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Encyclopedia > Polygamy
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 This box: view  talk  edit  In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... For other uses, see Boyfriend (disambiguation). ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... A consort is somebodys spouse, usually a royalty. ... Suitor redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... For other uses, see Girlfriend (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infatuation (disambiguation). ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... Polyfidelity, is a form of polyamorous group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members of this group. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Break-up redirects here. ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Significant other Significant Other is the second studio album by Limp Bizkit, released on June 22, 1999. ... This article is about the term, soulmate. For the Natasha Bedingfield song, see Soulmate (song). ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage") is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. Polygamy can be defined as any "form of marriage in which a person [has] more than one spouse."[1] Social anthropology is the branch of anthropology that studies how currently living human beings behave in social groups. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


In social anthropology polygamy is the practice of being married to more than one spouse at the same time. Historically, polygamy has been practised as polygyny (one man having more than one wife), or as polyandry (one woman having more than one husband), or, less commonly as "polygamy" (one person having many wives and many husbands at the same time). (See "Forms of Polygamy" below.) In contrast, monogamy is the practice of each person having only one spouse. Like monogamy, the term is often used in a de facto sense, applying regardless of whether the relationships are recognized by the state (see marriage for a discussion on the extent to which states can and do recognize potentially and actually polygamous forms as valid). Matrimony redirects here. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For the purposes of Public International Law and Private International Law, a state is a defined group of people, living within defined territorial boundaries and subject, more or less, to an autonomous legal system exercising jurisdiction through properly constituted courts. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ...


In sociobiology, polygamy is used in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. In a narrower sense, used by zoologists, polygamy includes a pair bond, perhaps temporary. IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ...

Contents

Forms of polygamy

Polygamy exists in three specific forms, including polygyny (one man having multiple wives), polyandry (one woman having multiple husbands), or group marriage (some combination of polygyny and polyandry). Historically, all three practices have been found, but polygyny is by far the most common in the world.[citation needed] Confusion arises when the broad term "polygamy" is used when a narrower definition is really meant. Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all...


Polygyny

Polygyny is the situation in which one man is either married to or involved in sexual relationships with a number of different women at one time. This is the most common form of polygamy. Polygyny is practised in a traditional sense in many and African cultures and countries today, including South Africa and most of Southern and Central Africa and the Caribbean.[citation needed] It appears more often in highly patriarchal societies. This is the "polygamy" once practised by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (commonly called Mormons) and practised today by their fundamentalist offshoots. Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... Teens From Polygamous Families protested on August 19, 2006 In Salt Lake City Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, usually during the administration of Brigham Young as president of The...


Polyandry

Polyandry is a practice where a woman is married to more than one man at the same time. It is also known as wife sharing. Fraternal polyandry was traditionally practised among nomadic Tibetans in Nepal and parts of China, in which two or more brothers share the same wife, with her having equal sexual access to them. Polyandry is believed to be more likely in societies with scarce environmental resources, as it is believed to limit human population growth and enhance child survival. A woman can only have so many children in her lifetime, no matter how many husbands she has. On the other hand, a child with many "fathers", all of whom provide resources, is more likely to survive. (In contrast, the number of children would be increased if polygyny were practised, and a man had more than one wife. These wives could be simultaneously pregnant).[2] It is a rare form of marriage that exists not only among poor families, but also within the elite.[3] In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Group marriage

Group marriage, or circle marriage, may exist in a number of forms, such as where more than one man and more than one woman form a single family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. Another possible arrangement not thought to exist in reality (on the social level), although occurring in science fiction , is the long-lived line marriage, in which deceased or departing spouses in the group are continually replaced by others, so that family property never becomes dispersed through inheritance. Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all...


Bigamy

Bigamy is the act or condition of a person marrying another person while still being lawfully married to a second person. Bigamy is a crime in most western countries. For example, in the United States, because of the contract a married person makes upon becoming married, that person is obliged not to marry again as long as the first marriage continues; stipulations of the marriage license applying.


Trigamy

In seventeenth to nineteenth century England, trigamy referred to the relationship of someone who had three spouses at the same time.


The term is typically used for comic reference. An example is the limerick by William Cosmo Monkhouse about a man from the town of Lyme in Dorset, England. For other uses, see Limerick (disambiguation). ... William Cosmo Monkhouse (March 18, 1840 – July 20, 1901), English poet and critic, was born in London. ... , Lyme Regis (IPA: ) is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

There was an old fellow of Lyme
Who lived with three wives at one time.
When asked, 'Why the third?'
He replied, 'One’s absurd,
and bigamy, sir, is a crime.'

From the modern legal perspective, trigamy is viewed as two counts of bigamy.


Serial monogamy

Main article: Serial monogamy

The phrase serial monogamy has been used to describe the lifestyle of persons who have repeatedly married and divorced multiple partners. Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ...


Other forms of nonmonogamy

Main article: Forms of nonmonogamy

Other forms of nonmonogamous relationships are discussed at Forms of nonmonogamy. Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ...


Benefits of polygamism

Philip Kilbride, an American anthropologist, in his book, Plural Marriage for our Time, proposes polygamy as a solution to some of the ills of the American society at large. He argues that plural marriage may serve as a potential alternative for divorce in many cases in order to obviate the damaging impact of divorce on many children. He maintains that many divorces are caused by the rampant extramarital affairs in the American society. According to Kilbride, ending an extramarital affair in a polygamous marriage, rather than in a divorce, is better for the children, "Children would be better served if family augmentation rather than only separation and dissolution were seen as options." Moreover, he suggests that other groups will also benefit from plural marriage such as: elderly women who face a chronic shortage of men.[4]


Polygamy worldwide

According to the Ethnographic Atlas Codebook, of the 1231 societies noted, 186 were monogamous. 453 had occasional polygyny, 588 had more frequent polygyny, and 4 had polyandry.[5]


Patterns of occurrence

At the same time, even within societies which allow polygyny, the actual practice of polygyny occurs relatively rarely. There are exceptions: in Senegal, for example, nearly 47 percent of marriages are multiple.[6] To take on more than one wife often requires considerable resources: this may put polygamy beyond the means of the vast majority of people within those societies. Such appears the case in many traditional Islamic societies, and in Imperial China.


Within polygynous societies, multiple wives often become a status symbol denoting wealth and power. Similarly, within societies that formally prohibit polygamy, social opinion may look favorably on persons maintaining mistresses or engaging in serial monogamy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ...


Some observers detect a social preference for polygyny in disease-prone (especially tropical) climates, and speculate that (from a potential mother's viewpoint) perceived quality of paternal genes may favour the practice there.[citation needed] The countervailing situation allegedly prevails in harsher climates, where (once again from a potential mother's viewpoint) reliable paternal care as exhibited in monogamous pair-bonding outweighs the importance of paternal genes.[citation needed]


Polygamy in African societies

Polygamy existed all over Africa as an aspect of culture or/and religion. Plural marriages have been common in the history of Africa. Indigenous African religions have usually permitted it, as does Islam. Even many Christian churches in Africa have tolerated polygamy, although this stance has been changing: in May 2008, for example, the Anglican archbishop of Nigeria warned congregants to discontinue the practice.[7] Children are seen as a form of wealth in many African societies; thus the more children a family has the more powerful it is. Thus polygamy has been part of empire building. It was only during the colonial era that plural marriage was perceived as taboo, although colonial governments generally did not ban the practice. Esther Stanford, an African-focused lawyer, states that this decline was encouraged because the issues of property ownership conflicted with European colonial interest.[8] In Africa many women are in an especially vulnerable social and economic position; for them marrying into a polygamous household is preferable to remaining single. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


South Africa and Sudan

Polygamy is encouraged in states such as Sudan, and is very common in West Africa (Muslim and traditionalist).[9] In South Africa traditionalist Zulus and Xhosas practice polygamy.[10] The leader of the ANC Jacob Zuma is also openly in favor of plural marriages, being married to numerous wives himself.[11][12] The wives live in small houses in a circle around the master compound. [13] ANC redirects here. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born April 12, 1942 at Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) is the president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ...


