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Encyclopedia > Polymer banknotes
Australian $10 note. The first polymer banknote in circulation, issued in 1988. This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States...
Australian $10 note. The first polymer banknote in circulation, issued in 1988. This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States... Enlarge
The first Guardian polymer banknote in circulation. Released in 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Events Environmental change Zebra mussels found in the Great lakes December 2 - Cyclone in Bangladesh leaves 5 million homeless - thousands dead December 7 - In Armenia an earthquake 6.9 on the Richter scale killed nearly 25.000... 1988 to commemorate Australia's Bicentenary. The optically variable device is in the upper right hand corner.

Polymer banknotes were developed by the The Reserve Bank of Australia was formed in 1961 to operate as Australias central bank and banknote issuing authority. The bank is the banker to the Federal government and some of the Australian states. It is headed by the Governor of the Reserve Bank, who as of 2004 is... Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and the The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. It was founded in 1916 originally as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry. The CSIRO has around 60 sites across Australia and internationally and has over 6000 staff. The mission of... Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and were first issued as A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. It is a form of money, where money is defined as a medium of exchange rather than e.g. a store of value. A currency zone is a country or region in which a specific currency... currency in Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia in 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Events Environmental change Zebra mussels found in the Great lakes December 2 - Cyclone in Bangladesh leaves 5 million homeless - thousands dead December 7 - In Armenia an earthquake 6.9 on the Richter scale killed nearly 25.000... 1988. These A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. A banknote (more commonly known as a bill in the United States) is a kind of currency, issued as legal tender. With coins, banknotes make up the cash forms of all modern money. With the exception of non-circulating high-value or precious metal commemorative... banknotes are made from the A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. The monomers can be identical, or they can have one or more substituted chemical groups. These differences between monomers can affect properties such as solubility, flexibility, or strength. In proteins, these differences... polymer biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) which greatly enhances durability of the banknotes. Polymer banknotes also incorporate many security features not available to Piece of paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibres. The fibers used are usually natural and based upon cellulose. The most common material is wood pulp from pulpwood (largely softwood) trees such as spruces, but other vegetable fiber materials including cotton, linen, and hemp... paper banknotes, making counterfeiting difficult.


Trading as Securency the RBA with Innovia Films (a subsidiary of the UCB group) market BOPP as 'Guardian' for countries with their own banknote printing facilities. Note Printing Australia (a subsidiary of the RBA) prints commemorative banknotes and banknotes for circulation and has done so for 19 countries.


An alternative polymer of Polyethylene or polyethene is one of the simplest and most inexpensive polymers. It is a waxy, chemically inert plastic. It is named thus because it is obtained by the polymerization of ethylene (ethene). It is sometimes shortened to PE or, chiefly in the United Kingdom, polythene (e.g. in the... polyethylene fibers marketed as Tyvek is a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. It has a number of uses, including envelopes and siding for houses. Tyvek has been used by the United States Postal Service for some of its Priority Mail and... Tyvek by This article is about the DuPont company. For the Washington, D.C., neighborhood, see the article Dupont Circle. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company ( NYSE: DD) was founded in July 1802 as a gun powder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont on... DuPont was developed for use as currency by the American Bank Note Company in the early 1980s. Tyvek did not perform well in trials as smudging of ink and fragility were reported problems. Only The Republic of Costa Rica is a republic in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south-southeast. Unlike some of its neighbors, Costa Rica has been an exemplar of stability, peace, and democratic governance. Since the minor civil war of the late 1940s that... Costa Rica, Haiti is a country situated on the western third of the island of Hispaniola and the smaller islands of Gonâve, Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Vache in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba; the Dominican Republic shares Hispaniola with Haiti. Its total land area is 10,714 square miles... Haiti and the See also the Isle of Mam. For the Isle of Man Cat, see Manx The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin in Manx), a British crown dependency, lies in the Irish Sea almost equidistant from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It has an area of 572 km² (221 square miles... Isle of Man issued Tyvek banknotes, however they are no longer produced and have become The hobby of collecting consists of acquiring specific items based on a particular interest of the collector. These collections of things are often highly organized, carefully cataloged, and attractively displayed. Since collecting depends on the interests of the individual collector, it may deal with almost any subject. The depth and... collectors items.

