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Encyclopedia > Polynesia
Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840
Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840

Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (982x1514, 1522 KB) Summary Detail from a carved Maori tahuhu (ridgepole of a house), Ngati Warahoe subtribe of Ngati Awa, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, circa 1840. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (982x1514, 1522 KB) Summary Detail from a carved Maori tahuhu (ridgepole of a house), Ngati Warahoe subtribe of Ngati Awa, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, circa 1840. ... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ...

Contents

Definition

Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the Polynesian triangle
Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the Polynesian triangle

The term "Polynesia" was first used by Charles de Brosses in 1756, and originally applied to all the islands of the Pacific. Jules Dumont d'Urville in an 1831 lecture to the Geographical Society of Paris proposed a restriction on its use, and also introduced the terms Micronesia and Melanesia. This division into three distinct Pacific subregions remains in widespread use today. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x726, 98 KB) Deutsch: Polynesien Hawaii Neuseeland Osterinsel Samoa Fidschi Tahiti English: Polynesia Hawai‘i New Zealand Easter Island Samoa Fiji Tahiti Esperanto: Polinezio Havajo Nov-Zelando Paskinsulo Samoo Fiĝioj Tahitio Français: Polynésie Hawaii Nouvelle-Zélande ÃŽle... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x726, 98 KB) Deutsch: Polynesien Hawaii Neuseeland Osterinsel Samoa Fidschi Tahiti English: Polynesia Hawai‘i New Zealand Easter Island Samoa Fiji Tahiti Esperanto: Polinezio Havajo Nov-Zelando Paskinsulo Samoo Fiĝioj Tahitio Français: Polynésie Hawaii Nouvelle-Zélande ÃŽle... The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by Hawaii, Rapa Nui and New Zealand. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... Rear Admiral Jules Sébastien César Dumont dUrville (May 23, 1790 – May 8, 1842) was a French explorer and naval officer, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. ... Map showing Melanesia. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ...


Geographically, and oversimply, Polynesia may be described as a triangle with its corners at Hawai'i, New Zealand and Easter Island. The other main island groups located within the Polynesian triangle are Samoa, Tonga, the various island chains that form the Cook Islands and French Polynesia. A Polynesian island group outside of this great triangle is Tuvalu. There are also small outlier Polynesian enclaves in Papua New Guinea, the Solomons and in Vanuatu. However, in essence, it is an anthropological term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania (the others being Micronesia and Melanesia) whose pre-colonial population generally belongs to one ethno-cultural family as a result of centuries of maritime migrations. Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Discovered by Europeans April 5, 1722 by Jakob Roggeveen Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3. ... Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi Anthropology (from the Greek word , man or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... For the fictional superstate in George Orwells novel, see Oceania (Nineteen Eighty-Four). ...


History

One theory is that the spread of pottery and domesticates in Polynesia is connected with the Lapita-culture that, around 1600–1200 BC, started expanding from New Guinea as far east as Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. During this time the aspects of the Polynesian culture developed, especially on the islands of Samoa and Tonga. Around 300 BC this new Polynesian people spread from Samoa and Tonga to the Cook Islands, Tahiti, the Tuamotus and the Marquesas Islands. This was supported by Patrick Kirch and Marshall Weisler when they performed X-ray fluorescence sourcing of basalt artifacts found on both islands [1] Lapita is the common name of an ancient Pacific Ocean culture which is believed by some to be the common ancestor of several cultures in Polynesia and surrounding areas. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Map of French Polynesia Map of Tahiti and Moorea Tahiti is the largest island of French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean at . ... A Satellite photo of the Acteon Group, 4 atolls in the southeastern Tuamotus. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Basalt Columnar basalt at Sheepeater Cliff in Yellowstone Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ...


Around AD 300, or earlier, the Polynesians discovered and settled Easter Island. This is supported by archaeological evidence as well as the introduction of flora and fauna consistent with the Polynesian culture and characteristic of the tropics to this subtropical island. Around AD 400 Hawai'i was settled by the Polynesians and around AD 1000 New Zealand was settled as well. The migration of the Polynesians is impressive considering that the islands settled by them are spread out over great distances – the Pacific Ocean covers nearly a half of the Earth's surface area. Most contemporary cultures, by comparison, never voyaged beyond sight of land. Events Romano-Celtic temple-mausoleum complex is constructed in Lullingstone, and also in Anderida (approximate date). ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... // Events World Population 300 million. ...

