FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Polygonal number

In mathematics, a polygonal number is a number that can be arranged as a regular polygon. Ancient mathematicians discovered that numbers could be arranged in certain ways when they were represented by pebbles or seeds; such numbers, which can be made from figures, are generally called figurate numbers. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... A number is an abstract entity that represents a count or measurement. ... Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A figurate number is a number that can be represented as a regular and discrete geometric pattern (e. ...


The number 10, for example, can be arranged as a triangle (see triangular number): A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three vertices and three sides which are straight line segments. ... A triangular number is a natural number such that the shape of an equilateral triangle can be formed by that number of points. ...

*
* *
* * *
* * * *

But 10 cannot be arranged as a square. The number 9, on the other hand, can be (see square number): Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... In plane (Euclidean) geometry, a square is a polygon with four equal sides, four right angles, and parallel opposite sides. ... In mathematics, a square number, sometimes also called a perfect square, is an integer that can be written as the square of some other integer. ...

* * *
* * *
* * *

Some numbers, like 36, can be arranged both as a square and as a triangle (see triangular square number): Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... A triangular square number is a number which is both a triangular number and a perfect square. ...

* * * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * *
*
* *
* * *
* * * *
* * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * * *

By convention, 1 is the first polygonal number for any number of sides. The rule for enlarging the polygon to the next size is to extend two adjacent arms by one point and to then add the required extra sides between those points. In the following diagrams, each extra layer is shown as in red. Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ...

Triangular numbers
1 3 6 10
* *
* *
*
* *
* * *
*
* *
* * *
* * * *
Square numbers
1 4 9 16
* * *
* *
* * *
* * *
* * *
* * * *
* * * *
* * * *
* * * *

Polygons with higher numbers of sides, such as pentagons and hexagons, can also be constructed according to this rule, although the dots will no longer form a regular lattice like above. For example, the first few hexagonal numbers are: Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links GrayDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ...

1 6 15 28
* * *
*   *
* *
* * *
* *   *
*   *   *
* *   *
* * *
* * * *
* * *   *
* *   *   *
*   *   *   *
* *   *   *
* * *   *
* * * *

If s is the number of sides in a polygon, the formula for the nth s-gonal number is . Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links GrayDotX.svg Summary Light gray circle. ... Image File history File links Blank300. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ... Image File history File links RedDotX.svg‎ Red circle. ...

Name Formula n=1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Triangular ½(1n² + 1n) 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 45 55 66 78 91
Square ½(2n² - 0n) 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169
Pentagonal ½(3n² - 1n) 1 5 12 22 35 51 70 92 117 145 176 210 247
Hexagonal ½(4n² - 2n) 1 6 15 28 45 66 91 120 153 190 231 276 325
Heptagonal ½(5n² - 3n) 1 7 18 34 55 81 112 148 189 235 286 342 403
Octagonal ½(6n² - 4n) 1 8 21 40 65 96 133 176 225 280 341 408 481
Nonagonal ½(7n² - 5n) 1 9 24 46 75 111 154 204 261 325 396 474 559
Decagonal ½(8n² - 6n) 1 10 27 52 85 126 175 232 297 370 451 540 637
Hendecagonal ½(9n² - 7n) 1 11 30 58 95 141 196 260 333 415 506 606 715
Dodecagonal ½(10n² - 8n) 1 12 33 64 105 156 217 288 369 460 561 672 793
Tridecagonal ½(11n² - 9n) 1 13 36 70 115 171 238 316 405 505 616 738 871
Tetradecagonal ½(12n² - 10n) 1 14 39 76 125 186 259 344 441 550 671 804 949
Pentadecagonal ½(13n² - 11n) 1 15 42 82 135 201 280 372 477 595 726 870 1027
Hexadecagonal ½(14n² - 12n) 1 16 45 88 145 216 301 400 513 640 781 936 1105
Heptadecagonal ½(15n² - 13n) 1 17 48 94 155 231 322 428 549 685 836 1002 1183
Octadecagonal ½(16n² - 14n) 1 18 51 100 165 246 343 456 585 730 891 1068 1261
Nonadecagonal ½(17n² - 15n) 1 19 54 106 175 261 364 484 621 775 946 1134 1339
Icosagonal ½(18n² - 16n) 1 20 57 112 185 276 385 512 657 820 1001 1200 1417
Icosihenagonal ½(19n² - 17n) 1 21 60 118 195 291 406 540 693 865 1056 1266 1495
Icosidigonal ½(20n² - 18n) 1 22 63 124 205 306 427 568 729 910 1111 1332 1573
Icositrigonal ½(21n² - 19n) 1 23 66 130 215 321 448 596 765 955 1166 1398 1651
Icositetragonal ½(22n² - 20n) 1 24 69 136 225 336 469 624 801 1000 1221 1464 1729
Icosipentagonal ½(23n² - 21n) 1 25 72 142 235 351 490 652 837 1045 1276 1530 1807
Icosihexagonal ½(24n² - 22n) 1 26 75 148 245 366 511 680 873 1090 1331 1596 1885
Icosiheptagonal ½(25n² - 23n) 1 27 78 154 255 381 532 708 909 1135 1386 1662 1963
Icosioctagonal ½(26n² - 24n) 1 28 81 160 265 396 553 736 945 1180 1441 1728 2041
Icosinonagonal ½(27n² - 25n) 1 29 84 166 275 411 574 764 981 1225 1496 1794 2119
Triacontagonal ½(28n² - 26n) 1 30 87 172 285 426 595 792 1017 1270 1551 1860 2197

The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences eschews terms using Greek prefixes (e.g., "octagonal") in favor of terms using numerals (i.e., "8-gonal"). A pentagonal number is a figurate number that represents a pentagon. ... A hexagonal number is a figurate number that represents a hexagon. ... A heptagonal number is a figurate number that represents a heptagon. ... An octagonal number is a figurate number that represents an octagon. ... A nonagonal number or enneagonal number is a figurate number that represents a nonagon. ... A decagonal number is a figurate number that represents a decagon. ... The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS) is an extensive searchable database of integer sequences, freely available on the Web. ...


References

Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
What's Special About This Number? (7292 words)
is the number of planar partitions of 10.
is the number of planar partitions of 11.
is the number of planar partitions of 12.
Triangular numbers (465 words)
Polygonal numbers are really just the number of vertexes in a figure formed by a certain polygon.
The second number is equal to the number of vertexes of the polygon.
The third polygonal number is made by extending two of the sides of the polygon from the second polygonal number, completing the larger polygon and placing vertexes and other points where necessary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m