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Encyclopedia > Polymer chemistry

Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. According to IUPAC recommendations, macromolecules refer to the individual molecular chains and are the domain of chemistry. Polymers describe the bulk properties of polymer materials and belong to the field of polymer physics as a subfield of physics. For mathematical sciences, see mathematics. ... In chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings. ... The phrase Chemical property is context driven, but generally refers to the materials behaviour at ambient conditions ( room temperature, 1 atmosphere pressure, oxygen bearing atmosphere). ... Polymer is a term used to describe a very long molecule consisting of structural units and repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A macromolecule is a molecule with a large molecular mass, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... Polymer is a term used to describe a very long molecule consisting of structural units and repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Polymer physics is the field of physics associated to the study of polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively. ... Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world, which deals with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results of these forces. ...

Polymers form by polymerization of monomers. A polymer is chemically described by its degree of polymerisation, molar mass distribution, tacticity, copolymer distribution, the degree of branching, by its end-groups, crosslinks, crystallinity and thermal properties such as its glass transition temperature and melting temperature. Polymers in solution have special characteristics with respect to solubility, viscosity and gelation. Biopolymers are a special class of polymers found in nature. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... Elastin, also known as elasticin, is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. ... A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... A transport protein is a protein involved in facilitated diffusion. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... Structure of chitin molecule Chitin (IPA: ) is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods, and in some other animals. ... Starch is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water, it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Schematic diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... In chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Dried green paint Paint is the general term for a family of products used to protect and add color to an object or surface by covering it with a pigmented coating. ... Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Furniture is the collective term for the movable objects which support the human body (seating furniture and beds), provide storage, and hold objects on horizontal surfaces above the ground. ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... A thermoplastic is a material that is plastic or deformable, melts to a liquid when heated and freezes to a brittle, glassy state when cooled sufficiently. ... Polyethylene or polyethene is a thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (over 60M tons are produced worldwide every year). ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, textiles, laboratory equipment, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethane) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely-used plastic. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, invented in 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... Cellulose is treated with alkali and carbon disulfide to yield viscose. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... Silicones, or polysiloxanes, are inorganic polymers consisting of a silicon-oxygen backbone (...-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-...) with side groups attached to the silicon atoms. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass or fibreglass is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a variety of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... Vulcanization, or curing, of rubber, is a chemical process in which individual polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by atomic bridges. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants though can be produced synthetically. ... Bakelite is a brand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, developed in 1907-1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... Kevlar is the DuPont Companys brand name for material made out of synthetic fiber of poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide which is constructed of para-aramid fibers that the company claims is five times stronger than the same weight of steel, while being lightweight, flexible and comfortable. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to forinear chains or a three-dimensional network of polymer chains [1]. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of repeat units in an average polymer chain at time t in a polymerization reaction. ... The Molar mass distribution in a polymer describes the relationship between a polymer fraction and the molar mass of that polymer fraction. ... Tacticity (from Greek taktikos: of or relating to arrangement or order) is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ... An end-group in polymer chemistry is a constitutional unit that is an extremity of a macromolecule or oligomer molecule. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... Crystallinity is the degree of structural order in a solid, often represented by a fraction or percentage. ... A material’s glass transition temperature, Tg, is the temperature below which molecules have little relative mobility. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of one or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in that fluid. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... A gel (from the lat. ...


History

The work of Henri Braconnot in 1832 and Christian Schönbein in1846 led to the discovery of nitrocellulose, which, when treated with camphor produced celluloid. Dissolved in ether or acetone, it is collodion, used as a wound dressing since the U.S. Civil War. Cellulose acetate was first prepared in 1865. In 1834, Friedrich Ludersdorf and Nathaniel Hayward independently discovered that adding sulfur to raw natural rubber (polyisoprene) helped prevent the material from becoming sticky. In 1844 Charles Goodyear received a U.S. patent for vulcanizing rubber with sulfur and heat. Thomas Hancock had received a patent for the same process in the U.K. the year before. Henri Braconnot Henri Braconnot (Commercy May 29, 1780 - Nancy January 15, 1855) was a French chemist and pharmacist. ... Christian Friedrich Schönbein (October 18, 1799 – August 29, 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is most well-known for his discovery of guncotton. ... Nitrocellulose (Cellulose nitrate, guncotton) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose (e. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point -20 °C Autoignition temperature 465 °C RTECS number AL31500000 Supplementary data page Structure & properties n, εr, etc. ... Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... Superficial bullet wounds A wound is type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederate) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants though can be produced synthetically. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vulcanization, or curing, of rubber, is a chemical process in which individual polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by atomic bridges. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Thomas Hancock was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...


