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Encyclopedia > Polyethylene
Space-filling model of a polyethylene chain
The repeating unit of polyethylene, showing its stereochemistry
A simpler way of representing the repeating unit. Note, however, that the C−H bond angles are not 90° as this diagram would indicate, but are approximately 110°, since each carbon atom is tetrahedral (sp3).

Polyethylene, (IUPAC name polyethene), is a thermoplastic commodity made by the chemical industry and heavily used in consumer products (over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x361, 101 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x361, 101 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x915, 57 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x915, 57 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... The different types of isomers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1052, 42 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1052, 42 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polyethylene ... In polymer chemistry, a structural unit is a building block of a polymer chain. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... four sp³ orbitals three sp² orbitals In chemistry, hybridisation or hybridization (see also spelling differences) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... A thermoplastic is a material that is plastic or deformable, melts to a liquid when heated and freezes to a brittle, glassy state when cooled sufficiently. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ...

Contents

Explanation

Polyethylene is a polymer consisting of long chains of the monomer ethylene (IUPAC name ethene). The recommended scientific name 'polyethene' is systematically derived from the scientific name of the monomer.[1][2] In certain circumstances it is useful to use a structure–based nomenclature. In such cases IUPAC recommends poly(methylene).[2] The difference is due to the 'opening up' of the monomer's double bond upon polymerisation. A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


In the polymer industry the name is sometimes shortened to PE, in a manner similar to that by which other polymers like polypropylene and polystyrene are shortened to PP and PS, respectively. In the United Kingdom the polymer is commonly called polythene, although this is not recognised scientifically. Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, plastic parts... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ...


The ethene molecule (known almost universally by its common name ethylene), C2H4 is CH2=CH2, Two CH2 groups connected by a double bond, thus: Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ...

         

Polyethylene is created through polymerization of ethene. It can be produced through radical polymerization, anionic addition polymerization, ion coordination polymerization or cationic addition polymerization. This is because ethene does not have any substituent groups which influence the stability of the propagation head of the polymer. Each of these methods results in a different type of polyethylene. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x908, 138 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethylene Polyethylene User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Radical polymerization is a type of polymerization in which the propagation head of a polymer chain consists of a radical. ... An anionic addition polymerization of vinyl monomers is initiated by a strong base, such as an alkali amide, or an organometallic compound, such as n-butyllithium. ... Coordination polymerization is a form of addition polymerization in which monomer adds to a growing macromolecule through an organometallic active center. ...


Classification of polyethylenes

Polyethylene is classified into several different categories based mostly on its density and branching. The mechanical properties of PE depend significantly on variables such as the extent and type of branching, the crystal structure, and the molecular weight. In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ...

  • UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene)
  • HMWPE (high molecular weight PE)
  • HDPE (high density PE)
  • HDXLPE (high density cross-linked PE)
  • PEX (cross-linked PE)
  • MDPE (medium density PE)
  • LDPE (low density PE)
  • LLDPE (linear low density PE)
  • VLDPE (very low density PE)

UHMWPE is polyethylene with a molecular weight numbering in the millions, usually between 3.1 and 5.67 million. The high molecular weight results in less efficient packing of the chains into the crystal structure as evidenced by densities less than high density polyethylene (e.g. 0.935 - 0.930 g/cc). The high molecular weight results in a very tough material. UHMWPE can be made through any catalyst technology, although Ziegler catalysts are most common. Because of its outstanding toughness, cut, wear and excellent chemical resistance, UHWMPE is used in a wide diversity of applications. These include can and bottle handling machine parts, moving parts on weaving machines, bearings, gears, artificial joints, edge protection on ice rinks, butchers' chopping boards. It competes with Aramid in bulletproof vests as Spectra (or Dyneema) fibers. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic made from oil. ... HDPE has SPI resin ID code 2 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... PEX is the common name for cross-linked high-density polyethylene. ... Medium Density Polyethylene, or MDPE is a type of Polyethylene defined by a density range of 0. ... LDPE has SPI resin ID code 4 Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from oil. ... Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is a substantially linear polymer, with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with longer-chain olefins. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when suddenly stressed. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... A bulletproof vest – also called body armour (U.S. body armor) – is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armour to minimize injury from being hit by a fired bullet. ... Spectra are conditions or values that vary over a continuum. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ...


