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Encyclopedia > Polyphenol antioxidants
Molecular structure of flavone, a common polyphenol antioxidant
Molecular structure of flavone, a common polyphenol antioxidant

A polyphenol antioxidant is a member of a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role in down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . In human health these compounds, numbering over 4000 distinct species, are thought to be instrumental in combating oxidative stress, a syndrome causative of some neurodegenerative diseases and some cardiovascular diseases. Molecular structure of flavone. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Orders The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands, which in females produce milk for the nourishment of young; the presence of hair or fur; and endothermic or warm-blooded bodies. ... Health can be defined negatively, as the absence of illness, functionally as the ability to cope with everyday activities, or positively, as fitness and well-being (Blaxter 1990). ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ... Neurodegenerative disease is a condition which affects the brain function. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coronary heart disease. ...

Blackberries are sources of polyphenol antioxidants
Blackberries are sources of polyphenol antioxidants

The main source of polyphenol antioxidants is nutritional, since they are found in a wide array of phytonutrient-bearing foods. For example, most legumes; fruits such as apples, blackberries, cantaloupe, cranberries, grapes, pears, plums, raspberries, and strawberries; and vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, celery, onion and parsley are rich in polyphenol antioxidants. Red wine, chocolate, green tea, olive oil, bee pollen and many grains are alternative sources. The principal benefit of ingestion of antioxidants seems to be the consumption of a wide array of phytonutrients at the same time, and the role of dietary supplements as a method of enhancing health is the subject of considerable discussion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x841, 267 KB)Blackberry fruits Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x841, 267 KB)Blackberry fruits Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... BlackBerry 7100t The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, web browsing and other wireless information services. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume Pea pods The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants, whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... Binomial name Malus domestica Borkh. ... BlackBerry 7100t The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, web browsing and other wireless information services. ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Naudin. ... Species Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium microcarpum Vaccinium oxycoccus The cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs in the genus Vaccinium subgenus Oxycoccus, or in some treatments, in the distinct genus Oxycoccus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Species About 30 species, including: Pyrus amygdaliformis Pyrus austriaca Pyrus balansae Pyrus betulifolia Pyrus bourgaeana Pyrus bretschneideri Pyrus calleryana Pyrus caucasica Pyrus communis Pyrus cordata Pyrus cossonii Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pyrus fauriei Pyrus kawakamii Pyrus korshinskyi Pyrus lindleyi Pyrus nivalis Pyrus pashia Pyrus persica Pyrus phaeocarpa Pyrus pyraster Pyrus pyrifolia Pyrus... Species See text. ... Binomial name Rubus idaeus L. The Raspberry or Red Raspberry, (Rubus idaeus) is a plant that produces a tart, sweet, red composite fruit in late summer or early autumn. ... Species 20+ species; see text The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. ... Vegetables in a market Venn diagram representing the relationship between (botanical) fruits and vegetables. ... Broccoliis a known giver of AIDS. Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Coronary artery bypass surgery is sometimes pronounced Cabbage(s). See also Cabbage car. ... Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Celery (Apium graveolens dulce) is a herbaceous biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the coasts of western and northern Europe, most commonly in ditches and saltmarshes. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the Genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ... Species Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green, biennial herb that is very common in Middle Eastern, European, and American cooking. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... A bottle of olive oil. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomea purpurea),hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose(Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...

Contents


Biochemical regulation

The regulation chemistry consists of a polyphenol antioxidant’s ability to scavenge free radicals and up-regulate certain metal chelation reactions. That is to say various reactive oxygen species must be continually removed from cells to create healthy metabolic function. Some specific free radicals affected are the reactive oxygen species singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide. Diminishing the concentrations of reactive oxygen species can have several benefits. Since reactive oxygen species are linked to mobilization of ion transport systems, they are known to have roles in oxidative signalling. In particular, platelets involved in wound repair and blood homeostasis can release reactive oxygen species to recruit platelets to sites of injury. These also provide a link to the adaptive immune system via the recruitment of leukocytes. When polyphenol down-regulate reactive oxygen species formation, they also contribute to improved endothelial health through anti-inflammatory action. Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw) is the process of reversible binding of a ligand, the chelant, chelator or chelating agent, to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Molecular Orbital diagram for singlet oxygen. ... Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent,which damages DNA, proteins and other cellular structures. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Superficial bullet wounds A wound is type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ...