New Zealand is also known to the Maori as Aotearoa (Land of the Long White Cloud). The Maori were the first people to inhabit New Zealand. They are Polynesian. Polynesia means Many Islands, and applies to most of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, all but one of which were inhabited by the Polynesian peoples (an Australoid-Mongoloid hybrid) before the arrival of Europeans. Image File history File links Information_icon. ...


Australoid and Mongolid are two of the four major ethnic groups - the others being Caucasoid and Negroid (the Bushmen of southern Africa do not belong to any of these groups). Australoid originated in South East Asia and migrated into Australia during the Ice Age, when glaciers mounted up across Eurasia and North America caused the world's sea levels to drop by 300 metres, joining Siberia to Alaska (through which the ancestors of Native Americans wandered), and creating a sub-continent of Malaysia/Indonesia which was separated from Australia/Papua New Guinea only by the narrowest of straits. These man was able to cross, with his dog (ancestor of the dingo), to hunt the innumerable species of marsupial abundant in what were, in the Ice Age, the teeming grasslands of Australasia.


Australoid also migrated west, hybridising increasingly with Caucasoid, so that the people of the Indian subcontinent (who speak an Indo-European language) are predominantly Australoid with varying degrees of Caucasoid, while those of the Middle East and Mediterranean are the reverse. It is interesting to note that the first civilisations sprung up where these two ethnic groups probably would have met.


Meanwhile, Mongoloid pressed down into South East Asia, there hybridising with Australoid and producing a variety of offshoots. Among the first were the ancestors of the Melanesian. Predominantly Australoid, they migrated out into the islands of the South West Pacific (PNG & Melanesia - meaning Black Islands). It seems they never progressed beyond Fiji, an archipelago which obviously satisfied their needs.


They were followed several thousand years ago by the ancestors of the Polynesians. These were a fairly even Mongoloid-Australoid hybrid, using Mongoloid agricultural techniques and speaking an Austronesian language which nonetheless shares much with various Far East languages.


Incidentally, Australoid-Mongoloid also migrated west, and were the first inhabitants of Madagascar. They can still be found on that giant Indian Ocean island, mostly along the coasts. (an anthropological oddity comparable to that of the Ainu, the apparently Caucasoid aboriginals of Japan who have since disappeared...)


Those who headed east appear to have bypassed Fiji (with good reason) and settled the neighbouring islands of Samoa and Tonga around the Biblical time of Christ. (The people of these islands are the world's biggest today). The original Hawaiki of Polynesian mythology is thought to have been the island of Savaii in Samoa. The legend of the demi-god Maui also appears to have been established by this period.


Within 300 years the Polynesians had progressed as far as the Tahitian archipelago, where the central island of Raiatea is thought to have been the new Hawaiki. Here they developed a highly-stratified, religious society, worshipping their sun god Ra (Egyptians gave their sun god the same name...) and earth goddess Papa-tu-a-nuku, and practised human sacrifice - excessively, it seems. They also pioneered the giant double-hulled canoes, which could carry scores of men hundreds of kilometres a day.


By the Koranic time of Mohammad they had settled Hawaii (Hawaiki III ?)over 2000kms to the North (there remains a point in Hawaii named, in Polynesian, the Path to Bora Bora, northermost island of the Tahitian archipelago), Rarotonga (the Cook Islands) in the West and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the East. It is possible they reached South America, as they were in possession of American crops in pre-European times and called some of them by similar names to the American natives (compare American 'cumer' to Polynesian 'Kumera' for the sweet potato). Contact with South America might also help to explain some of the strange myths of Rapa Nui, which refer to battles between Long Ears and Short Ears, and whose stone statues are reminiscent of the continent.


Around the eighth or ninth centuries the people of the Tahitian archipelago also managed to find New Zealand, a 4000km journey to the south-west during which they must have encountered little but ocean. It is interesting to note that various species of New Zealand trout and eel make a round trip to Tahiti during their lives, so perhaps it had something to do with the currents.


Kupe was the captain and Rangi was the high priest aboard the first canoe to reach New Zealand's shores. It is believed the arrivals spied the snow-capped peaks of the mountains , thought they were looking at clouds (they wouldn't have known what snow was) and thus named the islands Aotearoa, Land of the Long White Cloud. The South Island was later named Te Wai Pounamu, the Big Canoe, and the North Island Te Ika a Mauri, the Fish of Maui, which is sort of what they look like...