HDPE is defined by a density of greater or equal to 0.941 g/cc. HDPE has a low degree of branching and thus stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength. HDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts. The lack of branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst (e.g. Chromium catalysts or Ziegler-Natta catalysts) and reaction conditions. HDPE is used in products and packaging such as milk jugs, detergent bottles, margarine tubs, garbage containers and water pipes. A Ziegler-Natta catalyst is a reagent used in the production of unbranched, stereoregular vinyl polymers. ... In chemistry, and in particular, in organometallic chemistry, a metallocene is a compound consisting of an aromatic organic ligand bound to a metal. ...


HDPE is also widely used in the fireworks community. In tubes of varying length (depending on the size of the ordnance), HDPE is used as a replacement for the supplied cardboard mortar tubes for two primary reasons. One, it is much safer than the supplied cardboard tubes because if a shell were to malfunction and explode inside (flower pot) an HDPE tube, the tube will not shatter. The second reason is that they are reusable allowing designers to create multiple shot mortar racks. Pyrotechnicians discourage the use of PVC tubing in mortar tubes because it will shatter, sending shards of plastic at possible spectators, and will not show up in x-rays. It has been suggested that Firework be merged into this article or section. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Pyrotechnics are used in the entertainment industry Kanes pyro in the WWE The band Rammsteins stage acts centers largely around pyrotechnics Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately has a wider scope that includes items for military and... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Shard, also called sherd or potsherd, is a term for broken pieces of pottery or glass, often used in archaeology. ... The Spectator is a British conservative political magazine, established 1828, published weekly. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


PEX is a medium- to high-density polyethylene containing cross-link bonds introduced into the polymer structure, changing the thermoplast into an elastomer. The high-temperature properties of the polymer are improved, its flow is reduced and its chemical resistance is enhanced. PEX is used in some portable water plumbing systems, as tubes made of the material can be expanded to fit over a metal nipple, and it will slowly return to its original shape, forming a permanent, water-tight connection. Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ...


MDPE is defined by a density range of 0.926 - 0.940 g/cc. MDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts.MDPE has good shock and drop resistance properties. It also is less notch sensitive than HDPE, stress cracking resistance is better than HDPE. MDPE is typically used in gas pipes and fittings, sacks, shrink film, packaging film, carrier bags, screw closures.


LLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.915 - 0.925 g/cc. is a substantially linear polymer, with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (e.g. 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene). LLDPE has higher tensile strength than LDPE. Exhibits higher impact and puncture resistance than LDPE. Lower thickness (gauge) films can be blown compared to LDPE, with better environmental stress cracking resistance compared to LDPE but is not as easy to process LLDPE is used in packaging, particularly film for bags and sheets. Lower thickness (gauge) may be used compared to LDPE. Cable covering, toys, lids, buckets and containers, pipe. While other applications are available, LLDPE is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility, and relative transparency. In chemistry, copolymerization is the process of using more than one monomer in the production of a polymer, resulting in a product with properties different to the homopolymer of either monomer. ... Alpha-olefins are a family of compounds with a chemical formula CxH2x, distinguished by having a double bond at the primary or alpha position. ... 1-butene cis-2-butene trans-2-butene methylpropene There are four isomers of alkenes which have the chemical formula C4H8. ... 1-hexene is a higher olefin, or alkene, with a formula C6H12. ... 1-Octene is a higher olefin, or alkene, with a formula C8H16. ...


LDPE is defined by a density range of 0.910 - 0.940 g/cc. LDPE has a high degree of short and long chain branching, which means that the chains do not pack into the crystal structure as well. It has therefore less strong intermolecular forces as the instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attraction is less. This results in a lower tensile strength and increased ductility. LDPE is created by free radical polymerization. The high degree of branches with long chains gives molten LDPE unique and desirable flow properties. LDPE is used for both rigid containers and plastic film applications such as plastic bags and film wrap. Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces which act between molecules or between widely separated regions of a macromolecule. ... Tensile strength , or measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... Radical polymerization is a type of polymerization in which the propagation head of a polymer chain consists of a radical. ...


VLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.880 - 0.915 g/cc. is a substantially linear polymer, with high levels of short chain branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (e.g. 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene). VLDPE is most commonly produced using metallocene catalysts due to the greater co-monomer incorporation exhibited by these catalysts. VLDPE’s are used for hose and tubing, ice and frozen food bags, food packaging and stretch wrap, as well as impact modifiers when blended with other polymers. In chemistry, copolymerization is the process of using more than one monomer in the production of a polymer, resulting in a product with properties different to the homopolymer of either monomer. ...


Recently, much research activity has focused on the nature and distribution of Long Chain Branches in polyethylene. In HDPE, a relatively small number of these branches (perhaps 1 in 100 or 1000 branches per backbone carbon) can significantly affect the rheological properties of the polymer. Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. ...


Ethylene copolymers

In addition to copolymerization with alpha-olefins, ethylene can also be copolymerized with a wide range of other monomers and ionic composition that creates ionized free radicals. Common examples include vinyl acetate (resulting product is ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, or EVA, widely used in athletic shoe sole foams), and a variety of acrylates (applications include packaging and sporting goods). In chemistry, copolymerization is the process of using more than one monomer in the production of a polymer, resulting in a product with properties different to the homopolymer of either monomer. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ethylene-vinyl acetate (also known as EVA or sometimes simply as acetate) is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ...


History

Polyethylene was first synthesized by the German chemist Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident in 1898 while heating diazomethane. When his colleagues Eugen Bamberger and Friedrich Tschirner characterized the white, waxy substance he had created, they recognized that it contained long -CH2- chains and termed it polymethylene. Hans von Pechmann (1850 - 1902 was a German chemist, reknowned for his discovery of diazomethane, Pechmann condensation and Pechmann pyrazole synthesis. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Diazomethane is the chemical compound CH2N2. ...


The first industrially practical polyethylene synthesis was discovered (again by accident) in 1933 by Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson at the ICI works in Northwich, England.[3] Upon applying extremely high pressure (several hundred atmospheres) to a mixture of ethylene and benzaldehyde, they again produced a white waxy material. Since the reaction had been initiated by trace oxygen contamination in their apparatus, the experiment was at first difficult to reproduce. It was not until 1935 that another ICI chemist, Michael Perrin, developed this accident into a reproducible high-pressure synthesis for polyethylene that became the basis for industrial LDPE production beginning in 1939. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Eric Fawcett (August 23, 1927-September 2, 2000, was a professor of physics at the University of Toronto for 23 years. ... Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) is a British chemical group and one of the largest chemical producers in the world. ... Northwich is a wich town in Cheshire, England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen (King) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Subsequent landmarks in polyethylene synthesis have revolved around the development of several types of catalyst that promote ethylene polymerization at more mild temperatures and pressures. The first of these was a chromium trioxide based catalyst discovered in 1951 by Robert Banks and John Hogan at Phillips Petroleum. In 1953, the German chemist Karl Ziegler developed a catalytic system based on titanium halides and organoaluminum compounds that worked at even milder conditions than the Phillips catalyst. The Phillips catalyst is less expensive and easier to work with, however, and both methods are used in industrial practice. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... In chemistry, chromic acid (or Jones reagent) is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, that would have the formula H2CrO4. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Robert Banks was born on November 24, 1921 in Piedmont. ... John Paul Hogan (born August 7, 1919) is an American research chemist. ... ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) was founded by the merger of the Conoco Inc. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Karl Waldemar Ziegler (November 26, 1898 – August 12, 1973) was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963, with Giulio Natta, for work on high polymers. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ...


By the end of the 1950s both the Phillips and Ziegler type catalysts were being used for HDPE production. Phillips' initially had difficulties producing a HDPE product of uniform quality, and filled warehouses with off-specification plastic. However, financial ruin was unexpectedly averted in 1957, when the hula hoop, a toy consisting of a circular polyethylene tube, became a fad among youth in the United States. This does not cite any references or sources. ... A Ziegler-Natta catalyst is a reagent used in the production of unbranched, stereoregular vinyl polymers. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Children playing with hula hoops. ...


