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 This box: view  talk  edit  Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Suitor redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infatuation (disambiguation). ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... Polyfidelity, is a form of polyamorous group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members of this group. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... A sexual partner is a person with whom one engages in sex acts. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

In social anthropology, polygyny is the practice of having more than one wife at the same time. This is different than having many sexual partners, which can occur outside marriage, for example as concubinage, casual sexual partners, paramours, and recognized secondary partners. Polygyny is the most common form of polygamy. Marriage itself takes an enormous range of forms cross-culturally. Social anthropology is the branch of anthropology that studies how currently living human beings behave in social groups. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...

In biology, polygyny is a mating practice in which a male has more than one female sexual partner (the converse, where a female has more than one male sexual partner, is called polyandry). In eusocial insects polygamy refers to situations where a colony has multiple queens, and polyandry refers to queens that mate with several males. There are extensive cross-cultural research findings on polygamy by social anthropologists and others. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ...

The term polygyny comes from neo-Greek: πολύ poly "many" + γυνή gyny "woman".

Definitions concerning polygamy as formal or persistent relationship structures may be taken to refer to a system in which a male has relationships with a relatively defined social group of more than one female, or where the females are predominantly bonded to a single male, or where a combination of these features occurs, as in a harem structure where many women are openly involved. For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ...


In human societies

Polygamy has been practiced in many cultures throughout history. It was accepted in Hebrew society, in classical China, and in many traditional African and Polynesian cultures. In India it was practiced since ancient times.[citation needed] It was accepted in ancient Greece, until the Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church when having one wife, but multiple lovers became the norm. It was legalized in Sub-saharan Africa for most of the past two millennia. Messianic Christianity allowed and still allows polygamy in most non-western or non-Catholic controlled countries; it is regulated in the New Testament but not banned. This article is about the Hebrew people. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...

In the United States, polygyny or "Plural Marriage" was allowed in the early history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon -- LDS) church. It ended in 1890 under the president of the LDS church at the time, Wilford Woodruff. Since 1904, members of the LDS church face excommunication for being polygynous, though several sects who have broken away from the LDS church continue to practice it despite it being illegal today in the United States. These sects are not officially sanctioned by or affiliated with the LDS church. Most, if not all, have been excommunicated from the LDS church. Plural marriage is a type of polygyny taught by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The early history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is shared by the larger Latter Day Saint movement, which originated in upstate New York under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Wilford Woodruff (March 1, 1807 – September 2, 1898) was the fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1889 until his death. ...


In some societies only well-to-do men could afford to have more than one wife, particularly if each wife required maintenance of a separate household. The current traditional form of Islam permits as many as four wives, but depending on financial circumstances fewer wives are more common.

Even where accepted, polygymy will probably never involve the majority of men and women. Given a typical male to female ratio, imbalance of percentages of married/non-married people in the society is not a unique situation of polygamy: some men and women never obtain mates in monogamous cultures.

The required inheritance of widows requires men in some societies to marry the widow of a deceased brother. This levirate marriage helps provide support for her and increases his number of wives. Not to be confused with Levite. ...

Modern polygamy

For more details on this topic, see Polyamory.

Polygamous marriages are not recognized in approximately 20% of modern societies[citation needed]. In societies where polygynous marriage is banned, polygamous male behavior may be observed in the establishment of mistresses, who are openly or secretly supported. Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ...

In some cases the male may have a separate family with a non-legally recognized wife, supporting her and his children. In some situations the wife not only is aware of the husband's mistress, but also helps him select a "suitable" one. Mistresses and concubines rank lower than a wife and in some societies, are placed under her authority.[citation needed] A man may have as many full wives as he can support, with concubines assigned to each wife to aid in managing the large family.

Recent years have seen the emergence of polygynandry, or group marriage, with multiple numbers of both sexes.

Wives in a polygamous marriage

One modern viewpoint is that polygamy degrades women, treating them as property and slaves. The inferior position that women experienced in polygynous societies is not acceptable by modern Western standards.

Historically this has not been an accurate assessment.[citation needed] Polygamy was used in some societies to enhance certain genetic characteristics, and to weed out unhealthy characteristics[citation needed]. Moreover, owing to the propensity of men to serve and die in wars or labor incidents[citation needed], women, for centuries, were more likely than men to be left unmarried or widowed. Polygamy ensured that such women were cared for and also helped ensure the births of the large numbers of children required for the survival of pre-mechanized, largely-agrarian cultures in which early mortality rates were high[citation needed].