Polygamy in Chinese culture

Since the Han Dynasty, technically, Chinese men could have only one wife. However, throughout the thousands of years of Chinese history, it was common for rich Chinese men to have a wife and various concubines. Polygyny is a by-product of the tradition of emphasis on procreation and the continuity of the father's family name.[citation needed] Before the establishment of the Republic of China(Taiwan), it was lawful to have a wife and multiple concubines within Chinese marriage. An emperor, government official or rich merchant could have up to hundreds of concubines after marrying his first wife, or tai-tai.[citation needed] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... A Qing Dynasty wedding. ...


The Chinese culture of Confucianism and thus the practice of polygyny spread from China to the areas that are now Korea and Japan. Before the establishment of the modern democratic mode, Eastern countries permitted a similar practice of polygyny.[14]


Situation in East Asia

After the Communist Revolution in 1949, polygamy was banned. This occurred via the Marriage Act of 1953.


In Mongolia, there has been discussion about legalizing polygamy to reduce the imbalance of the male and female population.[15]


In Hong Kong, polygamy was banned in October 1971. [16] However, it is still practised in Hong Kong and Macau. One example of this is Stanley Ho.[citation needed] Another is Lim Por Yen.[17] Some Hong Kong businessmen have concubines across the border in mainland China. Kevin Murphy of The International Herald Tribune[18] reports the cross-border polygyny phenomenon in Hong Kong in 1995.[19] Stanley Ho, GBS (born November 25, 1921), also known as Ho Hung-sun, Stanley Ho Hung-sun (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is an entrepreneur in Hong Kong and Macau. ... Lim Por-yen (Chinese: 林百欣; Pinyin: ) (1914 – February 18, 2005) was a Hong Kong media tycoon and banker. ... The International Herald Tribune (or IHT) is fully owned by the New York Times, which along with its own staff journalists and news agencies supplies it with news and features. ...


Man-Lun Ng, M.D. of Humboldt University of Berlin reported the situation in Hong Kong: it was estimated that out of the approximately two million married couples in Hong Kong, about 300,000 husbands had mistresses in mainland China (1996). In 1995, 40% of extramarital affairs involved an enduring long-term relationship with a stable partner.[16] Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced...


The traditional attitude toward mistresses is reflected in the saying: "wife is not as good as concubine, concubine is not as good as prostitute, prostitute is not as good as secret affair, secret affair is not as good as the affair you want but can't get" (妻不如妾, 妾不如妓, 妓不如偷, 偷不如偷不到).[citation needed] A swampy marsh area ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...


The number of women becoming the secret second wife is ever increasing in east Asia. In Thai translation, "Mia", pronounced "ME-UH", is wife; and MIA-NOI, pronounced (ME-UH-NOY" is second wife (aka Mistress), or more literally, "less than wife" and in some translations "minor wife". The "real" wife or main wife is the "MIA-LUANG", pronounced "ME-UH-LOU-AANG" (and means wife #1). The husband is expected to take care of all the wives, but Mia Luang is the most important as she is typically the bearer of children.[citation needed]


The terms 二奶 (er nai/ yi nai) & 包二奶 (bao er nai / bao yi nai) refer to the second woman and the act of having the second woman respectively. Mansions and villages are now nicknamed 二奶村 (er nai cun / yi nai tsuen) (village of second woman) when a number of secret second wives live.[citation needed]


Polygamy and religion

Biblical sources

The Hebrew Bible indicates that polygyny was practised by the ancient Hebrews. Though the institution was not extremely common it was not particularly unusual and was certainly not prohibited or discouraged by the Bible. Nowhere in the Torah is monogamy established as a rule or even a desirable principle.[20] The Bible mentions approximately forty polygamists, including such prominent figures as Abraham, Jacob, Esau, Moses, David and King Solomon, with little or no further remark on their polygyny as such. This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Esaw redirects here. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...


The Torah, the Five Books of Moses, includes a few specific regulations on the practice of polygyny. Exodus 21:10 states that multiple marriages are not to diminish the status of the first wife, while Deuteronomy 21:15-17 states that a man must award the inheritance due to a first-born son to the son who was actually born first, even if he hates that son's mother and likes another wife more, implying that she had been divorced, and Deuteronomy 17:17 states that the king shall not have too many wives.[21] [22] Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses. ...


The biblical institution of a levirate marriage was a positive provision towards polygynous. The institution required a man to marry and support his deceased brother's widow if he died without her having given birth to a son. (Deuteronomy 25:5-10) The practice has been justified that it was important for the brother to have died without an heir to continue his name, or say the prayers for the dead for him. It has also been argued that there were also negative factors for the childless widow since children and fertility were a sign of God's blessing. This practice also provided a means to provide for widows. If the eldest brother refused to marry the widow then it was the responsibility of the next brother and so forth down the family line. Not to be confused with Levite. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ...


The Hebrew Bible prohibits polyandry. For a woman to have sexual relations when she is married to another (which would include a situation such as polyandry) would constitute adultery, with the consequences that it would have on her status, as well as of her children from that relationship. In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


In the New Testament, many verses (1 Timothy 3:12 and Titus 1:6 most notably) speak of having only one wife as a requirement for leadership roles in the church. Commands to men and women about marriage in Titus and throughout the New Testament speak only of a single wife, never plural. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Judaism

As noted above, in the biblical days Jewish men were allowed more than one wife and concubinage (wives with less status) was also practised.[20] Since the 11th century, Ashkenazi Jews have followed Rabbenu Gershom's ban on polygyny.[23]. Gershom's ban initially applied only to Ashkenazi Jews living in Christian lands. Technically, his polygamy ban expired in 1260 (Jewish year 5000).[20][24] However, its practice has spread to most Jews and been reaccepted by some Rabinical Assemblies.[25] Polyandry was never practised. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Rabbenu Gershom (also known as Gershom ben Judah) (c. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


Some Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews (particularly those from Yemen and Iran) discontinued polygyny much more recently, as they emigrated to countries where it was forbidden. Israel severely limits the ability of Jews to enter polygamous marriages in Israel,[26] but recognizes existing polygamous marriages of people immigrating from countries where the practice was legal. Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm) are Jews of Middle Eastern origin; that is to say, their ancestors never left the Middle East. ...


Among Karaite Jews, who do not accept Rabbinic interpretations of the Torah, polygyny is non-existent today. Karaites interpret Leviticus 18:18 to mean that a man can only take a second wife if his first wife gives her consent[27] and Exodus 21:10 to mean that a man can only take a second wife if he is capable of maintaining the same level of the marital duties of food, clothing, and sexual gratification as are due to his first wife. Because of these interpretations and because nearly all countries outlaw it, polygyny is considered impractical, and there are no known cases of it among Karaite Jews. Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Christianity

While the New Testament does not explicitly mention or ban polygamy, verses that teach on leadership (discussed below) forbid multiple marriage for church leaders; these verses are often interpreted to mean that marriage is between only one man and one woman:

"each man is to have his own wife, and each woman is to have her own husband." (1 Corinthians 7:2)
"A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach." (1 Timothy 3:2)

The mainline Christian tradition for over 1,000 years has been strictly in favour of monogamy and that most Christian scholars support this position.


Saint Augustine saw a conflict between Roman civil law and Old Testament polygyny. He did not consider it in violation of scripture. He wrote in The Good of Marriage (chapter 15): Augustinus redirects here. ...

[although it] was lawful among the ancient fathers: whether it be lawful now also, I would not hastily pronounce. For there is not now necessity of begetting children, as there then was, when, even when wives bear children, it was allowed, in order to a more numerous posterity, to marry other wives in addition, which now is certainly not lawful.

