FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Polygram Records

PolyGram was the name from 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. Years: 1969 1970 1971 - 1972 - 1973 1974 1975 Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1990s 2000s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1972 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television... 1972 of the The following is a partial list of record labels, both past and present. From a business perspective, many present labels are part of the Big Four record companies which hold over 75% of the market share. These are: Universal Music Group, which includes A&M, Decca/London, Deutsche Grammophon... major label recording company started by For other uses, see Philips (disambiguation). Company logo Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics), usually known as Philips, is one of the largest consumer electronics producers in the world. In 2003, their sales were €29.0 billion and they employed 164,000 people in more than 60... Philips as a holding company for its music interests in Years: 1942 1943 1944 - 1945 - 1946 1947 1948 Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1945 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1945. In 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. Years: 1995 1996 1997 - 1998 - 1999 2000 2001 Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1998 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art... 1998, it was sold to The Seagram Company Ltd. was a large corporation headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was the worlds largest producer of distilled alcoholic beverages, and towards the end of its independent existence also controlled various entertainment and other business ventures. The Seagram assets have since been acquired by other companies... Seagram and made part of Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest major label in the record industry, with a 23% market share. They have some of the worlds biggest artists including Aerosmith, Eminem, Luciano Pavarotti and U2. Universal Music was originally the music company attached to film studio Universal Pictures; its history is... Universal Music Group.

Contents

Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD), 1929-1950

In 1929, Decca Records is a record label that was established in 1929. Former stockbroker Edward Lewis formed Decca Records Ltd in the United Kingdom in 1929. Within years, it was the second largest record label in the world, calling itself The Supreme Record Company. The term Decca was never determined to... Decca Records (London) licensed record shop owner H.W. van Zoelen as a distributor in the Netherlands. By 1931, the company, Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD) had become exclusive Decca distributor for all of the Netherlands and its colonies. Over the course of the 1930s, HDD put together its own facilities for A&R, recording and manufacture.


HDD was doing good business during German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. The German invasion... World War II, because of the absence of American and British competition. Van Zoelen wanted to sell to Philips so that HDD would have suitable backing when the competition returned, and so Philips took the opportunity to buy HDD in 1942.


At this time, most large recording companies manufactured both gramophones and records; Philips CEO Anton Philips had noticed that it was risky to make gramophones without an interest in music recording and record manufacture, and that RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson Consumer Electronics, which manufactures RCA-branded televisions, DVD players, video cassette recorders, direct broadcast satellite decoders, camcorders, audio equipment, telephones, and related accessories; and... Radio Corporation of America (RCA) had merged with the The Victor Talking Machine Company (1901 - 1929) was a United States corporation, the leading American producer of phonographs and phonograph records and one of the leading phonograph companies in the world at the time. The company was incorporated in Camden, New Jersey in October of 1901 by Eldridge R. Johnson... Victor Talking Machine Company in 1929 for this reason. Research was already going on in Philips' labs on magnetic tape and long-playing records, and a record company could support eventual new formats, particularly as other record companies were notably unenthusiastic about new formats.


After the war, Philips built a large factory in Doetinchem Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area - Land - Water 79.66 km² 78.16 km² 1.50 km² Population (2005, est.) - Density 56,700 725/km² Doetinchem (Low Saxon: Deutekem) is a city and municipality in the east of the Netherlands. It stands on the Oude IJssel (Old IJssel) river in... Doetinchem to produce 78rpm records.


Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), 1950-1962

In the 1940s, the record business was spread out within Philips — research in the Eindhoven Country Netherlands Province North Brabant Area - Land - Water 88.84 km² 87.75 km² 1.09 km² Population 2004 - Density 207,870 2369/km² Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of... Eindhoven labs, development elsewhere in Eindhoven, recording in Hilversum Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area - Land - Water 46.24 km² 45.59 km² 0.65 km² Population 2004 - Density 83,454 1831/km² Hilversum is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands in an area called Het Gooi. It is surrounded by heathland, woods, meadows, lakes, and... Hilversum, manufacturing in Doetinchem Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area - Land - Water 79.66 km² 78.16 km² 1.50 km² Population (2005, est.) - Density 56,700 725/km² Doetinchem (Low Saxon: Deutekem) is a city and municipality in the east of the Netherlands. It stands on the Oude IJssel (Old IJssel) river in... Doetinchem, distribution from Municipality of Amsterdam Alternate meanings: See Amsterdam Amsterdam is the This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. For alternative meanings see capital (disambiguation) In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on... Amsterdam and exports from Eindhoven. During the late 1940s, Philips combined its various music businesses into Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), a wholly-owned subsidiary.