Contents

Development of polymer banknotes

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 20:32, 20 May 2004 . . Redux (9971 bytes) File links The following pages...
File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 20:32, 20 May 2004 . . Redux (9971 bytes) File links The following pages... Enlarge
A 10 The Real (plural reais) is the present monetary unit (currency) of Brazil. Real Bills. History Past The Real was the currency used by the first Portuguese settlers to arrive in the then New World, but the first official money to circulate bearing the name Real was actually printed in 1654... reais polymer The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazilian banknote released on April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. April begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Aries and ends in the sign of Taurus. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation of Pisces... April, 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000 as a special edition comemorating the country's 500th aniversary

Polymer banknotes were developed to increase the security of Australia's paper currency against counterfeiting. In 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1967 From Wikipedia 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). Events January January 3 - Edward Tyree III is born in Philadelphia, Pa. The Famous... 1967 forgeries of the Australian $10 note were found in circulation and the RBA was concerned about an increase in counterfeiting with the release of colour A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. Photocopying is a process which makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. The prevalence of its use is one of the factors that prevented the development of the paperless office heralded early in the... photocopiers that year. In 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). Events Undated Booker Prize for Fiction is established by Booker plc. 1968 is known as the year of the Prague Spring and also the year of the Paris riots. The ASCII character code is... 1968 the RBA started collaborations with the CSIRO and funds were made available in 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). For other uses, see Number 1969. For the movie, see 1969 (movie). Events January January 1 - Australian media baron Rupert Murdoch purchases the largest selling British Sunday newspaper The News Of The World January... 1969 for the experimental production of distinctive papers.


The insertion of an optically variable device (OVD) created from In optics, a diffraction grating is an array of fine, parallel, equally spaced grooves (rulings) on a reflecting or transparent substrate. When photons (electromagnetic energy) encounter a diffraction grating, diffractive and mutual interference effects occur. Photons are reflected or transmitted in discrete directions, called orders, or spectral orders. Because these... diffraction gratings in plastic as a security device inserted in banknotes was proposed in 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. Events January January 2 - the Pierre Hotel Heist - Six men rob the safety deposit boxes of the Pierre Hotel in New York City. Loot is at least $4 million January 5 - President of the United States Richard Nixon orders the... 1972. The first A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). The term patent originates from the latin word patere which means to lay open (to public... patent arising from the development of polymer banknotes was filed in 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. Events January January 1 - United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark enter the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union. January 3 - Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) sells the New York Yankees for $10 million to a 12-person syndicate led by George... 1973. In 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). Events January-February January 5 - Dungeons & Dragons officially released. February 3 - Prisoners Riot in Bathurst jail Riots much of jail destoyed by fire February 4 - Patricia Hearst, the 19 year old granddaughter of publisher William Randolph... 1974 the technique of A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. The process of creating a laminate is lamination, which usually refers to sandwiching something between layers of plastic and sealing them with heat and/or pressure. The materials used in laminates can be the same... lamination was used to combine materials; the all-plastic laminate eventually chosen was a clear, BOPP laminate, in which OVDs could be inserted without needing to punch holes. The BOPP substrate is processed through the following steps:

  • Opacifying - two layers of ink (usually white) are applied to each side of the note, except for an area(s) that is deliberately left clear for creating an OVD;
  • Sheeting - the substrate is cut into sheets suitable for the printing press;
  • Printing - traditional The Offset Printing process Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) first to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset... offset, Intaglio is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, or mezzotint. Collographs may also be printed as intaglio plates. To print an intaglio plate, the surface... intaglio and Letterpress printing is the oldest printing technique, in which a raised surface is inked and then pressed against a smooth substance to obtain an image in reverse. Early Chinese wood-blocks used characters or images carved in relief, and this form of image printing was known in Europe in the... letterpress Printing is an industrial process for reproducing copies of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is an essential part of publishing. Books are usually printed today using the technique of offset printing,and occasionally relief print, (which is principally used for newspapers and... printing processes are used; and
  • Overcoating - notes are coated with a protective Varnish is a finish applied to wood or other surfaces in order to provide a clear, hard, durable, protective finish. The materials used for varnishing are called drying oils. There are many types of drying oils, both natural and synthetic. Walnut oil and linseed oil are most often used in... varnish.

