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Encyclopedia > Polymath
Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal "Renaissance Man".

A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, "having learned much")[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning.[3][4][5][6][7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ...


The dictionary definition is consistent with informal use, whereby someone very knowledgeable is described as a polymath when the term is used as a noun, or polymath or polymathic when used as adjectives. It especially means that the person's knowledge is not restricted to one subject area. The term is used rarely enough to be included in dictionaries of obscure words.[8][9] For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ...


Renaissance Man and (less commonly) Homo Universalis are related terms to describe a person who is well educated, or who excels, in a wide variety of subjects or fields.[10][11] This ideal developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72): that “a man can do all things if he will”. It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance Humanism, which considered man the centre of the universe, limitless in his capacities for development, and led to the notion that men should try to embrace all knowledge and develop their own capacities as fully as possible. Thus the gifted men of the Renaissance sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge, in physical development, in social accomplishments, and in the arts. By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Italian Renaissance was the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century following the Middle Ages. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ...

Contents

Related terms

Hildegard of Bingen, a medieval polymath, shown dictating to her scribe in an illumination from Liber Scivias

A different term for the secondary meaning of polymath is Renaissance Man (a term first recorded in written English in the early twentieth century).[12] Other similar terms also in use are Homo universalis and Uomo Universale, which in Latin and Italian, respectively, translate as "universal person" or "universal man". These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning[13] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences[14] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields). Further, the scope of learning was much narrower so gaining a command of the known accumulated knowledge was more feasible than today. When someone is called a Renaissance Man today, it is meant that he does not just have broad interests or a superficial knowledge of several fields, but rather that his knowledge is profound, and often that he also has proficiency or accomplishments[15][16][17][18] in (at least some of) these fields, and in some cases even at a level comparable to the proficiency or the accomplishments of an expert.[19] The related term Generalist[20] is used to contrast this general approach to knowledge to that of the specialist. (The expression Renaissance man today commonly implies only intellectual or scholastic proficiency and knowledge and not necessarily the more universal sense of "learning" implied by the Renaissance Humanism). It is important to note, however, that some dictionaries use the term Renaissance man as roughly synonym of polymath in the first meaning, to describe someone versatile with many interests or talents,[21] while others recognize a meaning which is restricted to the Renaissance era and more closely related to the Renaissance ideals.[22] hildegard receiving divine inspiration, from medieaval manuscript (p. ... hildegard receiving divine inspiration, from medieaval manuscript (p. ... Illumination from the Liber Scivias showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe and secretary Hildegard of Bingen (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German magistra who later founded convents (Rupertsberg in 1150... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The term Universal Genius is also used, taking Leonardo da Vinci as a prime example again. The term seems to be used especially when a Renaissance man has made historical or lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved and when he had a universality of approach. Despite the existence of this term, a polymath may not necessarily be classed as a genius; and certainly a genius may not display the breadth of knowledge to qualify as a polymath. Albert Einstein and Marie Curie are examples of people widely viewed as geniuses, but who are not generally considered to be polymaths. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ...


Renaissance ideal

Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned roughly the fourteenth through the seventeenth century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. They had a rounded approach to education which was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry, and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal. During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione, in his The Book of the Courtier, wrote a guide to being a polymath. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... This article is about the art form. ... An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal. ... i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Early Modern English cover of the Book of the Courtier. ...


The Renaissance Ideal differed slightly from the "Polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement. Historically (roughly 14501600) it represented a person who endeavored to "develop his capacities as fully as possible" (Britannica, "Renaissance Man") both mentally and physically. Being an accomplished athlete was considered integral and not separate from education and learning of the highest order. Example: Leon Battista Alberti, who was an architect, painter, poet, scientist, mathematician, and also a skilled horseman. // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ...


Some Renaissance Men

The following list provides examples of notable polymaths (in the secondary meaning only, that is, Renaissance men). Caution is necessary when interpreting the word polymath (in the second meaning or any of its synonyms) in a source, since there's always ambiguity of what the word denotes. Also, when a list of subjects in relation to the polymath is given, such lists often seem to imply that the notable polymath was reputable in all fields, but the most common case is that the polymath made his reputation in one or two main fields where he had widely recognized achievements, and that he was merely proficient or actively involved in other fields, but, once again, not necessarily with achievements comparable to those of renowned experts of his time in these fields. The list does not attempt to be comprehensive or authoritative in any way. The list also includes the Hakeem of the Islamic Golden Age (also known as the "Islamic Renaissance"), who are considered equivalent to the Renaissance Men of the European Renaissance era. During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many...