Augustine noted that polygamy was not in keeping with Roman custom or law. In chapter 7, he wrote:

Now indeed in our time, and in keeping with Roman custom, it is no longer allowed to take another wife, so as to have more than one wife living. [emphasis added]
"But here there is no ground for a criminal accusation: for a plurality of wives was no crime when it was the custom; and it is a crime now, because it is no longer the custom......The only reason of its being a crime now to do this, is because custom and the laws forbid it.

The Roman Catholic Church has subsequently taught on more fundamental grounds that "polygamy is not in accord with the moral law. [Conjugal] communion is radically contradicted by polygamy; this, in fact, directly negates the plan of God which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive." (Catholic Cathechism, para. 2387, Vatican website). This is also the normal position among Protestant Churches, and it can therefore be said that the mainstream Christian position is to reject polygamy in principle.


Periodically, Christian reform movements that have aimed at rebuilding Christian doctrine based on the Bible alone (sola scriptura) have at least temporarily accepted polygamy as a Biblical practice. For example, during the Protestant Reformation, in a document referred to simply as "Der Beichtrat" (or "The Confessional Advice" ),[28] Martin Luther granted the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who, for many years, had been living "constantly in a state of adultery and fornication,"[29] a dispensation to take a second wife. The double marriage was to be done in secret however, to avoid public scandal.[30] Some fifteen years earlier, in a letter to the Saxon Chancellor Gregor Brück, Luther stated that he could not "forbid a person to marry several wives, for it does not contradict Scripture." ("Ego sane fateor, me non posse prohibere, si quis plures velit uxores ducere, nec repugnat sacris literis.")[31] Despite the approval of Martin Luther, Christian polygamy is a minority position.[32] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Landgrave (Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a title (mostly) used in the Holy Roman Empire and later on by its former territories, comparable to a count, who had feudal duty directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. ... Philipp I of Hesse Philipp I, Landgraf von Hessen, the Magnanimous (13 November 1504 - 31 March 1567), was a leading champion of the Reformation and one of the most important German rulers of the Renaissance. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


"On February 14, 1650, the parliament at Nürnberg decreed that, because so many men were killed during the Thirty Years’ War, the churches for the following ten years could not admit any man under the age of 60 into a monastery. Priests and ministers not bound by any monastery were allowed to marry. Lastly, the decree stated that every man was allowed to marry up to ten women. The men were admonished to behave honorably, provide for their wives properly, and prevent animosity among them."[33][34][35][36][37] Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...


Although it is a minority position, there are evangelical, conservative Christians who actually do embrace polygamy as biblical and valid today. [38] [39] [40]


The modern trend towards frequent divorce and remarriage is sometimes referred to by conservative Christians as 'serial polygamy'.[citation needed] In contrast, sociologists and anthropologists refer to this as 'serial monogamy', since it is a series of monogamous (i.e. not polygamous) relationships.[41] Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ...


In Sub-Saharan Africa there has often been tension between the Christian churches' which insist on monogamy and African Independent Churches which defend traditional polygamy with references to the Old Testament. Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... The badge of the Saint Engenas Zion Christian Church, an African Initiated Church from southern Africa. ...


Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Mormon fundamentalists

See also: Polygamy in the United States and List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage

The history of Mormon polygamy begins with claims that Mormonism founder Joseph Smith received a revelation from God on July 17, 1831 that some Mormon men would be commanded to practice "plural marriage". The July 12, 1843 recording of a Smith revelation on plural marriage is now canonized as scripture in the Doctrine and Covenants by the LDS Church.[42] For years the practice of plural marriage by Mormons in the United States was not publicly known. The 1835 edition of the 101st Section of the Doctrine and Covenants, written before the doctrine of plural marriage was practised, publicly condemned polygamy. This scripture was used to quash Mormon polygamy rumors by John Taylor during 1850 in Liverpool, England.[43] In 1833, a conviction of polygamy in Illinois was punishable with a fine of $1000 and one year in jail [44] prior to the 1839-44 Nauvoo era when several top Mormon leaders including Smith, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball took plural wives. Mormon elders who publicly taught that all men were commanded to enter plural marriage were subject to discipline; for example, the February 1, 1844 excommunication of Hyram Brown.[45] In May 1844 Smith declared, "What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one."[46] On June 7, 1844 the Nauvoo Expositor criticized Smith for plural marriage. The Nauvoo city council declared the Nauvoo Expositor press a nuisance and ordered Smith, as Nauvoo's mayor, to order the city marshall to destroy the paper and its press. This controversial decision led to Smith going to Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844. The main body of Mormons soon followed Brigham Young to Utah where the practice of plural marriage continued. Historically, one of the defining characteristics of much of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of polygamy or later referred to as plural marriage, a type of polygyny. ... Teens From Polygamous Families protested on August 19, 2006 In Salt Lake City Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, usually during the administration of Brigham Young as president of The... Beginning with founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Historically, one of the defining characteristics of much of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of polygamy or later referred to as plural marriage, a type of polygyny. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... John Taylor (November 1, 1808 – July 25, 1887) was the third President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1880 to 1887. ... This article is about the city in England. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nauvoo (נאוו to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city located in Hancock County, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Nauvoo Expositor was a newspaper in Nauvoo, Illinois that published only one issue on June 7, 1844. ... Carthage Jail, located in Carthage, Illinois, was the location of the martyrdom of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


On August 29, 1852 the church began to publicly acknowledge their practice of plural marriage through a sermon on the subject given by Apostle Orson Pratt. Additional sermons by top Mormon leaders on the virtues of polygamy followed.[47] Much controversy ensued and many novelists began to write books and pamphlets condemning polygamy, portraying it as a legalized form of slavery.[citation needed] The key plank of the Republican Party's 1856 platform was "to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism, polygamy and slavery".[48] In 1862 during their first term with full control of both Congress and the White House, the Republicans issued the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act and the Emancipation Proclamation. The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act clarified that the practice of polygamy was illegal in all U.S. territories. Latter-day Saints believed that their religiously-based practice of plural marriage was protected by the Constitution.[49] However the 1878 unanimous Supreme Court Reynolds v. United States decision declared that polygamy was not protected by the Constitution, based on the longstanding legal principle that "laws are made for the government of actions, and while they cannot interfere with mere religious belief and opinions, they may with practices."[50] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In Mormonism, an Apostle is a special witness of the name of Christ who is sent to teach the principles of salvation to others. ... Orson Pratt Orson Pratt (September 19, 1811 – October 3, 1881) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. ... Slave redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... A party platform, also known as an manifesto is a list of the principles which a political party supports in order to appeal to the general public for the purpose of having said partys candidates voted into office. ... Dates of Sessions 1861-1863 The first session of this Congress took place in Washington, DC from July 4, 1861 to August 6, 1861. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... Currently, all United States territories are either unincorporated (meaning that they are not fully part of the United States, with all aspects of the United States Constitution applying automatically) or unorganized (meaning that they do not have a form of government specified by an Organic Act passed by the United... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... This page is about the 1878 U.S. Supreme Court case about polygamy and religious duty as a defense to criminal prosecution. ...