Kupe made a return voyage comprised of seven canoe-loads of men, women and children whose mission it was to populate New Zealand. These were the first Maori. Another people, ethnically akin to the Maori but known as the Moriori, remain something of a mystery. It was at one time thought they were there first, but today a view more popularly held is that they were among the first arrivals and broke away from the others at an early stage.


New Zealand, being two large islands and a group of small ones, had no native animals. There was, however, easily the largest bird in the world, the Moa, which grew up to 3m tall (10ft). This provided an important source of nutrition for the Maori, but was eventually hunted into extinction, just a century or so before Dutchman Abel Tasman became the first European to spot New Zealand.


The Maori developed into a warrior-like people who practised cannibalism right up until the late 19th century. They fought lengthy wars with the British Empire in the 19th century, signing a treaty that was never honoured by the invaders and which continues to be a source of racial tension today, even though the pure-blooded Maori, like the pure-blooded Hawaiian, has disappeared. Part-Maori comprise roughly a tenth of New Zealand's 4 million population.


Cultures of Polynesia

Painting Tahitian Women on the Beach by Paul Gauguin - Musée d'Orsay
Painting Tahitian Women on the Beach by Paul Gauguin - Musée d'Orsay

Polynesia divides into two distinct cultural groups, East Polynesia and West Polynesia. The culture of West Polynesia is conditioned to high populations. It has strong institutions of marriage, and well-developed judicial, monetary and trading traditions. It comprises the groups of Tonga, Niue, Samoa and the Polynesian outliers. Eastern Polynesian cultures are highly adapted to smaller islands and atolls including the Cook Islands, Tahiti, the Tuamotus, the Marquesas, Hawaii and Easter Island. However, the large islands of New Zealand were first settled by Eastern Polynesians who adapted their culture to a non-tropical environment. Anthropologists term the Eastern Polynesian system of kinship the Hawaiian system. Religion, farming, fishing, weather prediction, out-rigger canoe (similar to modern catamarans) construction and navigation were highly developed skills because the population of an entire island depended on them. Trading consisted of both luxuries and mundane items. Many low-lying islands could suffer severe famine if their gardens were poisoned by the salt from the storm-surge of a hurricane. In these cases fishing, the primary source of protein, would not ease loss of food energy. Navigators, in particular, were highly respected and each island maintained a house of navigation, with a canoe-building area. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2369, 713 KB) Description: Title: de: Frauen am Strand en: Tahitian Women on the Beach Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 69 × 91 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2369, 713 KB) Description: Title: de: Frauen am Strand en: Tahitian Women on the Beach Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 69 × 91 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 – May 9, 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist artist. ... --67. ... Polynesian outliers are a number of Polynesian islands which lie in Melanesia and Micronesia. ... Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi Anthropology (from the Greek word , man or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Hawaiian kinship (also referred to as the Generational system) is a kinship system used to define family. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ... It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ...


Settlements by the Polynesians were of two categories. The hamlet and the village. Size of the island inhabited determined whether or not a hamlet would be built. The larger volcanic islands usually had hamlets because of the many zones that could be divided across the island. Food and resources were more plentiful and so these settlements of four to five houses (usually with gardens) were established so that there would be no overlap between the zones. Villages, on the other hand, were built on the coasts of smaller islands and consisted of thirty or more houses. Usually these villages were fortified with walls and palisades made of stone and wood [Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995]. However, New Zealand demonstrates the opposite; large volcanic islands with fortified villages. Due to relatively large numbers of competitive sects of Christian missionaries in the islands, many Polynesian groups have adopted Christianity. Polynesian languages are all members of the family of Oceanic languages, a sub-branch of the Austronesian language family. A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ... A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Polynesian languages are a group of related languages spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... The Oceanic languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, containing approximately 450 languages. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


Economy of Polynesia

With the exception of New Zealand, the majority of independent Polynesian islands derive much of their income from foreign aid and remittances from those who live in other countries. Some encourage their young people to go where they can earn good money to remit to their stay-at-home relatives. Many Polynesian locations, such as Easter Island, supplement this with tourism income[2]. Some have more unusual sources of income, such as Tuvalu which marketed its '.tv' internet top-level domain name[3] or the Cooks that relied on stamp sales. A very few others still live as they did before Western Civilization encountered them. For the former British television channel, see . ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


