton are nearly pure cellulose. Cellulose is a polymer made with repeated glucose units bonded together by beta-linkages. Humans and many other animals lack an enzyme to break the beta-linkages, so they do not digest cellulose. Certain animals can digest cellulose, because bacteria possessing the enzyme are present in their gut. The classic example is the termite. Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... Lignin is a chemical compound that is an integral part of the cell walls of some cells, e. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a large degree by fiber entanglement. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of eusocial insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order, Isoptera. ...


Acidic polysaccharides

Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or sulfuric ester groups. In chemistry, a carboxyl group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl (-OH) group, typically written as -COOH: where R is a hydrogen or an organic group. ...


Bacterial Capsule Polysaccharides

Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby lead to the destruction of the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharides are water soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-1000 kDa. They are linear and consist of regularly repeating subunits of one ~ six monosaccharides. There is enormous structural diversity; nearly two hundred different polysaccharides are produced by E. coli alone. Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as vaccines. The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a carrier protein, thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen. ...


Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides as an evolutionary adaptation to help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. Humans have developed some of these polysaccharides into useful products, including xanthan gum, dextran, gellan gum, and pullulan. Xanthan gum is a natural gum polysaccharide used as a food additive and rheology modifier. ... Dextran is a complex branched polysaccharide made of many glucose molecules joined into chains of varying lengths. ... Pullulan is a polysaccharide polymer consisting of maltotriose units, also known as α-1,4- ;α-1,6-glucan. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Polysaccharide structure (877 words)
Regular ordered polysaccharides, in general, are capable of assuming only a limited number of conformations due to severe steric restrictions on the freedom of rotation of sugar units about the interunit glycosidic bonds.
The degree of stiffness and regularity of polysaccharide chains is likely to affect the rate and extent of their fermentation.
Polysaccharides are more hydrophobic if they have a greater number of internal hydrogen bonds, and as their hydrophobicity increases there is less direct interaction with water.
Polysaccharide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (515 words)
Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates.
Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or sulfuric ester groups.
Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as vaccines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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