FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Polynesian languages
Polynesian
Geographic
distribution:
Polynesia
Genetic
classification
:
Austronesian
 Malayo-Polynesian (MP)
  Nuclear MP
   Central-Eastern MP
    Eastern MP
     Oceanic
      Central-Eastern
       Central Pacific
        East Fijian-Polynesian
         Polynesian
Subdivisions:

The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. They are classified as part of the Austronesian family, belonging to the Eastern Eastern Malayo-Polynesian branch of that family. They fall into two branches: Tongic and Nuclear Polynesian. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a branch of the Austronesian family that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi. ... The family of Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages is a subgroup of the Malayo-Polynesian languages. ... The family of Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages is a subgroup of the Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages. ... The Oceanic languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, containing approximately 450 languages. ... The family of Central-Eastern Oceanic languages is a subgroup of the Oceanic languages. ... The family of Central Pacific languages is a subgroup of the Remote Oceanic languages. ... The family of East Fijian-Polynesian languages is a subgroup of the Central Pacific languages. ... Tongic is a subgroup of the Polynesian languages. ... Nuclear Polynesian refers to those languages comprising the Samoic the Eastern Polynesian branches of the Polynesian group of Austronesian languages. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The family of Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages is a subgroup of the Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages. ... Tongic is a subgroup of the Polynesian languages. ... Nuclear Polynesian refers to those languages comprising the Samoic the Eastern Polynesian branches of the Polynesian group of Austronesian languages. ...


There are approximately forty Polynesian languages. The most prominent of these are Tahitian, Samoan, Tongan, Māori, and Hawaiian. Because the Polynesian islands were settled relatively recently and because internal linguistic diversification only began around 2,000 years ago, their languages retain strong commonalities. There are two broad subgroups: Tongan and Niuean constitute the Tongic division and all others are considered part of the Nuclear Polynesian division. Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...

Contents

Components

The major subgroups of the Polynesian languages

Recent research indicates that the traditional classification, with its Samoic Outlier proposal, is not justified by shared innovations in the Polynesian languages. The classification used here is that of Marck [1], which is based on a study of sporadic sound changes in the various languages. Image File history File links PPnMajorGroups. ... Image File history File links PPnMajorGroups. ... The Samoic languages are one of the primary classes of Polynesian languages, encompassing the Polynesian languages of Samoa, Tuvalu, American Samoa, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, as well as a number of languages, spoken in parts of Tonga, the Cook Islands, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, and...

Tongic is a subgroup of the Polynesian languages. ... The Niuean language or Niue language (Niuean: ko e vagahau NiuÄ“) is a Polynesian language, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages. ... Niuafoouan is the language spoken on Tongas northernmost island Niuafoou. ... Nuclear Polynesian refers to those languages comprising the Samoic the Eastern Polynesian branches of the Polynesian group of Austronesian languages. ... Uvean (Fakauvea in the vernacular) is the Polynesian language spoken on Uvea (also known Wallis Island), and it was therefore known as Wallisian in colonial times. ... Uvean (Faga Uvea or Faga Ouvéa or just Fagauvea in the vernacular) is the Polynesian language spoken on the Polynesian outlier island of Ouvéa, near New Caledonia. ... Ouvéa from space, November 1990 Ouvea may refer to: Ouvéa, an island in the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia. ... Futunan (Fakafutuna in the vernacular) is the Polynesian language spoken on Futuna (and Alofi). ... Futuna-Aniwan is the Polynesian language spoken on the outlier islands of Futuna and Aniwa in Vanuatu. ... For the language of Puka-Puka in French Polynesia, see Puka-Pukan language. ... The Rennell-Bellona language is spoken in the Rennell and Bellona Province of the Solomon Islands. ... The Ellicean languages are a subgroup of the Samoic languages, including the Polynesian outliers in Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands, as well as the languages of Tuvalu and sometimes Tokelau. ... The Samoic languages are one of the primary classes of Polynesian languages, encompassing the Polynesian languages of Samoa, Tuvalu, American Samoa, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, as well as a number of languages, spoken in parts of Tonga, the Cook Islands, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, and... Nukuoro is a language belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian languages, spoken by about 860 people on the Nukuoro Island and on Pohnpei in Micronesia. ... Kapingamarangi is an Austronesian language spoken in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... A village scene on Takuu Takuu (also Tauu or Mortlock Islands) is a small, isolated atoll off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. ... Sikaiana formerly called Stewart Islands is a small atoll 212 km NE of Malaita. ... The Pileni language is spoken in some of the Reef Islands as well as in the Taumako Islands (also known as the Duff Islands) in the Temotu province of the Solomon Islands. ... The Eastern Polynesian languages are a sub-phylum of the Nuclear Polynesian languages. ... The Rapa Nui language (also Rapanui) is the Eastern Polynesian language of Easter Island, forming its own subgroup of that classification. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Central East Polynesian languages are a sub-phylum of the Eastern Polynesian languages. ... Marquesic Languages are a small but historically important subgroup of East Central Polynesian Languages, comprising the Marquesan languages of the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, Mangarevan, spoken in the Gambier Islands (also in French Polynesia), Hawaiian in its various forms, and Pukapukan, spoken in Puka-Puka and the Disappointment Islands... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Marquesan is a collection of East-Central Polynesian dialects, of the Marquesic group, spoken in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia. ... Mangarevan is the East Central Polynesian language spoken in the Gambier Islands of French Polynesia. ... The Tahitic languages are a group of East Central Polynesian languages, a group which also includes Rapan and the Marquesic languages. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... For the language of the same name spoken in New Guinea, see Moriori language (New Guinea). ... Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ... The Tuamotuan language is a Tahitic language spoken in the Tuamotu Islands. ... Penrhyn is a Polynesian language spoken by about 600 people on Penrhyn Island and other islands of the Cook Islands. ... The Cook Islands Māori also called Maori Kuki Airani became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003 (1). ... Rapan is the language of Rapa, in the Austral Islands of French Polynesia. ...