The following people represent prime examples of "Renaissance Men" and "universal geniuses", so to say "polymaths" in the strictest interpretation of the secondary meaning of the word.

  • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543); among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, classical scholar, translator, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat and economist. Amid his extensive responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation — yet it was in that field that he made his mark upon the world.
  • Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), "Italian scientist, physicist, and philosopher. Galileo was a true Renaissance man, excelling at many different endeavors, including lute playing and painting."[32]
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) "Germany's greatest man of letters—poet, critic, playwright, and novelist—and the last true polymath to walk the earth"[33] "Goethe comes as close to deserving the title of a universal genius as any man who has ever lived".[34] "He was essentially the last great European Renaissance man."[35] His gifts included incalculable contributions to the areas of German literature and the natural sciences. He is credited with discovery of a bone in the human jaw, and proposed a theory of colors. He has a mineral named in his honor, goethite. He molded the aesthetic properties of the Alps to poetry, thus, changing the local belief from "perfectly hideous" and an "unavoidable misery," to grandeur of the finest most brilliant creation.
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson, the third President of the United States, was "the walking, talking embodiment of the Enlightenment, a polymath whose list of achievements is as long as it is incredibly varied."[39]. At a dinner honoring Nobel laureates, John F. Kennedy famously said "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together in the White House—with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."[40]
  • Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716); "Leibniz was a polymath who made significant contributions in many areas of physics, logic, history, librarianship, and of course philosophy and theology, while also working on ideal languages, mechanical clocks, mining machinery..."[43] "A universal genius if ever there was one, and an inexhaustible source of original and fertile ideas, Leibniz was all the more interested in logic because it ..."[44] "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was maybe the last Universal Genius incessantly active in the fields of theology, philosophy, mathematics, physics, ...."[45] "Leibniz was perhaps the last great Renaissance man who in Bacon's words took all knowledge to be his province."[46]
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)[54][55] "In Leonardo Da Vinci, of course, he had as his subject not just an ordinary Italian painter, but the prototype of the universal genius, the 'Renaissance man,' ..."; "prodigious polymath.... Painter, sculptor, engineer, astronomer, anatomist, biologist, geologist, physicist, architect, philosopher, actor, singer, musician, humanist."[56]

Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This article is about the social science. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... An old geodetic pillar (1855) at Ostend, Belgium A Munich archive with lithography plates of maps of Bavaria Geodesy (pronounced [1]), also called geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravity field, in a three... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir (English: Great Book of Music) is a treatise on music in Arabic by al-Farabi. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... The modern Arab tone system, or system of musical tuning, is based upon the theoretical division of the octave into twenty_four equal divisions or 24_tone equal temperament, the distance between each successive note being a quarter tone (50 cents). ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... This article is about the material. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... Galileo redirects here. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Goethite, named after the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low temperature environments. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... See also list of military writers. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gravity. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... (c. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...

Renaissance ideal today

During the Renaissance, the ideal of Renaissance humanism included the acquisition of almost all available important knowledge. At that time, several universal geniuses seem to have come close to that ideal, with actual achievements in multiple fields. With the passage of time however, "universal learning" has begun to appear ever more self-contradictory. For example, a famous dispute between "Jacob Burckhardt (whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien of 1860 established Alberti as the prototype of the Renaissance Man) and Julius von Schlosser (whose Die Kunstliteratur of 1924 expresses discontent with Burckhardt's assessments on several counts)" deals with the issue of whether Alberti was indeed a dilettante or an actual Universal Man;[57] while an 1863 article about rhetoric said, for instance: "an universal genius is not likely to attain to distinction and to eminence in any thing [sic]. To achieve her best results, and to produce her most matured fruit, Genius must bend all her energies in one direction; strive for one object; keep her brain and hand upon one desired purpose and aim".[58] Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