Increasingly harsh anti-polygamy legislation penalized church members, disincorporated the church, and permitted the seizure of church property. Members of the church were subsequently sent to Canada and Mexico to set up communities free from prosecution and in order to keep their marriages intact; e.g., Charles Ora Card founded Cardston, Alberta at the direction of John Taylor. The church's fourth president, Wilford Woodruff, issued a public declaration (commonly called the Manifesto) announcing the official discontinuance of the practice in 1890. Woodruff indicated in his diary that his action was taken "for the temporal salvation of the Church" which had been shown to him as being in danger through a vision from the Lord.[51] Much of the opposition against the church ceased because of the Manifesto. Opposition to statehood for Utah faded as the controversy over Mormon polygamy waned. (Utah was granted statehood in 1896.) The Edmunds Act, signed into law on March 23, 1882, declared polygamy a felony. ... The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887 touched all the issues at dispute between Congress and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... Charles Ora Card (1839 – 1906), founded the town of Cardston, Alberta in 1887, as the first Mormon settlement in Canada, under the direction of John Taylor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wilford Woodruff (March 1, 1807 – September 2, 1898) was the fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1889 until his death. ... The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


National attention in the United States again focused on potential polygamy among the church in the early 20th century during the House of Representatives hearings on Representative-elect B. H. Roberts and Senate hearings on Senator-elect Reed Smoot (the Smoot Hearings). Sixth church president Joseph F. Smith issued the church's Second Manifesto against polygamy in 1904 which clarified that all members of the LDS Church were officially prohibited from performing or entering into polygamous marriages, no matter what the legal status of such unions was in their respective countries of residence.[citation needed] In 1909 a committee of apostles met to investigate post-Manifesto polygamy, and by 1910 the church had a new policy. Those involved in plural marriages after 1904 were excommunicated; and those married between 1890 and 1904 were not to have church callings where other members would have to sustain them.[citation needed] Although the LDS Church officially prohibited new plural marriages after 1904, many plural husbands and wives continued to cohabit until their deaths in the 1940s and 1950s.[52] Seventh church president Heber J. Grant who died in 1945 was the last LDS Church president to have practised plural marriage. Leaders of the LDS church say that because they have restored the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ to the earth, plural marriage was a temporary necessity for this purpose.[citation needed] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Brigham Henry Roberts (March 13, 1857 _ September 27, 1933) was born in Warrington, a manufacturing town of Lancashire, England. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Sen. ... The Smoot Hearings or Smoot Case involved controversy surrounding the election of Reed Smoot to the United States Senate and whether he should be able to serve in the United States Senate as a Mormon religious leader. ... Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ... Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that... The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ... Heber Jeddy Grant (November 22, 1856 – May 14, 1945) was the seventh President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church; see also Mormonism). ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ...


The LDS Church now excommunicates members found to be practicing polygamy.[53] The "Teachings of Brigham Young"[54] and a LDS website on Joseph Smith[55] are some examples on how LDS Church publications now commonly characterize the history of early church leaders on the practice of plural marriage. For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ...


Although Mormons accept the prohibition on plural marriage, various splinter groups left the mainline LDS Church to continue the open practice of plural marriage. Polygamy among these groups persists today in Utah, neighboring states, and the spin-off colonies, as well as among isolated individuals with no organized church affiliation. Polygamist churches of Mormon origin are often referred to as "Mormon fundamentalist" even though, because they are practicing polygamy, they are not a part of the LDS church and therefore are not accurately considered "Mormon". They often use an ambiguous September 27, 1886 revelation to John Taylor as the basis for their authority to continue the practice of plural marriage.[56] The Salt Lake Tribune states there are as many as 37,000 fundamentalists, with less than half of them living in polygamous households.[57] Most of the polygamy is believed to be restricted to about a dozen extended groups of polygamous fundamentalists. The LDS Church asserts that it is improper to call any of these splinter polygamous groups "Mormon."[58][59] The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Teens From Polygamous Families protested on August 19, 2006 In Salt Lake City Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, usually during the administration of Brigham Young as president of The... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Taylor (November 1, 1808 – July 25, 1887) was the third President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1880 to 1887. ... Marquis of the Salt Lake Tribune on the Tribune Building in Downtown Salt Lake City The Salt Lake Tribune is Salt Lake City, Utahs largest-circulated local daily newspaper. ...


Islam

Main article: Polygamy in Islam

In Islam, polygamy is allowed, with the specific limitation that men can only have up to four wives at any one time. However, the Qur'an specifically states that men who choose this route must deal with their wives as fairly as possible, doing everything that they can to spend equal amounts of time and money on each one of them.Although many Muslim countries still retain traditional Islamic law which permits polygamy, certain elements within some Muslim societies challenge its acceptability. For example, polygamy is prohibited by law in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Tunisia and Turkey. This is a sub-article to Polygyny and Islamic marital jurisprudence In Islam, polygamy is allowed and practised under certain restricted conditions. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ...


Hinduism

Both polygamy and polygyny were practised in ancient, medieval and early-modern times, among many sections of Hindu society. For example, in Ramayan, father of Ramchandra, king Dasharath has three wives but Ram has pledged himself just one wife. The only instance of polyandry in Indian mythology is seen in Mahabharat where Draupadi marries 5 brothers, the Pandavas. Krishna, the 8th incarnation of Vishnu had 16,108 wives. Hinduism during the vedic period did not prohibit polygamy, in fact it prescribed rules to regulate it (though no limit was placed on the number of spouses). Historically, kings routinely took concubines. For example, the Vijaynagara emperor, Krishnadevaraya had multiple "wives." Monogamy was only imposed by 18th. and 19th. century Christian Europeans, especially the British Raj. Under modern Hindu Marriage Law, polygamy is forbidden for Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs. However, Muslims in India are allowed to have multiple wives. Marriage laws in India are dependent upon the religion of the subject in question.[60] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Lord Ram, Laxman, Sita and Hanuman(crouching) The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... Lord Sri Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is the great religious, philosophical and mythological epic of India. ... Draupadi. ... In the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Pandava (or Pandawa) brothers (Sanskrit: पाण्‍डव ) are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu (Sanskrit: पांडु), by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This article is about the ruined city in India. ... Krishnadevaraya Recently excavated Vishnu temple, Hampi Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) (1509-1529 CE) was the most famous king of Vijayanagara empire. ...


Buddhism

Marriage is considered a secular issue in Buddhism. According to Theravada Buddhism, polygamy is discouraged and extramatrial affairs are considered sinful. It is said in the Parabawa Sutta that "a man who is not satisfied with one woman and seeks out other women is on the path to decline". In Tibetan Buddhism, namely Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism, it is not uncommon to take a consort in addition to a spouse, though it is namely for certain spiritual practices that the spouse may not be able/ready to participate in--or if the husband/wife are at different levels on their spiritual path.[citation needed] A consort is appropriate in such cases. Within this context, either the husband or wife, occasionally both, might take a spiritual consort. This is known as Consort Practice, and there are specific teachings and mediations that go along with it. Consort Practice is often very private, however, and not openly discussed outside of followers of Tibetan Vajrayana--which tends to be a very private form of Buddhism in general -- hence it is not very well known. Husbands and wives also engage in Consort Practice together, monogamously.


The 2008 BBC documentary series "A Year in Tibet", however, recorded three distinct cases of polyandry in and around the city of Gyantse alone (the pregnant farmer's wife in episode 1, "The Visit"; Yangdron in episode 2, "Three Husbands and a Wedding"; and the young monk, Tsephun's, mother in episode 5, "A Tale of Three Monks"). In "Three Husbands and a Wedding", a 17-year-old girl is also shown being forced into a marriage that would have been polyandrous, except that the younger, 12-year-old, brother had to attend school on the wedding day (his parents hint that he will marry his older brother's new wife at a later date). The programs include statements from the women involved that indicate they did not enter the polyandrous marriages willingly, and commentary that indicates young women in Tibet are routinely forced by their families into polyandrous marriages with two or more brothers.


Polyandry (especially fraternal polyandry) is also common among Buddhists in Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Ladakh, and other parts of the Indian subcontinent.


Legal situation

See also: Polygamy in the United States

Most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, and consider bigamy a crime. Several countries also prohibiting people living a polygamous lifestyle. In some States of the United States, the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are rarely enforced.[61] Occident redirects here. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ...


Polygamists may find it harder dealing with government agencies, such as obtaining legal immigrant status.


Current proponents and opponents

Secular

David Friedman and Steve Sailer have argued that polygamy tends to benefit most women and disadvantage most men. Friedman uses this viewpoint to argue in favor of legalizing polygamy, while Sailer uses it to argue against legalizing it. The idea is firstly that many women would prefer half or one third of someone especially appealing to being the single spouse of someone that doesn't provide as much economic utility to them. Secondly, that the remaining women have a better market for finding a spouse themselves. Say that 20% of women are married to 10% of men, that leaves 90% of men to compete over the remaining 80% of women. David D. Friedman (b. ... Steve Sailer Steven Ernest Sailer (born December 20, 1958) is an American journalist and movie critic for The American Conservative, ex-correspondent for UPI, and VDARE.com columnist. ...