PPI's early growth was based on alliances. A merger was first proposed with Decca of London in late 1945, but was rejected by Edward B. Lewis (May 20, 1918–July 21, 2004) was an American geneticist, the winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Lewis, who was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, received a B.A. from the University of Minnesota in 1938 and a Ph.D. from California Institute of... Edward Lewis, Decca's owner. (PolyGram finally acquired Decca in 1979.)


In the early 1950s, Philips set itself the goal of making PPI the largest record company in Europe.


PPI's second attempt at a merger was with Deutsche Grammophon is a German record company. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity. The Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft was founded in 1890 by German-born United States citizen Emile Berliner as the German branch of his Berliner Gramophone Company. Based in the city of... Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft (DGG). DGG, owned by Siemens is a German family name carried by Peter von Siemens, Werner von Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens Siemens AG is the name of a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von Siemens as Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske in Berlin on October... Siemens and well-known for its classical repertoire, had been the German licensee for Decca from 1935. Shortly after PPI was founded it had made a formal alliance with DGG to manufacture each others' records, coordinate releases and not to poach each others' artists or bid against each other for new talent. PPI and DGG finally merged in 1962.


The alliance with DGG still left PPI without repertoire in Britain or the US. But in 1951, after Columbia Records is the oldest continually used brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888. Label of a Columbia disc from 1925 Columbia was originally the local company distributing and selling Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D.C., Maryland and Delaware. As was the custom of some... Columbia had failed to renew its international distribution agreement with For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). The EMI Group is a major record label, based in the United Kingdom and with operations in over 25 other countries. Contents // 1 History 2 Labels under the EMI banner 3 Musicians signed, or previously signed, to EMI 3.1 Pre-1960 3.2... EMI, PPI agreed to distribute Columbia recordings outside the US and have Columbia distribute its recordings inside the US. This agreement ran until 1961, when Columbia set up its own European network and PPI set out to make acquisitions in the US.


PPI built or bought factories in smaller countries. In 1962, PPI had a large factory in Baarn Country Netherlands Province Utrecht Area - Land - Water 33.03 km² 32.56 km² 0.47 km² Population (2004) - Density 24,503 753/km² Baarn is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands. Contents // 1 Population centres 2 The town Baarn 3 Eembrugge 4 Lage Vuursche 5 Well... Baarn and factories in France, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Italy, Egypt, Nigeria and Brazil.


PPI played an important role in the introduction of the long-playing vinyl record to Europe. Columbia introduced their Manufacturers put records inside protective and decorative cardboard jackets and an inner paper sleeve to protect the grooves from dust and scratches. The 12-inch (30 cm) LP vinyl album Heaven and Hell by Black Sabbath is an example, showing the South Korean version of the 33⅓ rpm record... LP record in 1948 and Philips presented its first LP at a record retailers' convention in 1949. Philips' commitment to LP technology was an important factor in its 1951-1961 deal with Columbia.


GPG and PolyGram, 1962-1980

In 1962, PPI and DGG formed the Gramophon-Philips Group (GPG), with Philips taking a 50% share in DGG and Siemens a 50% share in PPI. In 1972 the companies formally merged to form PolyGram, of which Philips and Siemens each owned 50%. In 1977 both organisations merged operationally, integrating the recording, manufacturing, distribution and marketing into a single organisation.


The various record labels within PolyGram continued to operate separately. PolyGram gave its labels, as A&R organisations, great autonomy.


GPG needed to move into the US and UK markets, and did so by a process of acquisition: Mercury Records was a record label founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1945 by Irving Green, Berle Adams and Arthur Talmadge. They were a major force in jazz and blues, classical music, rock and roll, and country music recordings. Early in their history, Mercury opened two pressing plants, one in Chicago... Mercury (US) in 1962, RSO Records was a record label, formed in partnership with Polydor Records by rock and roll and musical theatre impresario Robert Stigwood in the late 1960s, after the death of his business partner and mentor Brian Epstein. The RSO stands for the Robert Stigwood Organization. RSO managed the careers of... RSO (UK) in 1967, MGM Records was a record label started by the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie studio in 1946. In the early 1950s, MGM Records was considered as one of the major record companies (besides Columbia, RCA, Decca, Capitol and Mercury). Subsidiary Cub Records was launched in the early sixties and Verve Records... MGM Records and Verve Records was an American Jazz record label, founded by Norman Granz in 1956. The Verve catalog grew thoughout the 1950s and 1960s to include most of the major figures in jazz. It later incorporated the Mercury/EmArcy jazz catalog. It also recognized the potential of comedy albums, producing Vaughn... Verve (US) in 1972, Casablanca Records is a record label that was started by Neil Bogart in 1973 after leaving Buddah Records. The label released hits by Donna Summer, Kiss and Parliament. Polygram acquired a 50 percent stake in 1977 and later acquired the remaining half for $15 million. Afterwards the label had hits... Casablanca (US) in 1977 and Decca Records is a record label that was established in 1929. Former stockbroker Edward Lewis formed Decca Records Ltd in the United Kingdom in 1929. Within years, it was the second largest record label in the world, calling itself The Supreme Record Company. The term Decca was never determined to... Decca (UK) in 1980. PolyGram acquired United Distribution Corporation (UDC) in 1973 and signed distribution deals with The Music Corporation of America, commonly known as MCA, is a United States based corporation in the music business. MCA publishes music, books music acts, and runs a record label. MCA was founded as a music booking agency based in Chicago in 1924 by Jules Stein. MCA entered the music... MCA and 20th Century Records was (not surprisingly) a subsidiary of film studio 20th Century Fox. The label had huge hits with Barry White, Carl Douglas (best known for the song Kung Fu Fighting, and the Star Wars soundtrack. This article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ... 20th Century Records in 1976.