BOPP is a non-fibrous and non-porous polymer. Compared to paper banknotes, banknotes made using BOPP are more durable, harder to tear, more resistant to folding, more resistant to soil, easier to machine process, and are shreddable and The international symbol for recycling. Recycling is the reuse of materials that would otherwise be considered waste, usually in some other form (as compared to reuse, which is reuse of the material in the same form). Those materials can be sources from pre-consumer waste (materials used in manufacturing) or... recyclable at the end of their useful lives. On the downside, they cannot be stapled together, they have a slightly less robust feel in the hand due to their slipperiness, and their higher "springiness" makes them resistant to folding, which can cause wallets to spring open unexpectedly.


Security features

The traditional printed security features applied on paper can also be applied on polymer. These features include intaglio, offset and letterpress printing, latent images, Microprinting is one of many anti-counterfeiting techniques used most often on currency and bank checks, as well as various other items of value. Microprinting involves printing very small text, usually too small to read with the naked eye, onto the note or item. Microprint is frequently hidden in an... micro-printing, and intricate background patterns. Polymer notes can be different colours on the obverse and reverse sides. Like paper currency, polymer banknotes can incorporate a This Crown & CA (for Crown Agent) watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s. A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter when viewed by transmitted light (or darker when viewed by reflected light, atop a... watermark (an optically variable 'shadow image') in the polymer substrate. Shadow images can be created by the application of Optically Variable Ink (OVI) enhancing its fidelity and colour shift characteristics. A security thread is a security feature of many bank notes to protect against counterfeiting, consisting of a thin ribbon which is thread through the notes paper. Usually, the ribbon runs vertically, and is weaved into the paper, so that it at some places emerges on the front side... Security threads can also be embedded in the polymer note; they may be Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR, is a special kind of optical character recognition technology that was adopted mainly by the U.S. banking industry to facilitate the processing of checks. Almost all U.S. checks include MICR characters at the bottom of the paper in a font known as... magnetic, fluorescent, Phosphorescence is a radiative transition involving a change in the spin multiplicity of a molecule. Because of this change, the radiative transition is delayed, and the phosphorescent material glows a while after the incident illumination stops. Because of this, phosphorescent materials are most commonly called glow-in-the-dark. In... phosphorescent, microprinted, In data communications, cleartext is the form of a message or data which is transferred or stored without cryptographic protection. It is related to, but not entirely equivalent to, the term plaintext. The phrases, in clear and in the clear are equivalent. For example, The keys in the FOO protocol... clear text, as well as windowed. Like paper, the polymer can also be Embossing is the process of creating a three-dimensional image or design in paper. It is typically accomplished with a combination of heat and pressure on the paper. For embossing metal, see repoussé. Notarizing A notary public frequently uses embossing to mark legal papers, either in the form of an... embossed.


Polymer notes also enable new security features unavailable on paper, such as transparent windows, and In optics, a diffraction grating is an array of fine, parallel, equally spaced grooves (rulings) on a reflecting or transparent substrate. When photons (electromagnetic energy) encounter a diffraction grating, diffractive and mutual interference effects occur. Photons are reflected or transmitted in discrete directions, called orders, or spectral orders. Because these... diffraction grating.


The transparent window where the OVD is located is a key security feature of the polymer banknote. It is easily identifiable allowing anyone to be able to authenticate a banknote.


Because the polymer bank note contains many security features that cannot be successfully reproduced by photocopying or In computing, a scanner is a device which analyzes a physical image (such as a photograph, printed text, or handwriting) or an object (such as ornament) and converts it to a digital image. Most scanners today are variations on the desktop (or flatbed) scanner. Hand-held scanners, where the device... scanning, it is very difficult to counterfeit. The complexities of counterfeiting polymer banknotes are proposed to act as a deterrent to counterfeiters.