Since it is considered extremely difficult to genuinely acquire an encyclopaedic knowledge, and even more to be proficient in several fields at the level of an expert (see expertise about research in this area), not to mention to achieve excellence or recognition in multiple fields, the word polymath, in both senses, may also be used, often ironically, with a potentially negative connotation as well. Under this connotation, by sacrificing depth for breadth, the polymath becomes a "jack of all trades, master of none". For many specialists, in the context of today's hyperspecialization, the ideal of a Renaissance man is judged to be an anachronism, since it is not uncommon that a specialist can barely dominate the accumulated knowledge of more than just one restricted subfield in his whole life, and many renowned experts have been made famous only for dominating different subfields or traditions or for being able to integrate the knowledge of different subfields or traditions. Expertise is the property of a person (that is, expert) or of a system which delivers a desired result such as pertinent information or skill. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, today, expertise is often associated with documents, certifications, diplomas, and degrees attributing to such and a person who seems to have an abundance of these is often perceived as having more education than practical "working" experience. Autodidactic polymaths often combine didactic education and expertise in multiple fields with autodidactic research and experience to create the Renaissance ideal. Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ... The Didactic is facts based as opposed to the Dialectic which is feelings based. ...


Many fields of interest take years of singleminded devotion to achieve expertise, often requiring starting at an early age. Also, many require cultural familiarity that may be inaccessible to someone not born and raised in that culture. In many such cases, it is realistically possible to achieve only knowledge of theory if not practical experience. For example, on a safari, a jungle native will be a more effective guide than an American scientist who may be educated in the theories of jungle survival but did not grow up acquiring his knowledge the hard way. The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Map of Africa 1890 Look up safari in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, those supporting the ideal of the Renaissance man today would say that the specialist's understanding of the interrelation of knowledge from different fields is too narrow and that a synthetic comprehension of different fields is unavailable to him, or, if they embrace the Renaissance ideal even more deeply, that the human development of the specialist is truncated by the narrowness of his view. What is much more common today than the universal approach to knowledge from a single polymath, is the multidisciplinary approach to knowledge which derives from several experts in different fields.


Polymath and polyhistor compared

Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or, as words with very similar meanings. Thomas Moore took the words as corresponding to similarly erudite "polys" in one of his poems "Off I fly, careering far/ In chase of Pollys, prettier far/ Than any of their namesakes are, / —The Polymaths and Polyhistors, Polyglots and all their sisters."[59]   This culture-related article is a stub. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... For other persons named Thomas Moore, see Thomas Moore (disambiguation). ...


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath. Thus today, regardless of any differentiation they may have had when originally coined, they are often taken to mean the same thing. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the war of Sulla and taken to Rome as a tutor. ...


The root terms histor and math have similar meanings in their etymological antecedents (to learn, learned, knowledge), though with some initial and ancillarily added differing qualities. Innate in historíā (Greek and Latin) is that the learning takes place via inquiry and narrative. Hístōr also implies that the polyhistor displays erudition and wisdom. From Proto-Indo-European it shares a root with the word "wit". Inquiry and narrative are specific sets of pedagogical and research heuristics. Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ...   This culture-related article is a stub. ... Look up erudition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... For heuristics in computer science, see heuristic (computer science) Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ...


Polyhistoric is the corresponding adjective. The word polyhistory (meaning varied learning), when used, is often derogatory.


List of recognized polymaths

The following people have been described as "polymaths" by several sources—fulfilling the primary definition of the term—although there may not be expert consensus that each is a prime example in the secondary meaning, as "renaissance men" and "universal geniuses" (see Some Renaissance Men above for prime examples of "renaissance men" or "universal geniuses").