In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Philips had been at work on a new consumer Magnetic tape is an information storage medium consisting of a magnetisable coating on a thin plastic strip. Nearly all recording tape is of this type, whether used for video with a video cassette recorder, audio storage (reel-to-reel tape, compact audio cassette, digital audio tape (DAT), digital linear tape... magnetic tape format for music. The Philips For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). typical audio Compact Cassette. The compact audio cassette audio storage medium was introduced by Philips in 1963. It consists of a length of magnetic tape from BASF inside a protective plastic shell. Four tracks are available on the tape, giving... compact cassette came out in 1963. It was small, played longer than an LP and was robust. In 1965 the cassette accounted for 3% of revenues, growing in 1968 to 8% and in 1970 to 10.6%.


In the late 1960s and through the 1970s, GPG/PolyGram diversified into film and television production and home video. RSO's successes included Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta based around New York discotheques of the disco era period, the associated music and dancing, and the subculture surrounding such. The movie significantly helped to popularise disco music around the world, and made Travolta a household name. The soundtrack, featuring... Saturday Night Fever and For the musical play, see Grease (musical). Grease is a lubricant of higher initial viscosity than oil, consisting originally of a calcium, sodium or lithium soap jelly emulsified with mineral oil. Greases are a type of shear thinning or pseudo-plastic fluid, which means that the viscosity of the fluid... Grease. PolyGram's highly successful marketing during the Disco Stylistic origins: Funk and soul music Cultural origins: Early 1970s Mainstream popularity: 1970s in the United States Subgenres Bright disco Musicians List of disco artists Other topics Nightclubs This infobox is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it (select the Edit this page (http://en.wikipedia... disco craze included the Casablanca film Thank God It's Friday and its associated soundtrack. During the boom in disco, PolyGram's US market share had gone from 5% to 20%. For a short while, it was the world's largest record company.


Reorganisation, 1980-1998

However, a crisis was looming. Before 1978, with the acquisition of UDC, the distribution organisation was too large and PolyGram was making losses. When US operations were running at full capacity, PolyGram expanded aggressively, and would press large quantities of records without knowing the demand. In late 1979, the disco boom busted, leaving the company not only with an underutilised distribution network but with overoptimistic product orders and profligate labels. For example, Casablanca was notable for management spending on luxury cars and General A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. It identifies each type of element by its chemical symbol and identifies the number of atoms of such element to be found in each discrete molecule... cocaine. From 1980 onwards, PolyGram was running up tremendous losses. Legal documents put the company's total losses at not less than US$220 million.


In 1983, Philips manager Jan Timmer was appointed CEO. He cut the workforce from 13,000 to 7000, reduced PolyGram's LP and cassette plants from eighteen to five and decreased the company's dependence on superstars by spreading the repertoire across different genres and nurturing national and regional talent. By 1985, PolyGram was profitable once more.


After an attempted 1983 merger with The WB Shield, used from 2001 to late 2003. Warner Bros. (the abbreviated name of Warner Bros. Entertainment) is one of the worlds largest producers of film and television entertainment. It is presently a subsidiary of the Time Warner conglomerate and headquartered in Burbank, California. Contents // 1 Subsidiaries 2... Warner Music failed, Philips bought 40% of PolyGram from Siemens, and in 1987 the remaining 10%.


The CD redirects here; see Cd for other meanings of CD. Image of a compact disc (pencil included for scale) A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. A standard compact disc, often known as an audio CD to... compact disc, invented by Philips and Sony Corporation Type Electronics and entertainment Slogan Sony Style Founded 1946 (in 1958, company took on current name) Location HQ in Tokyo, Japan; locations in ? Key people Nobuyuki Idei: Chairman and CEO; Kunitake Ando: President Employees 162,000 Products Electronics, PlayStation, Gaming (online), Music, Movies, and TV Shows, Communications... Sony, helped greatly in boosting the company's sales and market share. PolyGram's strength in classical music helped greatly, as many of the CD's early adopters were classical music lovers. Total US sales of CDs were 1 million in 1983, 334 million in 1990 and 943 million in 2000. Total UK sales were 300,000 in 1983, 51 million in 1990 and 202 million in 2000. The CD increased PolyGram's profit margin from 4-6% in the mid-1980s to 7-9% by the early 1990s.