See also Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards. The main goal of security printing is to prevent forgery or counterfeiting. A number of technical methods are used in the security printing... Security printing


Adoption of polymer banknotes

Enlarge
20 Kina note from Papua New Guinea

Countries with notes printed on Guardian polymer in circulation include, in alphabetical order:

  • Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia, The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh ( Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. Bangladesh (বাং... Bangladesh, The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazil, The Sultanate of Brunei, more commonly referred to as Brunei Darussalam or simply Brunei, is an oil-rich country located on the island of Borneo, in southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded by Malaysia. Brunei is one of the members of... Brunei, The Republic of Chile is a country located on the southwestern coast of South America. It is a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. It shares borders with Argentina to the east, Bolivia to the northeast and Peru to the north. National... Chile, The Republic of Indonesia, the worlds largest archipelago, is located between the Southeast Asian peninsula and Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world and the fourth most populous overall. It has had free elections since the Indonesian 1998... Indonesia, The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. It consists of two geographical regions divided by the South China Sea: West Malaysia, commonly known as Peninsular Malaysia/Malay Peninsula, shares a land frontier on the north with Thailand and is connected by a causeway and a bridge on... Malaysia, The United Mexican States or Mexico ( Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by... Mexico, The Kingdom of Nepal, situated in the Himalaya, is the worlds only Hindu kingdom. It is in South Asia, sharing borders with China (Tibet Autonomous Region) and India. National motto: जननी जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर... Nepal, For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, north of Australia, and west of the Solomon Islands. National motto: Official languages English... Papua New Guinea, Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Ukraine and Moldova in the northeast, Hungary in the west and Serbia and Bulgaria to the south along the Danube river. Romania has a stretch of sea coast on the... Romania, National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital Singapore Largest city Singapore Government President Prime minister Westminster (de jure) Dominant-party (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Area  - Total  - Water (%) 697.1 km² (131st) 1.444 Population... Singapore, The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. The island was known in ancient times... Sri Lanka, The Kingdom of Thailand is a country in southeast Asia, bordering Laos and Cambodia to the east, the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia to the south, and the Andaman Sea and Myanmar to the west. Thailand is also known as Siam, which was the countrys official name until May... Thailand, The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. It borders China, Laos, Cambodia, and the Gulf of Tonkin. National motto: Ðộc lập, tự do, hạnh phúc (Vietnamese: Independence, Liberty, Happiness) Official language Vietnamese Capital Hanoi President Tran Duc Luong Prime... Vietnam, The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Previous names are Western Samoa from 1914 to 1997 and German Samoa from 1900 to 1914. National motto: Samoa is founded on God Official... Western Samoa and Zambia is a republic in south central Africa. It borders the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola. Zambias capital and largest city is Lusaka. National motto: One Zambia, One Nation Official languages English Capital Lusaka 15° 00′ S, 30° 00... Zambia.

Countries that have issued commemorative banknotes (which are not in circulation) on Guardian polymer include, in alphabetical order:

  • The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. Since its founding in 1949, it has been led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.3... China, People's Republic of, The Republic of China ( Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a multiparty democratic state that is composed of the... China, Republic of (Taiwan), This article is about the country of Kuwait. For the capital city with the same name, see Kuwait City The State of Kuwait is a small oil-rich monarchy on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed by Saudi Arabia in the south and Iraq in the north. Kuwait is... Kuwait, Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. It has a land border with the Republic of Ireland in the island of Ireland and is otherwise bounded by sea. It covers 14,139 square kilometres (5,459 square miles) in the north-east... Northern Ireland1, National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital Singapore Largest city Singapore Government President Prime minister Westminster (de jure) Dominant-party (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Area  - Total  - Water (%) 697.1 km² (131st) 1.444 Population... Singapore and the The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It consists of more than 990 islands, which together cover a land mass of 28,000 square kilometres. National motto: To Lead is to Serve Official... Solomon Islands.

In 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. Events Environmental change The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York January 7 - One of the worst blizzards in American history hits eastern... 1996, Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia was the first country with a full set of circulating polymer banknotes.


In 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999, For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand followed suit starting with the $20 note.


In 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999, Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Ukraine and Moldova in the northeast, Hungary in the west and Serbia and Bulgaria to the south along the Danube river. Romania has a stretch of sea coast on the... Romania was the first European country, and the third country in the world, to introduce a full set of circulating polymer banknotes.