  • Athanasius Kircher (b. 1601), "a 'polymath' if there ever was one. He studied a variety of subjects including... music, Egyptology, Sinology, botany, magnetism";[81] Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything (book title)[82]
  • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), "Lomonosov was a true polymath—physicist, chemist, natural scientist, poet and linguist...."[89]
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), some sources describe him as "polymath and President," putting "polymath" first;[90] John F. Kennedy famously commented, addressing a group of Nobel laureates, that it was "the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House—- with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."[91]
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography was foundational to the field of biogeography. An inveterate explorer and a prolific author, von Humboldt was a complex figure: the archetypic modern, rational, and international scientist.[92]
  • Rafael Francisco Osejo (1790–1848) "Born in Nicaragua and a prominent figure in the Independence of Central America, knowledgeable about mathematics, philosophy, politics, history and geography, was chamberlain of the Santo Tomas University in Costa Rica and occupied many positions in the government of several central American countries."
  • Joseph Pomeroy Widney (1841-1938); "[i]n a similarly polymathic vein, Joseph Widney was an early president of the University of Southern California...."[95]
  • Henri Poincaré, physicist and mathematician who dabbled extensively in practically every field in mathematics.
  • Jose Rizal (1861-1896), a Filipino polygot, linguist, novelist, poet, journalist, opthalmologist, anthropologist, ethnologist, artist, sociologist and national hero. Rizal's 1896 military trial and execution made him a martyr of the Philippine Revolution. He is considered to be the "Pride of the Malay race".
  • Edward Heron-Allen (1861–1943) "Heron-Allen is better described as a polymath..."[98] Not only was Heron-Allen a lawyer by trade, he also wrote, lectured on and created violins, was an expert on the art of chiromancy or palmistry, having read palms and analysed the handwriting of luminaries of the period. He wrote on musical, literary and scientific subjects ranging from foraminifera, marine zoology, meteorology, as a Persian scholar translated Classics such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and The Lament of Baba Tahir, also wrote on local geographic history, archeology, Buddhist philosophy, the cultivation, gourmet appreciation of and culture of the asparagus, as well as a number of novels and short stories of science fiction and horror written under his pseudonymn of "Christopher Blayre."
  • H. G. Wells (1866–1946); "Fifty years ago, the British polymath and amateur historian was able to compress the history of the world up to 1920 into one volume..."[99]
  • C. B. Fry (1872-1956), "Footballer, cricketer, politician and polymath"[100]
  • Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965), an Alsatian-German theologian, musician, philosopher, humanitarian, and physician. He is perhaps most famous for founding and sustaining the Lambaréné Hospital in Gabon, west central Africa, where he spent most of his life. He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of Reverence for Life ("Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben"), based on the conviction that the respect for life is the highest principle. His "The Problem of Peace" lecture is considered to be one of the best speeches ever given.
  • Le Corbusier (1887–1965), a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer, painter, poet, theorist, sculptor, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. In his 30s he became a French citizen. He was a pioneer in theoretical studies of modern design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. His career spanned five decades, with his iconic buildings constructed throughout central Europe, India, Russia, and one structure each in North and South America. He was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor, writer, and modern furniture designer.
  • André Malraux (1901-1976), French novelist, art historian, adventurer and politician;" France's first minister of culture and polymath extraordinaire"[102]
  • John von Neumann (1903–1957), Physicist, mathematician, contributions to game theory, economics, pioneering computer scientist. "It isn't often that the human race produces a polymath like von Neumann, then sets him to work in the middle of the biggest crisis in human history..."[103] "Other luminaries would follow Einstein to New Jersey, including the dazzling Hungarian polymath, John von Neumann..."[104]
  • Herbert Simon (1916-2001), "Simon is a very distinguished polymath, famous for work in psychology and computer science, philosophy of science, a leader in artificial intelligence, and a Nobel Prize winner in Economics."[105]
  • Richard Feynman (1918-1988), physicist, mathematician, author, artist and musician.