In 1891 Hilaire de Chardonnet started the first artificial fiber plant based on regenerated cellulose, or viscose rayon, as a substitute for silk, but it was very flammable.[1] In 1907 Leo Baekeland invented the first synthetic polymer, a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin called Bakelite. Cellophane was invented in 1908 by Jocques Brandenberger who squirted sheets of viscose rayon into an acid bath.[2] In 1922 Hermann Staudinger was the first to propose that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds. He also proposed to name these compounds macromolecules. Before that, scientists believed that polymers were clusters of small molecules (called colloids), without definite molecular weights, held together by an unknown force. Staudinger received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1953. Wallace Carothers invented the first synthetic rubber called neoprene in 1931, the first polyester, and went on to invent nylon, a true silk replacement, in 1935. Paul Flory was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1974 for his work on polymer random coil configurations in solution in the 1950s. Stephanie Kwolek developed an aramid, or aromatic nylon named Kevlar, patented in 1966. Fiber or fibre[1] is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... Viscose is a viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophane. ... Cellulose is treated with alkali and carbon disulfide to yield viscose. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) Leo Hendrik Baekeland (November 14, 1863 - February 23, 1944) was a Belgian-American chemist who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and popular plastic. ... In chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal), is a gas with a strong pungent smell. ... Bakelite is a brand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, developed in 1907-1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Hermann Staudinger (March 23, 1881 in Worms- Sept. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... A macromolecule is a molecule with a large molecular mass, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably historys most widely recognized scientist. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases, a type of mixture intermediate between homogeneous solution and heterogeneous mixture with properties also intermediate between a solution and a mixture. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In physics, a force is anything that causes a free body with mass to accelerate. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Dr. Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 - April 29, 1937) was the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, invented in 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... Paul John Flory (June 19, 1910 – September 9, 1985) was an American chemist who was known for his prodigious volume of work in the field of polymers, or macromolecules. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomers are arranged at random. ... Stephanie Kwolek (born July 31, 1923) is a Polish-American chemist who discovered poly-paraphenylene terephtalamide, better known as Kevlar. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Kevlar is the DuPont Companys brand name for material made out of synthetic fiber of poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide which is constructed of para-aramid fibers that the company claims is five times stronger than the same weight of steel, while being lightweight, flexible and comfortable. ...


There are now a large number of commercial polymers, including composite materials such as carbon fiber-epoxy, polystyrene-polybutadiene (HIPS), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and other such materials that combine the best properties of their various components, including polymers designed to work at high temperatures in automobile engines. Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials that remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level while forming a single component. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber that has a high resistance to wear and is used especially in the manufacture of tires. ... Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C≡N), is a pungent smelling, extremely flammable organic liquid. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Styrene (also vinyl benzene, ethenylbenzene, phenethylene or phenylethene, cinnamene, diarex HF 77, styrolene, styrol, styropol) is an organic compound which is an aromatic hydrocarbon having the chemical formula C8H8. ... Temperature is also the name of a song by Sean Paul. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ...


External links

  • IUPAC definition IUPAC Polymer
  • IUPAC definition Macromolecule
  • Chardonnet silk; cellulose acetate; cellophane
  • History of cellophane
  • Educational website pitched at high school and undergraduate students
Chemistry
Analytical chemistry • Biochemistry • Chemical biology • Chemistry education • Computational chemistry • Electrochemistry • Environmental chemistry • Green chemistry • Inorganic chemistry • Materials science • Medicinal chemistry • Nuclear chemistry • Organic chemistry • Organometallic chemistry • Pharmacy • Pharmacology • Physical chemistry • Photochemistry • Polymer chemistry • Theoretical chemistry • Thermochemistry
List of biomolecules • List of inorganic compounds • List of organic compounds • Periodic table

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