In 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999, The Republic of China ( Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a multiparty democratic state that is composed of the... Taiwan, issued a 10 The New Taiwan Dollar (新臺幣 or 新台幣; ISO 4217 code TWD; old abbreviation NT$) or simply Taiwan Dollar is the common currency of the Republic of China (on Taiwan). It was issued by the Bank of Taiwan. Starting from July 3 2001, Central Bank of China... Yuan note to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the issuance of The New Taiwan Dollar (新臺幣 or 新台幣; ISO 4217 code TWD; old abbreviation NT$) or simply Taiwan Dollar is the common currency of the Republic of China (on Taiwan). It was issued by the Bank of Taiwan. Starting from July 3 2001, Central Bank of China... New Taiwan Dollar.


In April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. April begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Aries and ends in the sign of Taurus. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation of Pisces... April 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000, The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazil released a 10 The Real (plural reais) is the present monetary unit (currency) of Brazil. Real Bills. History Past The Real was the currency used by the first Portuguese settlers to arrive in the then New World, but the first official money to circulate bearing the name Real was actually printed in 1654... reais polymer bill in the 500th celebration of the Portuguese arrival in America. The Brazilian A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. On the whole the history of mints correlates very closely with the history of coins. One difference is that the history of the mint is normally related in a fashion that more closely ties to the political situation of the... Mint printed 250 million banknotes, around half the 10 reais bills available. The bills are considered by some to be less comfortable to use, since they don't fold as easily as the paper ones.


In 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000, The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. Since its founding in 1949, it has been led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.3... China (People's Republic) issued a 100 The renminbi (Traditional Chinese: 人民幣, Simplified Chinese: 人民币, literally means peoples currency) is the official currency of the Peoples Republic of China. It is issued by the Peoples Bank of China, the monetary authority of mainland China. The official ISO 4217 abbreviation is... Yuan note to commemorate the A millennium is a period of time equal to one thousand years. There are two main viewpoints about naming millennia and there was a popular debate leading up to the celebrations of the year 2000 as to whether 2000 was the beginning of a new millennium. Historically, there has been... Millennium.


In 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. Pascal Couchepin becomes President of the Confederation in... 2003, Zambia was the first African country to adopt polymer banknotes.


In 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004 it was estimated that there were over 3 billion polymer notes in service. It has also been suggested that the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States and a number of other countries are experimenting with polymer banknotes.


References

Notes

  1. Although the 5 pound Northern Bank, is a commercial bank, part of the National Australia Bank group. The bank is considered as one of the Big Four in Northern Ireland. Until 1988, the bank was a subsidary of the Midland Bank. In 1987, the banks operations in the Republic of Ireland was re... Northern Bank polymer banknote was a one-off commemorative issued, unconventionally, in portrait orientation to mark the year 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000, it was in general circulation. It is the only Northern Bank note currently in circulation which will not be affected by the proposed recall of all the bank's notes as a result of the 26.5 million pound raid on its This article is about the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland. See also: Belfast (disambiguation). Belfast is the largest city in Northern Ireland, with a population of 277,391. It is located at the mouth of the sea lough , Belfast Lough, and bounded to the north by the Antrim Hills... Belfast headquarters on December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 11 days remaining. Events 1522 - Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights of Rhodes, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta and become known... 20 December 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004.

  Results from FactBites:
 
International Polymer Currency Association (159 words)
The International Polymer Currency Association (IPCA) was formed to keep the Central Bank fraternity and the banknote industry abreast of the latest developments in polymer banknote technology.
Polymer banknote technology is challenging the traditional role of paper as the currency of choice.
Growing global interest in polymer indicates that the polymer banknote is set to play an integral role in the future of currency around the world.
Kuwait Polymer Bank Notes (1261 words)
On 26th February, 2002 a second 1 Dinar non legal tender polymer note commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Liberation was issued in a folder.
It is likely that the polymer used for these notes was manufactured in England at a plant owned by UCB SA.
Kuwait is the 5th country to issue an NPA based polymer note.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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