Internal correspondences

Partly because Polynesian languages split from one another comparatively recently, many words in these languages remain similar to corresponding words in others. The table below demonstrates this with the words for 'sky' 'north wind' 'woman' 'house' and 'parent' in a representative selection of languages: Tongan; Niuean; Samoan; Sikaiana; Takuu; Rapanui; Tahitian; Cook Islands Māori (Rarotongan); Māori; North Marquesan; South Marquesan; and Hawaiian. Sikaiana formerly called Stewart Islands is a small atoll 212 km NE of Malaita. ... A village scene on Takuu Takuu (also Tauu or Mortlock Islands) is a small, isolated atoll off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. ... The Rapanui or Rapa Nui (Big Rapa) are the native Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean (the island itself is also called Rapa Nui). ... Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ... The Cook Islands Maori language, also called Māori KÅ«ki Ä€irani, is the official language of the Cook Islands. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... North Marquesan is the Marquesic, East Central Polynesian language spoken in the northern Marquesas Islands. ... South Marquesan is the Marquesic, East Central Polynsian language spoken in the southern Marquesas Islands, as well as on Ua Huka in the northern Marquesas. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...

Tongan Niuean Samoan Sikaiana Takuu Rapa Nui Tahitian Rarotongan Māori North Marquesan South Marquesan Hawaiian
sky /laŋi/ /laŋi/ /laŋi/ /lani/ /ɾani/ /ɾaŋi/ /ɾaʔi/ /ɾaŋi/ /ɾaŋi/ /ʔaki/ /ʔani/ /lani/
north wind /tokelau/ /tokelau/ /toʔelau/ /tokelau/ /tokoɾau/ /tokeɾau/ /toʔeɾau/ /tokeɾau/ /tokeɾau/ /tokoʔau/ /tokoʔau/ /koʔolau/
woman /fefine/ /fifine/ /fafine/ /hahine/ /ffine/ /vahine/ /vaʔine/ /wahine/ /vehine/ /vehine/ /wahine/
house /fale/ /fale/ /fale/ /hale/ /faɾe/ /haɾe/ /faɾe/ /ʔaɾe/ /ɸaɾe/ /haʔe/ /haʔe/ /hale/
parent /motuʔa/ /motua/ /matua/ /maatua/ /matuʔa/ /metua/ /metua/ /matua/ /motua/ /motua/ /makua/

Certain regular correspondences can be noted between different Polynesian languages. For example, the Māori sounds /k/, /ɾ/, /t/, and /ŋ/ correspond to /ʔ/, /l/, /k/, and /n/ in Hawaiian. Accordingly, "man" is tangata in Māori and kanaka in Hawaiian, and Māori roa "long" corresponds to Hawaiian loa. The famous Hawaiian greeting aloha corresponds to Māori aroha, "love, tender emotion." Similarly, the Hawaiian word for kava is ‘awa. Binomial name G.Forst. ...


Similarities in basic vocabulary may allow speakers from different island groups to achieve a surprising degree of understanding of each other's speech. When a particular language shows unexpectedly large divergence in vocabulary, this may be the result of a name-avoidance taboo situation - see examples in Tahitian, where this has happened often. Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ...