Polynesian navigation

At a time when European sailors were navigating by keeping a watch for the shoreline in daylight, Polynesians were navigating a vast extent of the Pacific Ocean. Polynesia comprised islands diffused throughout a triangular area with sides of four thousand miles. The area from the Hawaiian Islands in the north, to Easter Island in the east and to New Zealand in the south was all settled by Polynesians. This article is about the continent. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Theories

Knowledge of the traditional Polynesian methods of navigation was largely lost after contact with and colonization by Europeans. This left the problem of accounting for the presence of the Polynesians in such isolated and scattered parts of the Pacific. According to Andrew Sharp, the explorer Captain James Cook, already familiar with Charles de Brousse’s accounts of large groups of Pacific islanders who were driven off course in storms and ended up hundreds of miles away with no idea where they were, encountered in the course of one of his own voyages a castaway group of Tahitians who had become lost at sea in a gale and blown 100 miles away to the island of Atiu. Cook wrote that the Atiu incident ‘will serve to explain, better than the thousand conjectures of speculative reasoners, how the detached parts of the earth, and, in particular, how the South Seas, may have been peopled’ (Sharp 1963:16). James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. ...


By the late 19th century to the early 20th century a more generous view of Polynesian navigation had come into favour, perhaps creating too romantic a picture of their canoes, seamanship and navigational expertise. Late nineteenth and early twentieth century writers such as Abraham Fornander and Stephenson Percy Smith told of heroic Polynesians migrating in great coordinated fleets from Asia to the islands now known as Polynesia (Finney 1976:5). In the mid-twentieth century, Thor Heyerdahl proposed another theory of Polynesian origins (one which did not win general acceptance), arguing that the Polynesians had migrated from South America on balsa-log boats (Sharp 1963:122-128, Finney in Finney 1976:5). Abraham Fornander, about 1878 Abraham Fornander (1812-1889) was a jurist and ethnologist. ... Stephenson Percy Smith (1840–1922) was a New Zealand ethnologist and surveyer. ... Thor Heyerdahl Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914, in Larvik, Norway – April 18, 2002, in Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer with a scientific background in zoology and geography. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Sw. ...


Research and practice

Polynesian (Hawaiian navigators) sailing multi-hulled canoe, ca 1781
Polynesian (Hawaiian navigators) sailing multi-hulled canoe, ca 1781

A more sober and analytical view was presented by Andrew Sharp, who amassed a wealth of evidence to challenge the ‘heroic vision’ hypothesis, asserting instead that Polynesian maritime expertise was severely limited and that as a result the settlement of Polynesia had been the result of luck, random searching, and drifting, rather than as organised voyages of colonisation (Sharp 1963). Sharp’s reassessment caused a huge amount of controversy and led to a stalemate between the romantic and the sceptical views (Finney in Finney 1976:5). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2700x1709, 1894 KB) [edit] Licensing Artist: John Webber, artist aboard Cooks ship. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2700x1709, 1894 KB) [edit] Licensing Artist: John Webber, artist aboard Cooks ship. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


By the mid to late 1960s it was time for a new hands-on approach. Dr David Lewis sailed his catamaran from Tahiti to New Zealand using stellar navigation without instruments (Lewis 1976). Ben Finney built a 40-foot replica of a Hawaiian double canoe and tested it in a series of sailing and paddling experiments in Hawaiian waters. At the same time, ethnographic research in the Caroline Islands in Micronesia brought to light the fact that traditional stellar navigational methods were still very much in everyday use there. This was also the case in the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. The building and testing of canoes inspired by traditional designs, the harnessing of knowledge from skilled Micronesian and Philippine navigators, as well as voyages using stellar navigation, allowed practical conclusions about the sea-worthiness and handling capabilities of traditional Polynesian canoes and allowed a better understanding of the navigational methods that were likely to have been used by the Polynesians and of how they, as people, were adapted to seafaring (Finney in Finney 1976:6-9). Recent re-creations of Polynesian voyaging have used methods based largely on Micronesian methods and the teachings of a Micronesian navigator, Mau Piailug. See also Polynesian Voyaging Society, Hokulea. Dr. David Henry Lewis (1917-2002) was a sailor, adventurer, doctor, and Polynesian scholar. ... Celestial navigation is a position fixing technique that was the first system devised to help sailors locate themselves on a featureless ocean. ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ... Mau Piailug (born 1932) is a Micronesian navigator, one of the best-known living practitioners of the ancient art of navigation without the aid of instruments. ... The Hawaiian voyaging canoe, Hokulea, arrives off Kailua Beach on May 1, 2005 The Polynesian Voyaging Society (PVS) is a non-profit research and educational corporation based in Honolulu, Hawaii that was established to research and perpetuate traditional Polynesian voyaging methods. ... Hōkūleʻa is a full-scale replica of a wooden sailing vessel (Polynesian voyaging canoe) used in ancient Hawaiʻi. ...