In historical China, a child was considered to have more than one mother[citation needed]. For example, a child might have up to four mothers, the first wife being the "official mother" (嫡母), in spoken language is called "big mother" (大媽). The others being regarded as unofficial mothers (庶母) ,in spoken language is called "little mother" (小媽) or "aunt" (阿姨, 姨娘) . However, this custom was primarily a result of the concubinage system, where only the first wife was considered the "real" wife, the mistress of the household. The concubines usually provided pleasure and servitude only, and their children were not regarded as officially theirs.

Sororal polygymy

Sororal polygymy is a type of marriage in which two or more sisters share one or more husbands. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with marriage. ...

With polygyny, jealousy between co-wives over perceived unequal attention from or access to their shared husband is common[citation needed]. However, this is often avoided, or at least reduced, by giving each wife a separate house and a ranked status. The first wife is usually in a commanding position. Rivalry is also reduced by sororal polygyny , which is sisters marrying the same man. The assumption is that sisters will be more likely to amicably share a husband. The most disruptive rivalry in a polygynous family is often between the children, especially if there is something important to inherit, such as a royal title or wealth. This also results in rivalry between the mothers. The typical way of avoiding this situation is to formally define the eldest son or daughter of the senior wife as the heir apparent.

Polygyny in context


Polygyny was practiced by many of the patriarchs in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament including Abraham, Jacob, Moses, David and King Solomon, and was practiced throughout the time of the New Testament. Historically, polygynous groups have been persecuted, some to near extinction such as native North Americans. Many Christians in the United States believe that polygyny is wrong and claim there is New Testament Biblical evidence to support that stance. Matthew 19:4-6 (KJV) states, "And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, 5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder." This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...

The New Testament Church did ban polygyny for Bishops (1 Timothy 3:2). The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. ...

East Asia

Procreation, or having offspring, is a very important value in Chinese societies and families. China has practiced polygyny for thousands of years. Polygyny had been legal and was written in the law as recently as the end of the Qing/Ching dynasty of the imperial China (1911).

A part of the Confucian tradition indicates the importance of procreation, as it is considered to be part of filial piety. Therefore, it is possible that this type of thinking influenced the view towards polygyny.

On a side note, there is a traditional Chinese phrase saying "A wife is not as good as a concubine" (妻不如妾)This saying probably just describe the mindset of some men who prefer the young and the pretty of their own choosing, rather than wives through arranged marriages.

In the past, Emperors could have hundreds to thousands of concubines. And subsequently rich officials and merchants could also have a number of concubines besides wives. The first wife is head or mother wife, other wives are under her headship if the husband is away, and others are concubines and have lower status than the full wives. Offspring from concubines did receive equal wealth/legacy from their father.

The original wife is referred to as the 正室 (main room) both in China, Japan & Korea. 大婆 (big woman/big wife) is the slang term. Both indicate the orthodox nature and hierarchy. The official wife is either called "big mother" (大媽), mother or auntie. The child of the concubine simply addresses the big mother as auntie.

The written word for the second woman (and literally means "she who occupied the side room") is 側室. This word is also used in both China and Japan. They are also called 妾 in China and Korea.

The common terms referring to the second woman and the act of having the second woman respectively are 二奶 (er nai / yi nai), literally "the second wife". The terms have been widely used in the media. [1] Though illegal, it is still practiced by many richer men who can afford to support a mistress and her subsequent children. The mass media often report polygyny cases of the rich and the famous. Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ...

People's Republic of China (PRC)

In modern mainland China, polygamy (and by extension polygyny) is illegal under Marriage Law passed in 1951[citation needed], except for those members of an ethnic minority who traditionally practice polygamy (both polygyny and polyandry). Polygyny was seen as a characteristic of the bourgeoisie and as such, many senior Communist leaders who had mistresses and concubines during the Long March were forced to disband them. Because of this, polygyny is virtually unheard of in China today This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the large-scale retreat. ...

However, with the opening up of the country and the increased contact with Hong Kong and Taiwan, certain polygamous activities began appearing. Cross-border polygyny is ever increasing between PRC, Hong Kong and ROC.[citation needed].

Taiwan - Republic of China (ROC)

Polygyny is illegal. However, it is common for some richer Taiwanese to have secret second lovers who become concubines not living together with the wife[citation needed]. Taiwanese merchants, businessmen and workers are stationed in mainland China during work trips, and it is usual to keep secret lovers or even secret families there.