In the US, the Libertarian Party supports complete decriminalization of polygamy as part of a general belief that the government should not regulate marriages. The Libertarian Party is a United States political party founded on December 11, 1971. ...


Individualist feminism and advocates such as Wendy McElroy also support the freedom for adults to voluntarily enter polygamous marriages. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ...


The American Civil Liberties Union of Utah, USA, is opposed to Utah's law against bigamy.[62] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) consists of two separate non-profit organizations: the ACLU Foundation, a 501(c)(3) organization which focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union, a 501(c)(4) organization which focuses on legislative lobbying. ...


Those who advocate a Federal Marriage Amendment to the American Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage generally word their proposed laws to also prohibit polygamy. Many proponents of same-sex marriage are also in favour of maintaining current statutory prohibitions against polygamy, some arguing that while same-sex marriages do not involve toleration of pedophilia amongst practitioners, the same is not true of most polygamists in the United States.[citation needed] The United States Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman. ... Recognized in some regions Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated United States (IA, IL, MD, NM, NY, RI) Recognition granted, same-sex marriage debated United States (CT, DC, HI, ME, NH, NJ, OR, VT, WA) See also This box... Recognized in some regions Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated United States (IA, IL, MD, NM, NY, RI) Recognition granted, same-sex marriage debated United States (CT, DC, HI, ME, NH, NJ, OR, VT, WA) See also This box... Not to be confused with Ephebophilia. ...


Religious

The Roman Catholic Church clearly condemns polygamy; the Catechism of the Catholic Church lists it in paragraph 2387 under the head "Other offenses against the dignity of marriage" and states that it "is not in accord with the moral law." Also in paragraph 1645 under the head "The Goods and Requirements of Conjugal Love" states "The unity of marriage, distinctly recognized by our Lord, is made clear in the equal personal dignity which must be accorded to man and wife in mutual and unreserved affection. Polygamy is contrary to conjugal love which is undivided and exclusive." Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Currently the vast majority of Protestant congregations take the Catholic view on polygamy.[citation needed]


The illegality of polygamy in certain areas creates, according to certain Bible passages, additional arguments against it. Paul of Tarsus writes "submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience" (Romans 13:5), for "the authorities that exist have been established by God." (Romans 13:1) St Peter concurs when he says to "submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every authority instituted among men: whether to the king, as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right." (1 Peter 2:13,14) Pro-polygamists argue that, as long as polygamists currently do not obtain legal marriage licenses for additional spouses, no enforced laws are being broken any more than when monogamous couples who similarly co-habitate without a marriage license.[63] Paul of Tarsus (b. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...


At the present time, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints supports enforcing laws against polygamy, although historically this denomination practised polygamy which they considered to be a principle revealed by God, and fought vocally against those seeking to establish such laws. Today, the church will excommunicate any member found to be practicing polygamy. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Controversial Christian vegetarian activist and leader Nathan Braun implies a positive stance towards polygamy in his fourth edition of The History and Philosophy of Marriage. Christian vegetarianism is based on extending the compassionate teachings of Jesus, the twelve apostles and the early church to all living beings through vegetarianism or veganism. ... Nathan Braun is a Canadian author and activist in the vegetarian movement. ...


Polygamy today

Not all modern polygamists practice the more traditional, individuated style of religious polygamy characterized by secluded, communal living, power centralization, and familial intermarrying. Some polygamist families are created with consenting, informed and socially integrated adults who believe in the practice of polygamy for personal, emotional, practical, or intellectual reasons. It is unclear whether these families are truly very few in number or if their existence is under-reported because of the legal ramifications and social stigma of polygamy in the United States. Popular culture tends to focus heavily on the fundamental religious, particularly fundamental LDS aspects of polygamy; despite some practicing polygamist in the United States having no connection to the traditional or fundamental LDS church. Additionally, because of the high potential for, and historic record of abuses within polygamist cultures, modern polygamist families may be hesitant to be open about their marriages and risk connection with the negative image of fundamental compounds. Husbands or wives in these polygamist marriages argue that polygamy is neither inherently abusive or unequal, though it can be corrupted. Modern polygamists contend that their style of practice instills family values, community, love, and equality as well as seeking to promote, and not subjugate, every member of the family. Proponents of polygamy state that many modern polygamist spouses are consenting adults whose lifestyle does not affect the lives of others and are thus deserving of privacy and legal protection in their personal relationships.


Mormon fundamentalism

Some of those who continue to practice polygamy today still do so for religions reasons. They often live in their own communities and tend to find their additional spouses within their own communities or networks of like communities. This can involve daughters of polygamous families entering into arranged marriages with older men who already have a number of wives. This is commonly called daughter swapping. Marriage age can be young and sometimes below the legal minimum. Young men may be forced to leave the communities so that more women are available to be married to older polygamous males. It is also not uncommon for fairly close relatives to marry, leading to inbreeding, though part of this comes from the difficulty of keeping track of the complex net of familial relations. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ...


Some sects that practice or at least sanction polygamy are the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the Latter-day Church of Christ and the Apostolic United Brethren. These sects tend to aggregate in communities where they all commonly share their own specific religion and thus basis for polygamy. These small groups ranging from a few hundred to about 10,000 are reported to be located in various communities of the Western United States, Canada, and Mexico including:[64] The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS Church) is one of the largest Mormon fundamentalist denominations[1][2] and one of Americas largest practitioners of plural marriage. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Apostolic United Brethren (hereafter AUB) is a polygamous fundamentalist sect not affiliated with the well-known The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...

The community of Bountiful was founded in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, in 1947. ... Pringle is a town located in Custer County, South Dakota. ... Parker is a town in La Paz County, Arizona, United States, on the Colorado River. ... Colorado City is a town in Mohave County, Arizona, United States and is located in a region known as the Arizona Strip. ... Bonners Ferry is a city located in Boundary County, Idaho. ... Rexburg is a city in Madison County, Idaho, in the United States. ... Lovell is a town in Big Horn County, Wyoming, United States. ... Pinesdale is a town located in Ravalli County, Montana. ... Mancos is a town located in Montezuma County, Colorado. ... For the Davis County Cooperative Society, see Latter Day Church of Christ. ... Salt Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Tooele County is a county located in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Utah County is a county located in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Cedar City is a city located in Iron County, Utah, 250 miles South of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15. ... Hildale is a city in Washington County, Utah, United States. ... Manti is a city located in Sanpete County, Utah, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 3,040. ... Rocky Ridge is a town located in Juab County, Utah. ... Eldorado is a city located in Schleicher County, Texas. ...

Muslims and traditionalist cultures

Polygamy, and laws concerning polygamy, differ greatly throughout the Islamic world and form a very complex and diverse background from nation to nation. Whereas in some Muslim countries it may be fairly common, in most others it is often rare or non-existent. However, there are certain core fundamentals which are found in most Muslim countries where the practice occurs. According to traditional Islamic law, a man may take up to four wives, and each of those wives must have her own property, assets, and dowry. Usually the wives have little to no contact with each other and lead separate, individual lives in their own houses, and sometimes in different cities, though they all share the same husband. Muhammad, for example, married many of his wives because they were war widows who were left with nothing and took care of them. Thus, polygamy is traditionally restricted to men who can manage things, and in some countries it is illegal for a man to marry multiple wives if he is unable to afford to take care of each of them properly.