Techniques

It is probable that the Polynesian navigators employed a whole range of techniques including use of the stars, the movement of ocean currents and wave patterns, the air and sea interference patterns caused by islands and atolls, the flight of birds, the winds and the weather (Gatty 1999). See Polynesian navigation. An atoll is a type of low, coral island found in tropical oceans and consisting of a coral-algal reef usually surrounding an interior body of water called a lagoon or peninsula. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Scientists think that long-distance Polynesian voyaging followed the seasonal paths of birds. There are some references in their oral traditions to the flight of birds and some say that there were range marks onshore pointing to distant islands in line with these flyways. A voyage from Tahiti, the Tuamotus or the Cook Islands to New Zealand might have followed the migration of the Long-tailed cuckoo (Eudynamys taitensis) just as the voyage from Tahiti to Hawaii would coincide with the track of the Pacific Golden Plover and the Bristle-thighed Curlew. It is also believed that Polynesians employed shore-sighting birds as did many seafaring peoples. One theory is that they would have taken a frigatebird with them. These birds refuse to land on the water as their feathers will become waterlogged making it impossible to fly. When the voyagers thought they were close to land they may have released the bird, which would either fly towards land or else return to the canoe (Gatty 1999). Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... Flyway is a term which designates the aerial flight path of migrating birds. ... Bold textBold textAs a land without terrestrial mammals of any kind, New Zealand was, until the arrival of the first humans, inhabited by an extraordinarily diverse range of specialised birds. ... Binomial name Pluvialis fulva (Gmelin, 1789) The Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) is a medium-sized plover. ... Binomial name Numenius tahitiensis (Gmelin, 1789) The Bristle-thighed Curlew, Numenius tahitiensis, is a large shore bird whose habitat ranges from Alaska to the tropical Pacific. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ...


The peoples of the Pacific, including Micronesians and Polynesians, developed navigating by the stars into a fine art. It is surmised that the Polynesians imagined the heavens as the interior of a dome where a star proceeded along a path which passed over certain islands. They had names for over a hundred and fifty stars. A navigator would have known where and when a given star rose and set, as well as which islands it passed directly over. Thus Polynesian navigators would have then been able to sail toward the star they knew to be over their destination, and as it moved westward with time they would then set their course by the succeeding star which would have then moved over the target island (Gatty 1999).


It is likely that the Polynesians also used wave and swell formations to navigate. Many of the habitable areas of the Pacific Ocean are groups of islands (or atolls) in chains hundreds of kilometers long. Island chains have predictable effects on waves and on currents. Navigators who lived within a group of islands would learn the effect various islands had on their shape, direction, and motion and would have been able to correct their path in accordance with the changes they perceived. When they arrived in the vicinity of a chain of islands they were unfamiliar with, they may have been able to transfer their experience and deduce that they were nearing a group of islands. Once they had arrived fairly close to a destination island, they would have been able to pinpoint its location by sightings of land-based birds, certain cloud formations, as well as the reflections shallow water made on the undersides of clouds. It is thought that the Polynesian navigators may have measured the time it took to sail between islands in "canoe-days’’ or a similar type of expression (Gatty 1999).


Island groups

The following are the islands and island groups, either nations or subnational territories, that are of native Polynesian culture. Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1528 KB) Cook Bay on Moorea in French Polynesia Creator: fr:User:Rv File links The following pages link to this file: Moorea Categories: French Polynesia | Society Islands ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1528 KB) Cook Bay on Moorea in French Polynesia Creator: fr:User:Rv File links The following pages link to this file: Moorea Categories: French Polynesia | Society Islands ... The Sofitel Ia Ora resort on Moorea Cooks Bay Bungalows of Hotel Hibiscus, Hauru Point, Moorea Moorea (or Moorea) is a high island in French Polynesia, part of the Society Islands, 17 km (roughly 9mi) northwest of Tahiti. ...