Biological consequences

A macrophage stretching its arms to engulf two particles. Reactive oxygen species promote oxidized LDL and polyphenol antioxidants combat this inflammatory response.
A macrophage stretching its arms to engulf two particles. Reactive oxygen species promote oxidized LDL and polyphenol antioxidants combat this inflammatory response.

Occurence of an abundance of polyphenol antioxidants is associated with several salutory effects in higher animal species: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 279 KB) Summary A macrophage of a mouse stretching itself to eat two smaller particles, possibly pathogens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 279 KB) Summary A macrophage of a mouse stretching itself to eat two smaller particles, possibly pathogens. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... woooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooot! - Howard Dean ...

  • More generally the tea polyphenol (medically known as TP) antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate, has been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in vivo.[4] Reactive oxygen species are important markers for inflammatory diseases.
  • Some polyphenol antioxidants, such as reservatol, inhibit occurrence and/or growth of mammalian tumors.[5]
  • A variety of other beneficial health effects have been attributed to consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic antioxidants. Among these salutary effects discussed are anti-aging consequences such as slowing the process of skin wrinkling.[6] For some of the side-benefits (such as prevention of peripheral artery disease), further research is continuing to clarify the role polyphenol antioxidants may have.[7][8]

Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... Gallic acid is an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. ... Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance found in the skins of certain red grapes, the roots of Japanese knotweed (Hu Zhang in China) and Giant knotweed, peanuts, blueberries, some pines (Scots pine, Eastern white pine). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... In medicine (vascular surgery), Peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) is a collator for all disease caused by the obstruction of large peripheral arteries, which can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. ...

Difficulty in analyzing effects of specific chemicals

Grapes contain certain polyphenol antioxidant compounds.
Grapes contain certain polyphenol antioxidant compounds.

It is inherently difficult to evaluate the medical effects of specific polyphenolic antioxidants, since such a large number of individual compounds may occur even in a single food. For example, over sixty different chemically distinct flavonoids are known to occur in a given red wine. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted to attempt to arrive at one consistent index for food antioxidant power. Since it has been proved that the dietary intake of compounds having antioxidant activity is medically important, various chemical, biological, and electrochemical methods have been proposed to evaluate the antioxidant power of compounds such as polyphenols. Wine, although nonessential, has a high polyphenol content up to two to three grams per liter in red wines obtained by traditional maceration. The polyphenol content of wines is usually evaluated by the Folin reagent, which provides an appropriate response to the requirements of wine manufacturers. Statistical least squares analysis has been conducted to demonstrate the Folin method correlates well with alternative chemical and biological procedures for determining antioxidant potential.[9] Therefore, there is some reason to believe more universally accepted protocols may be forthcoming to permit quantitative evaluation of antioxidant strength of polyphenol antioxidant compounds. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 260 KB) Close up of grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Grape User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 260 KB) Close up of grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Grape User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the beverage. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... Maceration is a process which takes place during the fermentation of wine. ... When purchasing or preparing chemicals, reagent describes chemical substances of sufficient purity for use in chemical analysis, chemical reactions or physical testing. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Least squares is a mathematical optimization technique which, when given a series of measured data, attempts to find a function which closely approximates the data (a best fit). It attempts to minimize the sum of the squares of the ordinate differences (called residuals) between points generated by the function and...


Other more detailed chemical reseach has been conducted elucidating the difficulty of isolating individual polyphnolic antioxidants. Fajardo-Lirai et al. have demonstrated that significant variation in polyphenol content among various brands of tea can explain[10] the inconsistency in previous epidemiological studies that have tried to correlate beneficial health effects of polyphenol antioxidants using specific green tea blends. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test is a possible emerging standard by which science measures antioxidant power in foods and dietary supplements Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A prescribed dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients (usually vitamins or minerals) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Practical aspects of dietary polyphenol antioxidants

Chocolate is the source of some polyphenol antioxidants, even though type and dosage are under study.
Chocolate is the source of some polyphenol antioxidants, even though type and dosage are under study.