In the modern Islamic world, polygamy is mainly found in traditionalist Arab cultures[citation needed], Saudi Arabia, West and East Africa (In Sudan it is encouraged from the president)[65] and the United Arab Emirates for instance[citation needed], whereas in secular Arab states like Tunisia and non-Arab countries with Muslim population, Turkey for example, it is banned. However, polygamy is still practised in Malaysia, a non-Arab Muslim country, but there are restrictions as to how it can be practised.[66] In traditionalist cultures where polygamy is still commonplace and legal, Muslim polygamists do not separate themselves from the society at large, since there would be no need as each spouse leads a separate life from the others.


Polygamy in fiction

The quip "Bigamy is having one spouse too many. Monogamy is the same." is popularly misattributed to Oscar Wilde. Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...


A popular joke with Mark Twain has Twain asked to cite a Scripture reference that forbids polygamy, and he responds with, "No man can serve two masters." Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


A number of writers have expressed their views on polygamy by writing about a fictional world in which it is the most common type of relationship. These worlds tend to be utopian or dystopian in nature. For instance, Robert A. Heinlein uses this theme in a number of novels, such as Stranger in a Strange Land. See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... For other uses, see Stranger in a Strange Land (disambiguation). ...


Polygamy is practised by the Fremen in Frank Herbert's Dune as a means to pinpoint male infertility. It is socially accepted as long as the man provides for all wives equally. Cultures described within the Dune novel series have intentional similarities to Islamic, Arabic, and other cultures. Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... Dune is a science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert and published in 1965. ... The fictional Dune universe, or Duniverse, is the political, scientific, and social setting of author Frank Herberts six-book Dune series of science fantasy novels. ...


Similarly, the Aiel society in Robert Jordan's The Wheel of Time series practice a form of polygamy, in which multiple women may marry the same man; in that fictional culture, women are the ones who propose marriage. Among Aiel, sisters or very close friends who have adopted each other as sisters, will often marry the same man, so that he will not come between them. In Robert Jordans fantasy series The Wheel of Time, the Aiel are a race of people. ... For other persons named Robert Jordan, see Robert Jordan (disambiguation). ... This article is about a fantasy series. ...


Ursula K. Le Guin describes a planet O, where the cultural norm is a four-person marriage (two of each gender). Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... The Ekumen is the fictional galactic federation of human-inhabited worlds mentioned in several of the science fiction novels of Ursula K. Le Guin. ...


Dan Simmons describes a culture of three-person marriages (any gender ratio) in his book Endymion. Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American author most widely known for his Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel Hyperion and its sequel The Fall of Hyperion. ... Endymion is the third science fiction novel by Dan Simmons in his Hyperion Cantos fictional universe. ...


Noted libertarian author L. Neil Smith included a character married to two sisters in his book The American Zone. The dominant culture in the novel sees one's religion and personal living accommodations as no one else's business, and "acts of capitalism between consenting adults" as the norm instead of something immoral. L. Neil Smith (full name Lester Neil Smith III), also known to readers and fans as El Neil, is a libertarian science fiction author and political activist. ...


Jean M. Auel in the pre-historic Earth's Children series depicted several instances of "co-mating," where a person could have more than one mate. Examples included the headwoman Tulie in the Mammoth Hunters, and a man who married a pair of twins in the Shelters of Stone. Also of note was Vinavec, the headman of the Mammoth Camp who wished to mate with the protagonist Ayla and was willing to take her Promised, Ranec, implying a bisexual relationship as well. Jean Marie Auel (born February 18, 1936 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American writer. ... Earths Children is a series of historical fiction novels written by Jean M. Auel. ... Ayla is the main character of Jean Auels Earths Children novels. ...


A Home at the End of the World is a novel by Michael Cunningham about a polygamous family. It was later adapted into a film. Both explore issues of homosexuality and families. A Home at the End of the World is a book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Michael Cunningham, who also wrote the screenplay of the movie (directed by Michael Mayer). ... Michael Cunningham (born November 6, 1952) is an award-winning American writer, best known for his 1998 novel The Hours, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1999. ...


In the Star Trek television series Enterprise, the ship's physician, Dr. Phlox (who is a Denobulan) has three wives, each of whom has three husbands of her own (including him). One of his wives seemed to be interested in having extramarital relations with a human, which Phlox himself did not oppose, and even encouraged. It has also been stated that the Andorian species enter into group marriages (although whether this is due to societal custom or biological necessity has not been firmly established.) This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... The starship Enterprise (NX-01) Star Trek: Enterprise is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe. ... Doctor Phlox is a fictional character in the television series Star Trek: Enterprise played by John Billingsley. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Andorians are a species of humanoids native to the icy moon Andoria, which orbits the ringed gas giant Andor, described in Star Trek: Enterprise as being in the Procyon System. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all...


In the Sci-Fi television series Babylon 5 the Centauris allow for men to have more than one wife. Sci-fi is an abbreviation for science fiction. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ...


In Star Wars Expanded Universe, it is explained that Cereans (like Ki-Adi-Mundi) have a much higher birth-rate of girls than boys. Thus, every male Cerean must have one wife and multiple "honor wives", to increase the chance of giving birth to another male. Jedi Cerean Ki-Adi-Mundi was allowed to marry multiple times, although Jedis were not supposed to marry at his time; but Ki-Adi-Mundi got a dispense of that norm. This article is about the series. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // The Abyssin inhabit the planet Byss. ... Ki-Adi-Mundi is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. ...


Big Love is an HBO series about a polygamous family in Utah in the first decade of the 21st century. In the series, Bill Henrickson has three wives and seven children, who belong to a fundamentalist Mormon splinter group. Big Love explores the complex legal, moral, and religious issues associated with polygamy in Utah. Henrickson's three wives each have separate houses beside one another, with a shared backyard. By outward appearances, he lives with his primary wife, and has two "friends" living close by, while in reality taking turns sleeping at a different house each night. Henrickson effectively balances his work, the continuing demands of his wives, and his wives' relatives. For other uses, see Big Love (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ...


In Duke of the Mount Deer/The Deer and the Cauldron the Hong Kong writer Louis Cha (Jin Yung) assigned seven willing wives of different characters to the very capable hero Wai-Siu-Bo (Wei-Shao-Bao). This politics, office-politics, romance, and kung-fu survival story was based in the early Ching (Qing) Dynasty (of Kangxi reign 1654–1722). The saga has been made into films and TV series several times since the 1960s. Famous actors like Tony Leung (Leung Chiu Wai), Steven Chow (Chow Sing Chi), and Dicky Cheung (Cheung-Wai-Kin) have played the male role. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Oxford University Press edition of Louis Chas final wuxia novel, The Deer and the Cauldron The Deer and the Cauldron (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) or The Duke of Mount Deer is the last novel written by Jinyong. ... Louis Cha, (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong or Kam-yung, is one of the most influential Chinese-language novelists. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Leung (梁) Tony Leung Chiu Wai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born June 27, 1962) is a Hong Kong movie and ex-TVB actor. ... Stephen Chow in Kung Fu Hustle Stephen Chow (周星馳; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Xīngchí; Cantonese Romanization: Chow Sing Chi) (born June 22, 1962) is a Hong Kong actor and director, and considered to be a king of comedy. ... Dicky Cheung Wai Kin (Chinese Traditional: 張衛健, Chinese Simplified: 张卫健) is primarily a Hong Kong television actor and born on February 8,1965. ...


Random House will publish award-winning author David Ebershoff's next novel The 19th Wife in 2008. It is about Ann Eliza Young and the legacy of Mormon polygamy in the United States today. Ebershoff is the author of the international bestseller The Danish Girl. David Ebershoff is an American-born writer, editor, and teacher. ... A lithograph of Ann Eliza Young sometime between 1869 and 1875 Ann Eliza Young (née Webb) (1844 - 1908?) was one of Brigham Youngs many wives and later a critic of polygamy and a U.S. Mormon dissident. ...