A third type of catalytic system, one based on metallocenes, was discovered in 1976 in Germany by Walter Kaminsky and Hansjörg Sinn. The Ziegler and metallocene catalyst families have since proven to be very flexible at copolymerizing ethylene with other olefins and have become the basis for the wide range of polyethylene resins available today, including VLDPE, and LLDPE. Such resins, in the form of fibers like Dyneema, have (as of 2005) begun to replace aramids in many high-strength applications. In chemistry, and in particular, in organometallic chemistry, a metallocene is a compound consisting of an aromatic organic ligand bound to a metal. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the 1976 Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Kaminsky is a German chemist. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is a substantially linear polymer, with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with longer-chain olefins. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ...


Until recently, the metallocenes were the most active single-site catalysts for ethylene polymerisation known - new catalysts are typically compared to zirconocene dichloride. Much effort is currently being exerted on developing new single-site (so-called post-metallocene) catalysts, that may allow greater tuning of the polymer structure than is possible with metallocenes. Recently, work by Fujita at the Mitsui corporation (amongst others) has demonstrated that certain salicylaldimine complexes of Group 4 metals show substantially higher activity than the metallocenes. A post-metallocene catalyst is a kind of catalyst for olefin polymerization. ... Mitsui (三井) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... A Group 4 element is an element in periodic table group 4 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: titanium (22) zirconium (40) hafnium (72) rutherfordium (104) All of these elements are classed in Group 4 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ...


Physical properties

Depending on the crystallinity and molecular weight, a melting point and glass transition may or may not be observable. The temperature at which these occur varies strongly with the type of polyethylene. For common commercial grades of medium-density and high-density polyethylene, the melting point is typically in the range 120-130 °C. The melt point for average commercial low-density polyethylene is typically 105-115 °C. Most LDPE, MDPE, and HDPE grades have excellent chemical resistance and do not dissolve at room temperature because of the crystallinity. Polyethylene (other than cross-linked polyethylene) usually can be dissolved at elevated temperatures in aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. toluene, xylene) or chlorinated solvents (i.e. trichloroethane, trichlorobenzene). Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... A simplistic view of a materials glass transition temperature (Tg) is the temperature below which molecules have very little mobility. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... The chemical compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was until recently widely used as an industrial solvent. ... 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene Trichlorobenzene may refer to any of three isomeric chlorinated derivatives of benzene with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3: 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene Categories: | | ...


References

  1. ^ A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1993).
  2. ^ a b J. KAHOVEC, R. B. FOX and K. HATADA; “Nomenclature of regular single-strand organic polymers (IUPAC Recommendations 2002);” Pure and Applied Chemistry; IUPAC; 2002; 74 (10): pp. 1921–1956.
  3. ^ Winnington history in the making. This is Cheshire. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources


v  d  e
Plastics
Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) Polyamide (PA) Polyester
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polycarbonate (PC) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
Polylactic acid (PLA)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polyethylene Summary (2645 words)
Polyethylene is a long chain polymer produced by the polymerization reaction of liquid ethylene at high temperatures and pressures.
Polyethylene was used to insulate the cables laid between France and Britain, providing a crucial line of communication towards the end of World War II.
For common commercial grades of medium-density and high-density polyethylene, the melting point is typically in the range 120-130 degrees C. The melt point for average commercial low-density polyethylene is typically 105-115 degrees C. Most LDPE, MDPE, and HDPE grades have excellent chemical resistance and do not dissolve at room temperature because of the crystallinity.
High Density Polyethylene (2108 words)
The mechanism for the polymerization of low-density polyethylene is free radical polymerization.
Polyethylene is then recovered with the extraction of the solvent, and a filtration and drying process.
The molecular weight of high-density polyethylene is again controlled by the temperature of catalyst preparation (too high of temperature increases spontaneous chain transfer, but increases the rate of reaction).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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