Many Polynesian languages have been greatly affected by European colonization. Both Māori and Hawaiian, for example, have lost much ground to English, and have only recently been able to make progress towards restoration. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Personal pronouns

In general, Polynesian languages have three numbers for pronouns and possessives: singular, dual and plural. For example in Māori: ia (he/she), rāua (they two), rātou (they 3 or more). The words rua (2) and toru (3) are still discernible in endings of the dual and plural pronouns, giving the impression that the plural was originally a trial, and that an original plural has disappeared.[2] Polynesian languages have four distinctions in pronouns and possessives: first exclusive, first inclusive, second and third. For example in Māori, the plural pronouns are: mātou (we, exc), tātou (we, inc), koutou (you), rātou (they). The difference between exclusive and inclusive is the treatment of the person addressed. Mātou refers to the speaker and others but not the person or persons spoken to (i.e., "I and some others, but not you"), while tātou refers to the speaker, the person or persons spoken to, and everyone else (i.e., "You and I and others"). In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Inclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to the exclusive we that excludes the addressee. ...


a and o possession

Many Polynesian languages distinguish two possessives. The a-possessives (as they contain that letter in most cases), also known as subjective possessives, refer to possessions which must be acquired by one's own action. (alienable possession) The o-possessives or objective possessives refer to possessions which are fixed to you, unchangeable, and do not necessitate any action on your part, (but upon which actions can still be performed by others). (inalienable possession) Some words can take either form, often with a difference in meaning. Compare the particles used in the names of two of the books of the Māori Bible: Te Pukapuka a Heremaia (The Book of Jeremiah) with Te Pukapuka o Hōhua (The Book of Joshua); the former belongs to Jeremiah in the sense that he was the author, while the Book of Joshua was written by someone else about Joshua. A possessive pronoun is a part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something. ... Inalienable possession (opposed to alienable possession) in linguistics is a relationship between two objects indicating that they are (possibly on a less-than-physical level) connected in some way that cannot be changed. ... Inalienable possession is a relationship between two objects indicating that they are (possibly on a less-than-physical level) connected in some way that cannot be changed. ...


Orthography

Most Polynesian alphabets have five vowels (a,e,i,o,u) corresponding roughly in pronunciation to classical Latin. Unfortunately the missionaries did not realise that vowel length or the occurrence or not of the glottal stop resulted in words of different meanings. By the time that linguists made their way to the Pacific, at least for the major languages, the Bible was already printed according to the orthographic system developed by the missionaries, and the people had learned to read and write without marking vowel length or the glottal stop. This situation persists up to now in many languages, despite efforts of local academies to change it. Varying results have been achieved in the different languages and several writing systems exist. The most common method, however, is the one where a macron is used to indicate a long vowel, while a vowel without that accent is short. For example: ā versus a. The glottal stop (not present in all Polynesian languages, but where present it is one of the most common consonants) is indicated by an apostrophe. For example: 'a versus a. This is somewhat of an anomaly as the apostrophe is most often used to represent letters which have been omitted, while the glottal stop is rather a consonant which is not written. The problem can somewhat be alleviated by changing the simple apostrophe in a curly one, taking a normal comma for the elision and the inverted comma for the glottal stop. The latter method has come into common use in Polynesian languages. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... See also consonance in music. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


See also

The glottal stop is used in many Polynesian languages and known under various names as for instance: // Encoding and displaying the Polynesian glottal Old conventions In plain ASCII the glottal is sometimes represented by the apostrophe character (), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal, which in most fonts...

External links

  • Ethnologue family tree

Notes

  1. ^ Marck, Jeff (2000), Topics in Polynesian languages and culture history. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  2. ^ Indeed Fijian, a language closely related to Polynesian, has singular, dual, trial, and plural; and even there we may see the trial replacing the plural in some generations to come, as the trial there currently can be used for a group from 3 up to as many as 10.

References

  • Krupa V. (1975-1982). Polynesian Languages, Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Irwin, Geoffrey (1992). The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lynch J. (1998). Pacific Languages : an Introduction. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Lynch, John, Malcolm Ross & Terry Crowley (2002). The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Austronesian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (870 words)
The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia.
Austronesian is one of the largest language families in the world, both in terms of number of languages (1244 according to Ethnologue) and in terms of the geographical extent of the homelands of its languages (from Madagascar to Easter Island).
However, it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found among the Formosan languages of Taiwan, and the least diversity among the islands of the Pacific, supporting a dispersal of the family from Taiwan or mainland China.
ninemsn Encarta - Austronesian Languages (645 words)
The languages of Australia (Aboriginal languages) and most of New Guinea (Papuan languages), however, are not part of this family.
The 237 Western Oceanic languages are spoken in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Indonesia.
In general, the Austronesian languages use affixes (suffixes, infixes, prefixes) attached to base words to modify the meaning or to indicate the function of the word in the sentence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m