Types of political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Anuta is a small high island in the southeastern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Discovered by Europeans April 5, 1722 by Jakob Roggeveen Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3. ... The Rapa Nui language (also Rapanui) is the Eastern Polynesian language of Easter Island, forming its own subgroup of that classification. ... Emae (coordinates ) is an island in the Shepherds Islands, Shefa, Vanuatu. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... Kapingamarangi is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... The Loyalty Islands. ... Look up Aotearoa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... The Nukumanu Islands, part of Papua New Guinea are located in the path of the Polynesian migration to Oceania some 5,000 years ago, the Nukumanu Islands were settled by the Polynesians and retained their Polynesian character as part of the Melanesian Archipelago of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon... Nukuoro is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Ontong Java Atoll is the northernmost tract of land in the Solomon Islands and an outlying part of the province of Malaita. ... Pileni is a culturally important island in the Reef Islands, in the northern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... Rennell and Bellona is a province of the Solomon Islands comprised of two atolls, Rennell and Bellona, or Mu Nggava and Mu Ngiki respectively in Polynesian. ... Rotuma is a Fijian Dependency, consisting of the island of Rotuma and the nearby islets of Hatana, Hofliua, Solkope, Solnohu and Uea. ... Sikaiana formerly called Stewart Islands is a small atoll 212 km NE of Malaita. ... Swains Island is an atoll in the Tokelau chain, the most northwesterly island administered by American Samoa. ... A village scene on Takuu Takuu (also Tauu or Mortlock Islands) is a small, isolated atoll off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. ... Tikopia is the southernmost of the Santa Cruz Islands, located in the province of Temotu. ...

See also

Polynesia (meaning many islands in Greek) is a triangular grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos settled by seafaring voyagers from the original heartland in Tonga and Samoa. ... This is a list of notable Polynesians. ... The Society Islands (French: Îles de la Société or offically Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the south Pacific, administratively part of French Polynesia. ... The Polynesian Society is a non-profit organization based at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, dedicated to the scholarly study of the history, ethnography, and mythology of Oceania. ... The Hawaiian voyaging canoe, Hokulea, arrives off Kailua Beach on May 1, 2005 The Polynesian Voyaging Society (PVS) is a non-profit research and educational corporation based in Honolulu, Hawaii that was established to research and perpetuate traditional Polynesian voyaging methods. ...

Notes

  1. ^ History of Polynesian Archaeology. Retrieved on November 18, 2005.
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island. Retrieved on November 18, 2005.
  3. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Tuvalu. Retrieved on November 18, 2005.

November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Finney, Ben R (1976). New, Non-Armchair Research. In Ben R. Finney (1963), Pacific Navigation and Voyaging, The Polynesian Society Inc.
  • Finney, Ben R (1976) (editor). Pacific Navigation and Voyaging, The Polynesian Society Inc.
  • Gatty, Harold (1999). Finding Your Ways Without Map or Compass. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-40613-X. 
  • Lewis, David (1976), A Return Voyage Between Puluwat and Saipan Using Micronesian Navigational Techniques. In Ben R. Finney (1963), Pacific Navigation and Voyaging, The Polynesian Society Inc.
  • Sharp, Andrew (1963). Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia, Longman Paul Ltd.

External links


Look up Polynesia in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polynesia - definition of Polynesia in Encyclopedia (378 words)
Polynesia (from Greek, "many islands") is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Geographically, Polynesia is a triangle with its three corners at Hawai'i, New Zealand, and Easter Island.
The spread of pottery and domesticates in Polynesia is connected with the Lapita-culture.
Polynesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2123 words)
The term "Polynesia" was first coined by Charles de Brosses in 1756, and originally applied to all the islands of the Pacific.
Geographically, and oversimply, Polynesia may be described as a triangle with its corners at Hawai'i, New Zealand and Easter Island.
The area from the Hawaiian Islands in the north, to Easter Island in the east and to New Zealand in the south was all settled by Polynesians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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