Hong Kong & Macau

Polygyny was banned in October of 1971 but the practice is still evident. A famous example is Dr Stanley Ho who owned the Macau Casino in Lisboa. He has 4 wives. His uncle has 12 wives.[citation needed] Stanley Ho, GBS (born November 25, 1921), also known as Ho Hung-sun, Stanley Ho Hung-sun (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is an entrepreneur in Hong Kong and Macau. ...

In Hong Kong, since work pressure is extremely high and birth rate is the lowest among the world, many Hong Kong businessmen keep a secret concubine across the border in mainland China.[citation needed] One of the reasons is that the cost of maintaining a second family there in the PRC is lower. Girls in mainland China are also more willing to be a full-time mother at a younger age.

In a research paper of Berlin Humboldt University on sexology, Doctor Man-Lun Ng quoted that the estimation of about 300,000 men have mistresses in China. In 1995, 40% of the extramarital affairs involved a stable partner [2] International Herald Tribune Kevin Murphy had reported the cross-border polygyny phenomenon in Hong Kong in 1995. [3] The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ...

Period drama exists and is performed to this day which depicts the former culture of the polygamy (usually polygyny) practice. A famous example: one of the saga (The Deer and the Cauldron / The Duke of the Mount Deer) by Hong Kong famous writer Louis Cha (Jin Yong): he assigned 7 willing wives for the very capable leading role Wei Xiaobao (WaiSiu-Bo) who is a successful double spy good at office politics and human relations. The fiction and subsequent films and television drama became immensely popular among Chinese societies across the world. Oxford University Press edition of Louis Chas final wuxia novel, The Deer and the Cauldron The Deer and the Cauldron (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) or The Duke of Mount Deer is the last novel written by Jinyong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Louis Cha, (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong or Kam-yung, is one of the most influential Chinese-language novelists. ... Jin Yong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jīn Yōng; Cantonese Yale: Gàm Yùhng), born February 6, 1924, pen name of Louis Cha (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), OBE, is one of the most influential modern Chinese-language novelists. ...


Main article: Polygyny in Islam

Most majority Muslim countries (except Albania, Tunisia, Turkey, and former USSR republics) retain traditional Sharia which interpret the teachings of the Quran to permit polygyny up to four wives. Albania is a country where although about 70% of the population is historically Muslim, majority is non-confessional. Turkey and Tunisia are countries with absolute majority Muslim populations (99.8% and 98% respectively) that enforce secularist practices by law. In former USSR republics, prohibition of polygyny is the heritage of the Soviet Law. Currently there is a revival of polygyny in the Muslim World and there have been attempts to re-legalise and/or re-legitimise it in some countries and communities where it is illegal. This is a sub-article to Polygyny and Islamic marital jurisprudence In Islam, Polygyny is allowed, thus Muslim males can have more than one wife at the same time. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Generally, a Muslim is defined by faith in the religion of Islam; however, in the modern world there are religiously unobservant, agnostic or atheist individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background or personal experiences. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... The Law of the Soviet Union—also known as Soviet Law, or Socialist Law—was the law that developed in the Soviet Union following the Russian Revolution of October 1917; modified versions of it were adopted by many Communist states (see below) following the Second World War. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...



Ramzan Kadyrov, President of the Chechen Republic, was quoted on radio saying that the depopulation of Chechnya by war justifies legalizing polygamy/polygyny. [4] Kadyrov was supported by Nafigallah Ashirov, the Chairman of the Council of Grand Muftis of Russia. Ashirov stated that polygyny is already widespread among Muslim communities of the country. [5] Polygyny is illegal throughout the Russian Federation but it is tolerated in predominantly Muslim republics such as Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Dagestan. [6] Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (Russian: Рамзан Ахмадович Кадыров) (born 5 October 1976, Tsentoroi, Chechnya) is the President of Chechnya and a former Chechen rebel. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 79th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th _ est. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Although non-Muslim Russian populations are historically monogamous, Russian liberal democratic leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky offers to legalise polygyny in order to tackle the demographic crisis of Russians. Zhirinovsky who made his first proposal of legalisation of polygyny as early as 1993, after Kadyrov's statement declared that he would introduce an amendment to legalise polygyny for all Russian citizens. [7][8] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


In Kyrgyzstan, a proposal to decriminalise polygyny came before the Kyrgyz parliament. Although illegal, polygyny is a traditional practice revived in Kyrgyzstan. On March 26, 2007, despite strong backing of the Justice Minister, country's ombudsman, and Muslim Women's organisation Mutakalim that gathered 40,000 signatures in favour of polygyny, the parliament rejected the bill. President Kurmanbek Bakiyev is known as a prominent opponent of legalising polygyny. [9] [10] March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев - variously transliterated; born 1 August 1949) is the President of Kyrgyzstan. ...