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Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... A cosmetologist, sometimes called beautician or beauty specialist, is someone who specializes in giving beauty treatments, usually to women. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... 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This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Hemachandra SurÄ« (Sanskrit: ) (1089–1172) was an Indian Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... 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An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... For other meanings of this term, see Futurists (disambiguation). ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... An armorer or armourer (see spelling differences) was in former times a smith who specialized in manufacturing and repairing arms and armour. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lace (disambiguation). ... A variety of rulers A 2 metre carpenters rule Retractable flexible rule A ruler or rule is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight lines. ... In many countries, Technologists are synonymous with applied scientists or engineers. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... This article needs cleanup. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy, and related to the natural sciences, like physics, psychology and the biology of the brain; and also to mysticism, religion, and other spiritual subjects. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... This article is about the title or occupation. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... A bibliography is an overview of (almost) all publications in some category: works of some author publications about some specific subject publications published in some specific country publications published in some specific period publications mentioned in, or relevant to, a particular work (a bibliography of this type, sometimes called a... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Ibrahim Muteferrika (1674-1742) ran the first official press of the Ottoman Empire, publishing its first book in 1729. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... A political theorist is someone who engages in political theory. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Slit experiment redirects here. ... In fluid dynamics, the Young–Laplace equation describes the pressure difference over a meniscus between two fluids, where is the pressure difference over the interface, the surface tension, and and are the principal radii of curvature at the interface. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Mary Somerville Mary Somerville (December 26, 1780 – November 28, 1872) was a Scottish science writer and polymath, at a time when womens participation in science was discouraged. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... This article or section should include material from Erdmessung. ... Look up Surveyor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... In philosophy and sociology a phenomenologist applies the method termed phenomenology by Edmund Husserl to analyze nature, reality or social interactions. ... ... A logician is a philosopher, mathematician, or other whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy, and related to the natural sciences, like physics, psychology and the biology of the brain; and also to mysticism, religion, and other spiritual subjects. ... Joseph P. Widney during his tenure as President of USC Joseph Pomeroy Widney, M.A., M.D., LL.D., D.D. (December 26, 1841 — July 4, 1938) was a polymathic pioneer American physician, medical topographer, scholar-educator, clergyman, entrepreneur-philanthropist, proto-environmentalist, prohibitionist, philosopher of religion, controversial racial theorist, and... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Jagdish Chandra Bose (November 30, 1858–November 23, 1937) was a leading physicist of his age. ... Bangla Science Fiction is a rich part of Bengali literature. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... José Rizal José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 - December 30, 1896) is the national hero of the Philippines. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Like the Bengali language, Bengali poetry traces its lineage to Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... Bengali theatre means theatres in which the dialogues are in the language Bengali. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Designer is a broad term for a person who designs any of a variety of things. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Modern furniture refers to furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present that is influenced by modernism. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... William James Sidis (April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic abilities. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογος (logos) word, reason, plan) is the quantitative (usually mathematical) study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Mass transit redirects here. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 – November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... This article is about the physicist. ... Origins Ideas Topics Related Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Mathematical statistics uses probability theory and other branches of mathematics to study statistics from a purely mathematical standpoint. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Harvard redirects here. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Polyglot has several meanings: Look up Polyglot on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The property of speaking multiple languages A polyglot is a person that can speak many languages A polyglot is a book that contains the same text in more than one language, usually a bible such as the first... College name Clare College Named after Elizabeth de Clare Established 1326 Previously named University Hall (1326-1338) Clare Hall (1338-1856) Location Trinity Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... Affirming Catholicism is a movement operating in several provinces of the Anglican Communion. ... The Society of Catholic Priests is a religious society of priests in the Anglican Communion. ... A gorsedd (SAMPA /gO:rsED/), occasionally spelled gorseth, plural gorseddau, is a community of bards. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Canadian-American refers to a member of that group of people living in the United States who were born, raised, or (to a lesser extent) possess ancestral ties to Canada. ... Rendering of human brain Cognitive science is most simply defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... The computational theory of mind is the view that the human mind is best conceived as an information processing system very similar to or identical with a digital computer. ...

"'Polymath' sportsmen"

In Britain, phrases such as "polymath sportsman," "sporting polymath," or simply "polymath" are occasionally used in a restricted sense to refer to athletes that have performed at a high level in several very different sports. (One whose accomplishments are limited to athletics would not be considered to be a "polymath" in the usual sense of the word). Examples would include:

"...I really never imagined myself being a professional athlete." Howard Francis Baker (1 March 1888-16 January 1964) was a Major League Baseball third baseman who played for 3 seasons. ... Maxwell Max Woosnam (September 6, 1892 – July 14, 1965) was a British amateur sportsman who excelled in many sports during the early part of the 20th century. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Vincent Edward Bo Jackson (born November 30, 1962 in Bessemer, Alabama) is an American athlete and a former multi-sport professional. ...