In 1989, Philips floated 16% of PolyGram on the Amsterdam stock exchange, valuing the whole company at $5.6 billion. PolyGram embarked on a new program of acquisitions, including A&M Records is a record label formed in 1962 by Jerry Moss and Herb Alpert. It began its life as Carnival Records in 1961, but after problems with an existing record label of that name, Alpert and Moss changed the name to A&M. A&M... A&M and Island Records is a record label that was founded in Jamaica in 1959 by Chris Blackwell. Initially focused on Jamaican music, Island Records branched out establishing subsidiarys as Surprise Records, Sue Records, Jump Records, Black Swan Records and Aladdin Records. It became one of the more important record labels of... Island Records in 1989, Motown, also known as Tamla-Motown outside the U.S., is a record label founded on December 14, 1959 by Berry Gordy, Jr. in Detroit, Michigan (Motor Town), and named for the citys association with the automobile industry. In the 1960s it was the most successful proponent of what... Motown in 1993, Def Jam is a hip-hop record label founded by Rick Rubin and Russell Simmons. It was merged by owner Universal Music with Island Records to form Island Def Jam Records. Successes include rap artists: Run DMC Public Enemy Beastie Boys Jay-Z Ja Rule DMX Method Man Redman Foxy... Def Jam in 1994 and Rodven (Venezuela) in 1995.


In 1998, Philips sold PolyGram to The Seagram Company Ltd. was a large corporation headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was the worlds largest producer of distilled alcoholic beverages, and towards the end of its independent existence also controlled various entertainment and other business ventures. The Seagram assets have since been acquired by other companies... Seagram and it was merged into Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest major label in the record industry, with a 23% market share. They have some of the worlds biggest artists including Aerosmith, Eminem, Luciano Pavarotti and U2. Universal Music was originally the music company attached to film studio Universal Pictures; its history is... Universal Music Group.


See also

  • The following is a partial list of record labels, both past and present. From a business perspective, many present labels are part of the Big Four record companies which hold over 75% of the market share. These are: Universal Music Group, which includes A&M, Decca/London, Deutsche Grammophon... List of record labels
  • PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (PFE) was a UK-based film studio, founded in 1991 as a European competitor to Hollywood, but eventually sold and merged with Universal Pictures in 1999. It most famous film was perhaps Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994). The Dutch music company PolyGram (owned by Philips) created... PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

External links

  • The Making Of A Music Multinational: The International Strategy of PolyGram, 1945-1988 (http://www.essex.ac.uk/AFM/research/working_papers/WP03-12.pdf) (PDF) by Dr Gerben Bakker, Dept. of Accounting, Finance and Management, University of Essex Established 1964 (Royal Charter 1965) Location Colchester, Essex, United Kingdom Enrolment (approx.) 5,200 undergraduate, 2,200 postgraduate, 1700 short programmes Employees (approx.) 410 academic/teaching, 110 research, 220 other academic, 680 other Chancellor Lord Phillips of Sudbury OBE Vice-Chancellor Professor Ivor Martin Crewe, DL, MA... University of Essex.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Filmtracks: Braveheart (James Horner) (1132 words)
It is, without a doubt, excellent music, but before you detail how A Beautiful Mind, Enemy at the Gates, and other later scores by Horner exhibit his "borrowing" habits, you have to cite Braveheart as the grand triumph of re-use philosophy.
The newly arrived fans of the film itself are the ones making this score a juggernaut, which begs some speculation about what they'll think of it when they eventually, perhaps, discovered that it's not a really original work.
All artwork and sound clips from Braveheart are Copyright © 1995, 1997, 1998, Decca/London Records, Polygram/London Records, London Records - France.
PolyGram Holding, Inc., et al. - Complaint (1775 words)
Respondent UMG Recordings, Inc. ("UMG") is a corporation organized, existing and doing business under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Delaware, with its office and principal place of business located at 2220 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, California 90404.
PolyGram N.V. ("PolyGram"), a Netherlands corporation, acting directly and through certain subsidiaries (collectively, "PolyGram Music Group"), was for many years engaged in the business of producing, marketing, and distributing pre-recorded music and videos in the United States and worldwide.
PolyGram Holding, Decca Records, PolyGram Records, and PolyGram Distribution agreed not to discount and not to advertise the 1990 Three Tenors album and video from August 1, 1998 through October 15, 1998.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m