Due to subsequent increase in number of polygamous marriages, proposals were made in Tajikistan to re-legalise polygyny. [11] Tajik women who want to be second wives are particularly supportive of decriminalising polygyny. Mukhiddin Kabiri, the Deputy Chairman of Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan states that legislation is unlikely to stop the growth in polygyny and criticises the ruling élite for speaking out against the practice while taking more than one wife themselves. [12] The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRP; Tajik: Нашрияи Ҳизби Наҳзати Исломии Тоҷикистон; also known as the Islamic Renaissance of Tajikistan, the Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan, the Islamic Party of Revival, or simply the Islamic Renaissance Party) is an Islamist political party in Tajikistan. ...

Other former USSR republics

There were also recent arguments in favour of re-legalising polygyny in other Muslim ex-Soviet republics like Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan. [13]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Muslim communities of Bosnia and Herzegovina had been traditionally known as practicing polygyny at a very limited level. The custom last existed in Cazinska Krajina in the early 1950s. [14] Although illegal in the country, polygyny is encouraged by certain religious circles and there is a current increase in number. This trend is usually seen linked with the advent of Wahhabism in the Balkans. [15] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 356 km² Population (2006 census) 22,832 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Nermin Ogrešević (SDA) Website http://www. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... Balkan redirects here. ...

Bosniak population in neighbouring Sandžak is also affected by the trend in Bosnia. There were attempts to adopt entire Islamic jurisdiction including polygyny but these moves were rejected. However, this could not bar the top cleric (Mufti of Novi Pazar) Muamer Zukorlić from taking a second wife. [16] Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Centar,Novi Pazar Novi Pazar (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Пазар,  ) is a city and municipality located in the RaÅ¡ka District of Serbia at 43. ...


In Turkey, polygyny has been strictly discouraged since the adoption of Turkish Civil Code in 1926, a milestone of Atatürk's secularist reforms. Although not allowed in the legislation and not approved by state authorities, polygamous marriages praised by imams who are, in the Turkish context, civil servants of Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı are conducted. Turkey, as a member of the OIC, is also a signatory of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam that considers Sharia as the sole reference of human rights issues.[17] Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri Bakanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and...

Polygyny is a common occurrence in Kurdish villages. [18] Overall, polygyny is on the rise in Turkey. [19] An opinion poll in 2004 showed that 63% of Turks favoured polygyny. [20] On April 6, 2007, Municipal Assembly of Çıplaklı (composed of members of the ruling moderate Islamist AK Parti and conservative-liberal ANAP) in Alanya unanimously adopted a resolution to support men who consider taking a second wife (kuma). People of Çıplaklı are Yörük, a Turkic ethnicity who practice transhumance. "When we go to the summer pastures and leave our wives behind, we feel very lonely." told Ali İhsan Topal, a member of the Assembly from AK Parti.[21] Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: or AK Parti, or AKP[1]) is a Turkish political party that describes itself as centre-right and Islamist. ... The Motherland Party of Turkey, (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi or ANAP) is a political party in Turkey. ... Nickname: Location of Alanya Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Antalya Incorporated 1872 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Hasan SipahioÄŸlu (ANAP)  - Governor Hulusi DoÄŸan Area  - District 1,582 km² (610. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ...

United States and Canada

The most prominent American polygynous society is the Fundamentalist Church of Latter Day Saints (FLDS), a splinter sect of Mormonism based in Colorado City. In 2005, a meeting was called between the governors of Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico in an effort to economically and politically isolate religious sects that practice polygyny, mainly the FLDS.[citation needed] British Columbia has also politically isolated its small polygynous religious community, located in the southeastern portion of the province[citation needed]. Fundamentalist Mormons represent a growing number of polygynous marriages in the US today. With growing fear of daycares, concerns over the lack of discipline in public schools, and the blossoming of so called "Super Preachers" and "Super Churches", fundamentalist Mormons are seeking to strengthen the family though plural marriage, where the children are cared for within the home. The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS Church) is one of the largest Mormon fundamentalist denominations[1][2] and one of Americas largest practitioners of plural marriage. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

Animal polygyny

Figure 1. Frequency of Marriage Types Across Cultures from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of pre-industrial societies (Murdock & White 1969)

Monogamy is rare among mammals; only 3% of species are monogamous[citation needed]. Monogamy is more common among primates: about 15% of species[citation needed]. About 19% of human societies sampled for diversity (figure 1) are strictly monogamous, but the data on human polygyny suggest that in most societies most marriages are monogamous even though the majority of societies permit polygyny. Polyandry is very rare among mammals and humans [22]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x620, 48 KB)Polygyny in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (R. Quinlan) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x620, 48 KB)Polygyny in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (R. Quinlan) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The standard cross-cultural sample is a sample of 186 cultures, used by scholars engaged in cross-cultural studies. ...