Fictional polymaths

Sherlock and Mycroft Holmes, Nero Wolfe, Gregory House of House M.D., Robert Goren of Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Citan Uzuki of Xenogears, Buckaroo Banzai, Artemis Fowl II, Grand Admiral Thrawn of Star Wars, Dunstan Ramsay of Robertson Davies's novel Fifth Business, Professor Abraham Van Helsing of Bram Stoker's Dracula, Batman, Mister Peabody, Gil Grissom of CSI: Las Vegas, Agent Pendergast, Hannibal Lecter, Doc Savage, Mr. Spock of Star Trek, James Bond, Jarod of The Pretender, Dess of Midnighter's Trilogy by Scott Westerfeld, Charlie of Heroes, MacGyver and many main characters in the novels of Robert A. Heinlein could fairly be described as polymaths. This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... Mycroft Holmes as depicted by Sidney Edward Paget in Strand Magazine Mycroft Holmes is a fictional character in the stories written by Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Bitter End — Carl Mueller illustrated Rex Stouts first Nero Wolfe novella for The American Magazine (November 1940) Nero Wolfe is a fictional detective, created by the American mystery writer Rex Stout, who made his debut in 1934. ... Dr. Gregory House, M.D., is a fictional character and protagonist of the Fox medical drama House. ... House, also known as House, M.D., is an American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... Law & Order: Criminal Intent is a United States crime drama television series that began in 2001. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Xenogears ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ... Buckaroo Banzai Buckaroo Banzai is the lead character, played by Peter Weller, of the eponymous 1984 cult film, The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension. ... For the first book in the series, see Artemis Fowl (novel). ... This article is about the series. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913, at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... Book cover Fifth Business is perhaps Robertson Davies best-known novel, and is widely considered his finest. ... Helsing and Van Helsing redirect here. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the novel. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Sherman (left) and Mr. ... Gilbert Gil Grissom, Ph. ... Dr. Aloysius X. L. Pendergast is a fictional character appearing in novels by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. ... Hannibal Lecter is a fictional character in a series of novels by author Thomas Harris. ... Doc Savage is a fictional character, one of the pulp heroes of the 1930s and 1940s. ... This article is about the Star Trek character. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... This article is about the spy series. ... The Pretender is an American television series that aired on NBC for four seasons between 1996 and 2000. ... This is an alphabetical list of characters with special abilities appearing in the television series Heroes as well as the Heroes graphic novels. ... Heroes is an American science fiction serial drama television series created by Tim Kring, which premiered on NBC on September 25, 2006. ... MacGyver is an American adventure television series about an extremely resourceful secret agent named Angus Mac MacGyver, played by Richard Dean Anderson. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ...


Polymaths in fiction often have a certain eccentricity about their knowledge, e.g., Doctor Who: "He claims he's (a doctor) of everything." The Doctor is the only known name of the central character in the long-running BBC television science-fiction series Doctor Who, and also featured in a vast range of spin-off novels, audio dramas and comic strips connected to the series. ...


In the film Phenomenon, John Travolta plays a character who has inexplicably and suddenly become a budding polymath-type individual, somewhat akin to the character in Flowers for Algernon. Phenomenon is a 1996 drama, romance, and fantasy film written by Gerald Di Pego, directed by Jon Turteltaub, and starring John Travolta, Kyra Sedgwick, Forest Whitaker, and Robert Duvall. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... Flowers for Algernon is a science fiction story and play written by Daniel Keyes. ...


