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Encyclopedia > Polygenism

Polygenism is a biblical theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. This is opposite to the idea of monogenism, which posits a single origin of humanity (i.e. Adam and Eve) A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. ... God creates Adam, by Michelangelo. ...

Polygenism is an uncommon Biblical interpretation. Until the mid-1800s it was largely considered heretical. It was first raised by Isaac La Peyrère, a Dutch polymath seeking to reconcile the limited number of generations between Adam and Eve and modern day by positing "pre-adamites". It was not believed that the number of races could not have developed within the commonly accepted biblical timeframe. Voltaire even brought the subject up in Essay on the Manner and Spirit of Nations and on the Principal Occurences in History in 1756 (which was an early work of comparative history), although Voltaire made no attempt to solve the problem. This article discusses textual hermeneutics. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Leonardo da Vinci A polymath (also known as a polyhistor) is a person who excels in multiple fields, particularly in both arts and sciences. ... Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Polygenism came into mainstream scientific and religious thought due to the work of Samuel George Morton and more prominently Louis Agassiz in the United States. The issue of race was polemical, and slave owners attempted to justify their treatment of slaves using empirical science. This group was more closely attached to Morton's work, who believe that other races were a different species mentally inferior to caucasians. Agassiz believed that each race was unique, but could still be classified as the same species. Contemporary geological discoveries descibed the earth as far older than the standard interpretation of Genesis allows, and among the more progressive thinkers, polygenism was a way to reconcile the new discoveries with their faith. Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) An American physician and natural scientist. ... Louis Agassiz Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807-December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American zoologist and geologist, the husband of educator Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, and one of the first world-class American scientists. ... A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Look up Slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Slavery is a condition of control over a person against their will, enforced by violence or other forms of coercion. ... // What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... In biology, a species is a kind of organism. ... Caucasian is originally a geographical term, meaning relative or pertaining to the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and West Asia. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...

In the race debates of the 1860s and 1870s, Charles Darwin and his supporters argued for a monogenism of the species — seeing the common origin of all humans as essential for evolutionary theory. This is called the single-origin hypothesis, although it is no longer acknowledged as crucial to evolution by the scientific community. Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... The scientific community consists of the interactions and relationships of scientists. ...

In the late 20th century, the work of the paleoanthropologist Carleton Coon was the closest to what can be perhaps considered a "modern" polygenism by positing that the individual races of the earth separately evolved into modern homo sapiens. This hypothesis, called the multiregional hypothesis, was not very popular when it was presented in the mid-1960s. Paeloanthropology is the branch of physical anthropology that focuses on the study of human evolution. ... Carleton Stevens Coon, (23 June 1904 — 6 June 1981) was an eminent American anthropologist. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Related articles

A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... In genetics, monogenic genetic disorders are hereditary diseases that result from abnormalities in one (mono) gene. ...


  • American Theories of Polygenesis

  Results from FactBites:
Alcoholism: Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders (4493 words)
Alcoholism is thought to be a polygenic disorder; that is, more than one gene appears to be involved in its transmission.
Because alcoholism is a polygenic disorder, and because genes often change their levels of activity in response to the effects of alcohol, microarrays allow researchers to track the activity levels of a large number of genes simultaneously.
As of 2001, it is thought that changes in gene function may be a factor in the human brain's long-term adaptations to heavy drinking.
  More results at FactBites »



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