There is debate regarding the total body absorption of dietary intake of polyphenolic compounds. While indivual studies seem to demonstrate the favourable health effects of certain specific polyphenols, more research is needed to understand the interactions between a variety of these chemicals acting in concert within the human body. In particular there is evidence that some combinations of foods may inhibit full bloodstream uptake of certain polyphenol antioxidants; refined sugars, for example, have been shown to impede this uptake under certain circumstances.[11] Furthermore caution should be exercised in attempting diets depending largely on dietary supplements as opposed to a broad array of food sources, since the quality and concentrations of beneficial chemicals in some commercial products is subject to question, given lack of FDA regulation. Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


Topical application of polyphenol antioxidants

There is some data that reactive oxygen species play a role in the process of aging. The skin is exposed to various exogenous sources of oxidative stress, including ultraviolet radiation. These spectral components are generally viewed as responsible for the extrinsic type of skin aging, sometimes termed photo-aging. It has been shown not only that increased levels of protective low molecular weight antioxidants through a diet rich in phytochemicals, but also by direct topical dermal application[12] have proved that a few low molecular weight antioxidants, notably vitamins C and E, ascorbate and tocopherol, as well as lipoic acid, exert protective effects against oxidative stress. However, controlled long-term studies on the efficacy of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of skin aging in humans is lacking. Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health. ... Ascorbic acid is an organic acid with antioxidant properties. ... Lipoic acid or α-lipoic acid has formula C8H14S2O2 and systematic name 5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid. ... A close-up of human skin. ...


References

  1. ^ M.F. Muldoon and S.B. Kritchevsky, Flavonoids and heart disease. Brit Med J 312:458-459 (1996)
  2. ^ John P. Cooke, The Cardiovascular Cure, Random House Inc., New York (2002) ISBN 0-7679-0881-3
  3. ^ Serafini M, Laranjinha JA, Almeida LM, Maiani G, Inhibition of human LDL lipid peroxidation by phenol-rich beverages and their impact on plasma total antioxidant capacity in humans, J Nutr Biochem 2000 Nov;11(11-12):585-590
  4. ^ Yuying Mei, Dongzhi We and Jianwen Liu, Reversal of Multidrug Resistance in KB Cells with Tea Polyphenol Antioxidant Capacity, Journal of Cancer Biology and Therapy, Vol: 4 | Issue: 4 | april 2005 | pgs: 468-473
  5. ^ M. Jang, L. Cai, G.O. Dean, K.V. Slowing, C.F. Thomas, C.W.W. Beecher , H.H.S. Fong, N.R, Farnsworth, A.D. Kinghorn, R.G. Mehta, R.C. Moon and J.M. Pezzuto, Cancer chemopreventive activity of reseveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes Science 275:218-220 (1997)
  6. ^ Vieira O, Escargueil-Blanc I, Meilhac O, Basile JP, Laranjinha J, Almeida L, Salvayre R, Negre-Salvayre, A Effect of dietary phenolic compounds on apoptosis of human cultured endothelial cells induced by oxidized LDL; Br J Pharmacol 1998 Feb; 123(3): 565-73
  7. ^ Owen RW, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Haubner R, Spiegelhalder B, Barstch H, The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil, Eur J Cancer 2000 Jun;36(10):1235-47
  8. ^ Fito M, Covas MI, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Vila J, Torrents L, de la Torre C, Marrugat, Protective effect of olive oil and its phenolic compounds against low density lipoprotein oxidation, J; Lipids 2000 Jun; 35(6): 633-8
  9. ^ Oreste V. Brenna and Ella Pagliarini, Department of Food Science and Microbiology, University of Milan, Italy Multivariate Analysis of Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition in Red Wines, American Chemical Society, July 5, 2001
  10. ^ C. Fajardo-Lirai, S. M. Henning, H. W. Lee, V. L. W. Go, and D. Heber,. Department Family Environmental Sciences/Nutrition, Dietetics & Food Science, California State University,, Northridge and, UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, Session 46C, 2002 Annual meeting of Food Expo, Anaheim, Ca
  11. ^ Lotito SB, Frei B., Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Or, Relevance of apple polyphenols as antioxidants in human plasma: contrasting in vitro and in vivo effects Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Jan 15;36(2):201-11
  12. ^ Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001 Oct;26(7):578-82 There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in the process of aging. The skin, as the outermost barrier of the body, is exposed to various exogenous sources of oxidative stress, in particular UV-irradiation. These are believed to be responsible for the extrinsic type of skin aging, termed photo-aging. It therefore seems possible to increase levels of protective low molecular may produce anti-aging effects on human skin. Indeed, various in vitro and animal studies<ref>Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001 Oct;26(7):578-82</li></ol></ref>

Look up plasma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... Polyphenols are a group of plant chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ...

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