In David Weber's Honor Harrington series, the inhabitants of the planet Grayson practice polygamy (polygyny) due to the human colonists to the planet acquiring a genetic defect that gave rise to a large women-to-men birth ratio combined with a high infant mortality. Honor Harrington from Honor Among Enemies cover, by David Mattingly. ... Map of the Honorverse. ... The planet Grayson is a fictional human star-nation in the Honorverse, the setting for a series of books written by David Weber and published by Baen Books. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ...


Wen Spencer's science fiction novel A Brother's Price describes a society where men are very rare and protected, and multiple sisters typically marry one man Wen Spencer (born 1963) is an American Science fiction and fantasy writer whose books center around characters with unusual abilities, and which might be regarded as original variations on the standard vampire and werewolf themes. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...

Look up Polygamy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

See also

Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... A Pilegesh is a concubine. ... Plaçage was an recognized extralegal system by which predominantly wealthy and white Creole men in Louisiana entered into the equivalent of common-law marriages with women of both African and white Creole descent known as placées (from the French word placer which means to place with). ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... A Triad is a three way relationship. ...

References

  1. ^ Polygamy at socialsciencedictionary.org
  2. ^ (Linda Stone, Kinship and Gender, 2006, Westview, 3rd ed, ch 6)The Center for Research on Tibet Papers on Tibetan Marriage and Polyandry. Accessed: October 1, 2006
  3. ^ Goldstein, Pahari and Tibetan Polyandry Revisited, Ethnology. 17(3): 325-327, 1978, from The Center for Research on Tibet. Accessed: October 1, 2007
  4. ^ Kilbride, Philip Leroy. Plural Marriage For Our Time. Bergin & Garvey, 1994. ISBN 0-89789-314-X
  5. ^ Ethnographic Atlas Codebook derived from George P. Murdock’s Ethnographic Atlas recording the marital composition of 1231 societies from 1960-1980
  6. ^ Diouf, Nafi (May 2, 2004). "Polygamy hangs on in Africa", The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 
  7. ^ [1] - BBC, "Warning for Christian polygamists"
  8. ^ Polygamy in Africa - "AFRICAN MARRIAGE: The Single most important ritual in African culture"
  9. ^ Omar Hassan al-Bashir, has urged Sudanese men to take more than one wife to increase the population
  10. ^ South Africa Polygamy debate
  11. ^ Zuma charmed wives and nation The Australian
  12. ^ Zuma to wed on Saturday M&G
  13. ^ South Africa Polygamist Christians
  14. ^ The Legacy Lingers On: Korean Confucianism and the Erosion of Women’s Rights by Hildi Kang, Research Fellow, Center for Korean Studies, University of California, Berkeley]
  15. ^ ?? — article in Chinese
  16. ^ a b Hong Kong, article by Man-Lun Ng, M.D.; part of "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality" Volume I – IV 1997–2001, Edited by Robert T. Francoeur
  17. ^ Tycoon, concubine engage in battle over her legal rights, The Observer, Tuesday, September 28, 2004, Page 5
  18. ^ Graeme Lang, Josephine Smart (2002). "Migration and the “second wife” in South China: Toward cross-border polygyny". The International Migration Review 36 (5): 546–569. 
  19. ^ Hong Kong Targets Its Two-Family Men, Kevin Murphy, International Herald Tribune, Tuesday, February 7, 1995
  20. ^ a b c [http://books.google.com/books?id=YHTt4KfkLNMC&pg=PA500&lpg=PA500&dq=1000+CE,+Rabbenu+Gershom+decree&source=web&ots=0g5PvRYmsT&sig=Pd76p7J29ZIqtp5rLa2C_Iw-b3k&hl=en#PPA500,M1 The Torah, URJ Press, 2007
  21. ^ Judaica Press Complete Tanach, Devarim - Chapter 17 from Chabad.org
  22. ^ The king's behavior is condemned by Prophet Samuel in 1 Samuel 8.
  23. ^ Frequently asked questions, Judaism and Polygamy
  24. ^ Judism in Practice
  25. ^ http://www.pkas.org/gershomban.htm Gershom Ban on Polygamy for Ashenazi Jews
  26. ^ The law requires the permission of 100 rabbis.
  27. ^ Keter Torah on Leviticus, pp.96—97.
  28. ^ Letter to Philip of Hesse, December 10, 1539, De Wette-Seidemann, 6:238-244
  29. ^ The Life of Luther Written by Himself, p.251 [2]
  30. ^ James Bowling Mozley Essays, Historical and Theological. 1:403-404 Excerpts from Der Beichtrat.[3]
  31. ^ Letter to the Chancellor Gregor Brück,[4] January 13, 1524, De Wette 2:459.
  32. ^ Christianity and Polygamy.
  33. ^ Larry O. Jensen, A Genealogical Handbook of German Research (Rev. Ed., 1980) p. 59.
  34. ^ Joseph Alfred X. Michiels, Secret History of the Austrian Government and of its Systematic Persecutions of Protestants (London: Chapman and Hall, 1859) p. 85 (copy at Google Books), the author stating that he is quoting from a copy of the legislation.
  35. ^ William Walker Rockwell, Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen (Marburg, 1904), p. 280, n. 2 (copy at Google Books), which reports the number of wives allowed was two.
  36. ^ Leonhard Theobald, “Der angebliche Bigamiebeschluß des fränkischen Kreistages” [“The So-called Bigamy Decision of the Franconian Kreistag”], Beitrage zur Bayerischen kirchengeschichte [Contributions to Bavarian Church History] 23 (1916 – bound volume dated 1917) Erlangen: 199-200 (Theobald reporting that the Franconian Kreistag did not hold session between 1645 and 1664, and that there is no record of such a law in the extant archives of Nürnberg, Ansbach, or Bamberg, Theobald believing that the editors of the Fränkisches Archiv must have misunderstood a draft of some other legislation from 1650).
  37. ^ Alfred Altmann, "Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnburg," Jahresbericht über das 43 Vereinsjahr 1920 [Annual Report for the 43rd Year 1920 of the Historical Society of the City of Nuremberg] (Nürnberg 1920): 13-15 (Altmann reporting a lecture he had given discussing the polygamy permission said to have been granted in Nuremberg in 1650, Altmann characterizing the Fränkisches Archiv as “merely a popular journal, not an edition of state documents,” and describing the tradition as “a literary fantasy”).
  38. ^ TruthBearer.org on "The 700 Club"
  39. ^ 700 Club report, "Polygamy: The Next 'Right' to be Legalized?"
  40. ^ Pro-Polygamy.com report, "700 Club airs its First Report on Christian Polygamy Movement"
  41. ^ Fisher, Helen. The First Sex. Ballantine Books, 271-72, 276. ISBN 0-449-91260-4. 
  42. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 132 as found at lds.org
  43. ^ THREE NIGHTS PUBLIC DISCUSSION Between The Revds. C. W. Cleeve, James Robertson, and Philip Cater, And Elder John Taylor, Of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, At Boulogne-Sur-Mer, France. Chairman, Rev. K. Groves, M.A., Assisted By Charles Townley, LL.D., and Mr. Luddy. pg 8-9
  44. ^ [5] Sec 121. "Bigamy consists in the having of two wives or two husbands at one and the same time, knowing that the former husband or wife is still alive. If any person or persons within this State, being married, or who shall hereafter marry, do at any time marry any person or persons, the former husband or wife being alive, the person so offending shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine, not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisoned in the penitentiary, not exceeding two years. It shall not be necessary to prove either of the said marriages by the register or certificate thereof, or other record evidence; but the same may be proved by such evidence as is admissible to prove a marriage in other cases, and when such second marriage shall have taken place without this state, cohabitation in this state after such second marriage shall be deemed the commission of the crime of bigamy, and the trial in such case may take place in the county where such cohabitation shall have occurred." (Revised Laws of Illinois, 1833, p.198-99)
  45. ^ Times and Seasons, vol. 5, pg. 423, February 1, 1844
  46. ^ History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume VI, edited by B. H. Roberts, 1902.
  47. ^ JD 11:128 Brigham Young - June 18, 1865 - "Since the founding of the Roman empire monogamy has prevailed more extensively than in times previous to that. The founders of that ancient empire were robbers and women stealers, and made laws favoring monogamy in consequence of the scarcity of women among them, and hence this monogamic system which now prevails throughout Christendom, and which had been so fruitful a source of prostitution and whoredom throughout all the Christian monogamic cities of the Old and New World, until rottenness and decay are at the root of their institutions both national and religious."
  48. ^ GOP Convention of 1856 in Philadelphia from the Independence Hall Association website
  49. ^ Free Exercise Clause - First Amendment
  50. ^ Reynolds v. United States at findlaw.com
  51. ^ 1890 Manifesto as found at lds.org
  52. ^ Polygamy entry in the Utah Historical Encyclopedia, University of Utah, 1994.
  53. ^ What is the Church’s position on polygamy? at LDS Church owned website
  54. ^ Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young, © 1997 by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Publication number 35554
  55. ^ Joseph Smith, Life of the Prophet, Joseph and Emma, "The Choice of My Heart"
  56. ^ "An 1886 Revelation to John Taylor"
  57. ^ "LDS splinter groups growing" by Brooke Adams, August 9, 2005 - SLT Article ID: 10BF07C805DE5990
  58. ^ "Mormon Fundamentalists", 6 March 2006 press release by the LDS Church
  59. ^ "Polygamist Sects Are Not 'Mormons,' Church Says", 25 October 2006 press release by the LDS Church
  60. ^ Marriages-Divorces section at general information website on Indian laws by Sudhir Shah & Associates
  61. ^ Turley, Jonathan. Polygamy laws expose our own hypocrisy
  62. ^ ACLU of Utah to Join Polygamists in Bigamy Fight, 7/16/1999 press release.
  63. ^ "Law of the Land" page at BiblicalPolygamy.com
  64. ^ Utah Attorney General's Office and Arizona Attorney General's Office. "The Primer, Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities" (pdf). Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  65. ^ Omar Hassan al-Bashir, has urged Sudanese men to take more than one wife to increase the population
  66. ^ Women's Aid Organisation: Know Your Rights, Polygamy