See also

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Philomath (pronunciation: FIL-oh-math) is defined as a lover of learning, from Greek philos (beloved, loving, as in philosophy or philanthropy) + Greek manthanein, math- (to learn, as in polymath). ...   This culture-related article is a stub. ... Look up Polyglot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polymath is a science fiction novel by John Brunner, first published in 1974 by DAW Books, based on a shorter story by the same author written in 1963. ... The Competent Man is a stock character who can do anything well. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ the term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Harper, Daniel (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  2. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/dictionary/polymath
  3. ^ Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  4. ^ Definition from Wordsmyth
  5. ^ Definition from Oxford concise dictionary
  6. ^ Definition from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language
  7. ^ See Reference.com for examples of actual use
  8. ^ Luciferous Logolepsy - P
  9. ^ Dictionary of Difficult Words - polymath
  10. ^ Encarta dictionary
  11. ^ Cambridge dictionary
  12. ^ Harper, Daniel (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  13. ^ Renaissance man (definition)
  14. ^ Renaissance man. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  15. ^ Encarta dictionary
  16. ^ Infoplease.com
  17. ^ Ultralingua - English to German, Italian, Spanish, and French Online Dictionary
  18. ^ Renaissance man (definition)
  19. ^ va=Renaissance man - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  20. ^ Ultralingua - English to German, Italian, Spanish, and French Online Dictionary
  21. ^ Oxford concise dictionary
  22. ^ Infoplease.com
  23. ^ Top 100 Events of the Millennium, Life magazine.
  24. ^ Caroline Stone, "Doctor, Philosopher, Renaissance Man", Saudi Aramco World, May-June 2003, p. 8–15.
  25. ^ Paul Murdin (2000). "al-Biruni, Abu Raihan (973–1048)", Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol.
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  40. ^ William C. Spragens (1988). Popular Images of American Presidents. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 031322899X. , p. 27
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  42. ^ Marvin E. Gettleman and Stuart Schaar (2003), The Middle East and Islamic World Reader, p. 54, Grove Press, ISBN 0802139361.
  43. ^ Shand, John (2005). Central Works of Philosophy, Volume 2: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN. , ch. 3, "G. W. Leibnitz: Monadology," by Douglas Burnham; p. 61
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  60. ^ The Egyptian Building Mania, Acta Divrna, Vol. III, Issue IV, January, 2004.
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  62. ^ Heater, Derek (2004). A Brief History Of Citizenship. New York University Press. ISBN. , "Aristotle was an extraordinary polymath, although only two of his great range of works, which were probably in origin lectures, interest us here."p. 16
  63. ^ Bio-Bibliographies, United States National Library of Medicine.
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  66. ^ Yasmin Khan (2006), 1000 years of missing science, Science Museum.
  67. ^ Hiram Woodward (2004). Review of Indian esoteric Buddhism: A social history of the Tantric movement by Ronald M. Davidson, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 35, p. 329–354.
  68. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Page 111.
  69. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Pages 32–33.
  70. ^ Shen Kua, Science and Its Times, Thomson Gale.
  71. ^ "a...polymath".Omar Khyam, The Iconoclast, New English Review, 1 May 2007.
  72. ^ Walter H. Maurer (1971). Review of Pramana-Naya-Tattvalokalamkara of Vadi Devasuri by Hari Satya Bhattacharya by Hari Satya Bhattacharya, Philosophy East and West 21 (1) p. 98–99.
  73. ^ John E. Cort (November 1999). Review of Hemacandra, R. C. C. Fynes, The Lives of the Jain Elders, The Journal of Asian Studies 58 (4), p. 1166–1167.
  74. ^ Avempace, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  75. ^ Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi, Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World.
  76. ^ Brand, Peter; Lino Pertile (1999). The Cambridge History of Italian Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.  "Leon Battista Alberti), more versatile than Bruni, is often considered the archetype of the Renaissance polymath." p. 138
  77. ^ a b Irfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", Social Scientist 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4].
  78. ^ Mughal, Art of India, Victoria and Albert Museum, Adam Matthew Publications.
  79. ^ William Gervase Clarence Smith, Science and technology in early modern Islam, c.1450-c.1850, p. 25, London School of Economics.
  80. ^ A. K. Bag (2005), "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", Indian Journal of History of Science 40 (3), pp. 431-436.
  81. ^ Barfield, Owen A. (1999). A Barfield Reader. Wesleyan University Press. , p. 47
  82. ^ Findlen (ed), Paula (2004). Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything. Routledge (U. K.). ISBN. , p. 209: "the Jesuit polymath Athanasius Kircher"
  83. ^ Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East. Open Court Publishing, 234. ISBN 0812695186. 