Chimpanzees have a multi-male social organization, meaning that groups include several males and several females. Within chimp groups there appear to be several variations on mating patterns: The typical pattern is for several related males to dominate the group. This dominant fraternity shares sexual access to females and prevents other males from mating. A different pattern is for one male and one female to establish a kind of relationship, then when the female enters estrus, she and the male split off from the group for several weeks, when they have sex repeatedly in secluded parts of the forest. These “consortships” are temporary arrangements, sometimes between male and female friends and sometimes males coerce females into consortships. Males involved in consortships may or may not be part of the dominant male coalition. The frequency of consortships varies from one chimp group to the next, hinting at the kind of mating variation we see in humans. Sometimes a single dominant male chimp can monopolize sexual access to females and the group may be effectively polygynous for a time. Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...

Polygyny will reduce the effective population size of a given closed population[citation needed].

The sociobiology of polygyny

Amongst vertebrates, especially so with mammals, polygyny is the most common mating system. The likelihood that a species' evolution has been driven by polygyny can be determined by the presence of the following characteristics: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...

  • Sexual dimorphism, where (in comparison with females) males are:
    • more colourful
    • larger
    • more aggressive
    • better equipped for fighting
  • Uniparental care of the young (with fathers contributing less than mothers to the care of offspring, or in some species contributing nothing at all)
  • Delayed sexual maturity among males (relative to females of the same species, or to males of related species with different mating systems)

Some species show facultative polygamy, where males mate with multiple females only when resource conditions are favourable. Recent research on voles has identified the genetic difference that predisposes one species to polygyny and another closely related species to pair bonding [23] The brain hormone mechanisms through which this very slight genetic difference acts have also been identified; they involve the response to vasopressin and oxytocin [24]. Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... For other uses, see Vole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between the male and female in a breeding pair. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ...

Scientific studies

Tim Clutton-Brock and Kavita Isvaran at the University of Cambridge in England, compared about 20 monogamous and polygynous vertebrate species, found the more polygynous a species was, the more likely their males were to age faster and die earlier than females.[1]

See also

In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behavior. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Plaçage was an recognized extralegal system by which predominantly wealthy and white Creole men in Louisiana entered into the equivalent of common-law marriages with women of both African and white Creole descent known as placées (from the French word placer which means to place with). ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Group marriage is a form of marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. ...


  • Korotayev, Andrey (2004). World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective, First Edition, Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-6310-0. 
  • Hales, Brian C. (2006). Modern Polygamy and Mormon Fundamentalism: The Generations after the Manifesto, First Edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books. ISBN 1-58958-098-2. 

Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ...


  1. ^ Why Males Die Before Females

Further reading

  • Low, Bobbi S. (1990). Marriage systems and pathogen stress in human societies . American Zoologist 30: 325‑339. Full text - (Paper reports positive correlation between pathogen stress & polygyny.)

In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ...

External links

  • The Chinese University Of Hong Kong: Anthropology Department: Research Topics
  • Hong Kong Anthropological Society: speeches summary

  Results from FactBites:
Polygyny - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3147 words)
Polygyny was banned in the United States in 1890 as a result of laws passed concerning Mormon polygyny.
Polygyny was practiced by most of the patriarchs in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament such as David, Moses, Abraham, and Jacob, and was practiced throughout the time of the New Testament up until the 11th century.
Polygyny had been legal and was written in the law as recently as the end of the Qing/Ching dynasty of the imperial China(1911).
Evolution of polygyny in the ancestors of Red-winged Blackbirds Auk, The - Find Articles (910 words)
Polygyny is defined in the ornithological literature as a mating system in which one male forms longlasting breeding associations with more than one female at a time (Wittenberger 1981).
The classic polygyny hypothesis, the polygyny threshold model (Verner and Willson 1966), proposes that polygynous mating is costly to females because a female choosing an alreadymated male must share his contribution to parental care and his territorial resources with his previous mates.
Polygyny in other redwing populations may be more plausibly explained by a costcompensation model, as for example in Ontario, where removal experiments indicate that females prefer to settle on territories where harem sizes have been lowered (Hurly and Robertson 1985, Pribil and Picman 1996).
  More results at FactBites »



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