Chabad. ... Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849), was a German theologian. ... James Bowling Mozley (September 15, 1813 - January 4, 1878), English theologian, was born at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. ... Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849), was a German theologian. ... Brigham Henry Roberts (March 13, 1857 _ September 27, 1933) was born in Warrington, a manufacturing town of Lancashire, England. ... FindLaw. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Cairncross, John (1974). After Polygamy Was Made a Sin: The Social History of Christian Polygamy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-7730-0. 
  • Campbell, James (1869). "The History and Philosophy of Marriage". Re-published online at TruthBearer.org. First published in Boston. Retrieved on August 5, 2005.
  • Chapman, Samuel A. (2001). Polygamy, Bigamy and Human Rights Law. Xlibris Corp. ISBN 1-4010-1244-2. 
  • Hillman, Eugene. Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches. New York: Orbis Books. ISBN 0-88344-391-0. 
  • Korotayev, Andrey (2004). World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective, First Edition, Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-6310-0. 
  • Van Wagoner, Richard S. (1992). Mormon Polygamy: A History, 2nd Ed., Utah: Signature Books. ISBN 0-941214-79-6. 
  • Wilson, E. O. (2000). Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Harvard Univ Pr. ISBN 0-674-00235-0. 

Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist (Myrmecology, a branch of entomology), researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), and naturalist (conservationism). ...

External links

  • Pro-Polygamy.com - Provides op-eds and press releases on polygamy-related current events for the secular mass media
  • Anti-Polygamy.com - A discussion forum for both sides of the anti-polygamy debate.
  • The Weekly Standard: Polygamy vs. Democracy

African Polygamy

  • Polygamy in Africa
  • Sudan government encourages Polygamy

Christian polygamy

PRO:

  • Christian Polygamy Info - Presents definitions and the history of the new, modern social movement which has no connection to Mormon polygamy.
  • TruthBearer.org -- Organization for Christian polygamy Provides activists with teachings, resources, support, and media interviews
  • Biblical Polygamy - Presents biblical exegesis of arguments to support polygamy and lists out all the polygamists in the Bible
  • A defense of Christian polygamy - discusses and answers objections many Christians have to polygamy with cited evidence in the Bible
  • Another defense of Christian polygamy - another newly created web-site in 2008
  • A comprehensive one-page study of polygamy - by Blaine Robison, M.A. (M.R.E.), May, 2008

CON: For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

  • "Why did God allow polygamy in the Bible?"
  • "Is polygamy allowed by the New Testament?"
  • "On Polygamy" by Protestant Theologian Johann Gerhard

Johann Gerhard (October 17, 1582 – August 10, 1637), was a Lutheran church leader and theologian. ...

Mormon polygamy

NEUTRAL:

  • Recent polygamy-related stories in the Salt Lake Tribune
  • "The Primer" - Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities. A joint report from the offices of the Attorney Generals of Arizona and Utah.:
  • Hope for the Child Brides - non-profit organization in St. George, Utah, that offers assistance to any victims of abuse who live in specific polygamous Mormon splinter group communities where underage marriage occurs.
  • Bradley, Martha Sontag Kidnapped from That Land: The Government Raids on the Short Creek Polygamists
  • Van Wagoner, Richard S. Mormon Polygamy: A History
  • The Four Major Periods of Mormon Polygamy
  • mormoncentury.org - Spiritual roots of Mormon polygamy

PRO:

  • MormonPolygamy.com - Group of Fundamentalist Mormon women in Utah, called "Principle Voices of Polygamy", who advocate consensual, adult Mormon polygamy.
  • 4TheFamily.us - Forum with cut-and-pasted copies of external news articles for discussion.

CON:

  • Polygamy Diaries - Phoenix, Arizona TV station profiles Mormon polygamists in Arizona and Utah.
  • "A Shield and Refuge Ministry": A Christian outreach to Mormon Fundamentalists
  • "Is Polygamy Part of God's Plan for Marriage?"
  • Tapestry Against Polygamy - A group of ex-Mormon fundamentalist polygamous wives in Salt Lake City, Utah, who offer insight and assistance for anyone seeking to leave specific polygamous Mormon splinter group communities.
  • "Official Mormon View Of Polygamy - official Mormon stance on polygamy.
  • "Lifting the Veil of Polygamy" - A film about Mormon Fundamentalism and polygamy (viewable online), by Living Hope Ministries.

Jewish polygamy

  • Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe on Polygamy
  • History of Polygamy in Judaism
  • History of Jewish Marriage
  • Why Moses Remained Celibate: from the Oral Torah; clerical celibacy

When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ...

Muslim perspective

  • http://askmuslims.com/polygamy.html
  • Polygamy No-nos
  • Stories of Polygynous Blessings

Greater China Region

  • Man-Lun Ng, M.D. Berlin Humboldt University research on sexiology: about the situation in Hong Kong
  • Confucianism in the Early Edo Period in Japan
  • 2002 Heather M. Schmidt: The Cycle Created by China’s One-Child Policy(increasing the gap of male:female ratio and problems caused
  • MSN Encarta: Confucianism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polygamy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6710 words)
In social anthropology, polygamy is the practice of marriage to more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has only one spouse at a time).
Polygamy is most widely practiced by Muslims in West Africa (where it is also widely practiced by non-Muslims), as well as in certain traditionalist Arabian states such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; in the rest of the Muslim world, it is extremely rare, with some countries even banning it.
Polygamy is practiced by the Fremen in Frank Herbert's Dune as a means to pinpoint male infertility.
Polygamy FAQ (1608 words)
Polygamy was lived secretly in the LDS church from about 1831 to 1852.
Polygamy was lived openly from 1852 to 1890 by the LDS church in Utah.
Polygamy was taken from us by the Federal government, and we still harbor a deep distrust of governments in general, and of the Federal Government in particular.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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