  84. ^ Dankoff, Robert (2004). An Ottoman Mentality: The World of Evliya Celebi. BRILL, 223. ISBN 9004137157. 
  85. ^ Euronet website
  86. ^ Vefa Erginbas (2005), Forerunner Of The Ottoman Enlightenment: Ibrahim Muteferrika and His Intellectual Landscape, p. 1 & 46-47, Sabancı University.
  87. ^ Presentation of Katip Çelebi, Kitâb-i Cihân-nümâ li-Kâtib Çelebi, at the Utrecht University Library
  88. ^ Jehlen, Myra; Michael Warner (1997). The English Literatures of America,. Routledge. ISBN.  p. 667
  89. ^ Chorley, Richard J.; Robert P Beckinsale (1991). The History of the Study of Landforms Or the Development of Geomorphology. Routledge. ISBN. : "Lomonosov was a true polymath—physicist, chemist, natural scientist, poet and linguist...."p. 169
  90. ^ Kennedy, Barbara A. (2006). Inventing the Earth: Ideas on Landscape Development Since 1740. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN.  "Jefferson, Thomas). Polymath and third President of the USA."p. 132
  91. ^ Rees, Nigel (2003). Cassell's Humorous Quotations. Sterling Publishing Company. ISBN.  p. 392. Note that Jefferson is identified as "American Polymath and President."
  92. ^ Holloway, Sarah; Stephen Rice, Gill Valentine (2003). Key Concepts in Geography. Sage Publications, Inc.. ISBN.  p. 27
  93. ^ Newsome, David (1999). The Victorian World Picture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.  "Coleridge was unquestionably a polymath, with a universal knowledge unequalled by any thinker of his day." p. 259
  94. ^ Elizabeth Campbell Denlinger (2005). Before Victoria: extraordinary women of the British Romantic era. Columbia University Press. ISBN. , p. 135: "Somerville was the most celebrated woman scientist of her time. A polymath, she wrote on astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, among other subjects..."
  95. ^ Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (Vintage: 1992).
  96. ^ A versatile genius, Frontline 21 (24), 2004.
  97. ^ Rabindranath Tagore, Time 100.
  98. ^ R.B. Russell, Tartarus Press.
  99. ^ Whitman, Alden (1972): "A World History by 42 Professors," The New York Times, July 18, 1972, p. 23: "Fifty years ago, the British polymath and amateur historian was able to compress the history of the world up to 1920 into one volume of 1171 pages weighing 3 pounds 3 ounces.... Now a somewhat similar book, concededly inspired by Well's, has been published. It is the work not of one man, but of 42."
  100. ^ Steer, Duncan (2003). Cricket: The Golden Age. Cassell illustrated. ISBN-X.  "Footballer, cricketer, politician and polymath C.B. Fry, now commander of a Royal Navy training ship" p.51
  101. ^ Prodigy
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  103. ^ Howard Rheingold (2000). Tools for Thought: the history and future of mind-expanding technology. MIT Press. ISBN. , p. 66
  104. ^ Rebecca Goldstein (2005). Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Godel. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN. , p. 19
  105. ^ Brown, James Robert (1999). Philosophy of Mathematics: An Introduction to a World of Proofs and Pictures. Routledge. ISBN. , p. 51
  106. ^ Nozick, Robert (1981). Philosophical Explainations. Harvard. , Philosophical Explainations
  107. ^ Leading Article: This awkward priest is a herald of good news | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  108. ^ VIRTUOSITY archives - January 2002, week 3 (#10)
  109. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/id/135380/page/2
  110. ^ Cox, Richard (2002). Encyclopedia of British Football. Routledge. ISBN.  p. 15
  111. ^ Brian Viner (2006-10-12). Sporting polymath is a full-time post for which only obsessives need apply: It is hard to get the head round the idea that one man excelled in so many sports. The Independent. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.: "I read a book by Mick Collins called All-Round Genius: The Unknown Story of Britain's Greatest Sportsman. It is about a man called Max Woosnam, who...toured Brazil with the famous Corinthians football team in 1913... won an Olympic gold medal for tennis, played golf off scratch, scored a century at Lord's, and made a 147 break on the snooker table."

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Further reading

  • Polymath: A Renaissance Man
  • Modern Polymaths
  • "History", "Mathematics", "Polymath" and "Polyhistor" in one or more of: Chamber's Dictionary of Etymology, The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories, The Cassell Dictionary of Word Histories

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is a polymath? (383 words)
Anyone can be a polymath as long as he or she has the right motivation.
The polymath seeks to develop a highly tuned mental processing unit (MPU), which is really the computer everyone should be most concerned with.
It is the mind in control of emotions, but also the genuine integration of feelings and sensibilities with thought, so the polymath is also a poet, a composer, an artist, or a novelist perhaps.
Polymath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1225 words)
As informally used in contemporary discussion, a "polymath" is someone known to be skillful or to excel in a broad range of intellectual fields.
Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
A polymath may not necessarily be classed as a genius, which is a related classification; and certainly a genius may not display the breadth of knowledge to qualify as a polymath.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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