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Encyclopedia > Polyester
SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section

Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many forms of polyesters, the term "polyester" is most commonly used to refer to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Other forms of polyester include naturally occurring cutin of plant cuticles as well as synthetic polyesters such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Download high resolution version (960x720, 80 KB)Scanning electron microscope image of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 80 KB)Scanning electron microscope image of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section. ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ... Cutin is a waxy substance which is a component of cuticle at the surface of leaves in plants. ... Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells (Kolattukudy, 1996) of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs. ... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Polybutyrate (short for polybutyrate adipate terephthalate, or PBAT) is a biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic polyester plastic. ...


Polyester may be produced in numerous forms. For example, polyester as a thermoplastic may be heated and processed into different forms, e.g., fibers, sheets, and three-dimensional shapes. While combustible at high temperatures, polyester tends to shrink away from flames and often self-extinguishes. For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Applications

Polyester is the most widely used manufactured fiber in the United States. Woven polyester fabrics are used for apparel and home furnishings. These include bed sheets, bedspreads, curtains and draperies. Polyester fiberfill is also used to stuff pillows, comforters and cushion padding.1 Poloester is mixed with cotton


Polyester fabrics sometimes have a "less natural" feel when compared to similarly woven fabrics made from natural fibers, e.g., cotton. However, polyester fabrics may exhibit other advantages over natural fabrics, e.g., improved wrinkle resistance. As a result, polyester fibers are often spun together with natural fibers, e.g., cotton, to produce a cloth with blended properties. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...

Close-up of a polyester shirt

Polyesters are also used to make bottles, films, tarpaulin, liquid crystal displays, holograms, filters, dielectric film for capacitors, film insulation for wire and insulating tapes. Download high resolution version (988x768, 137 KB)A close-up of a 100% Polyester shirt. ... Download high resolution version (988x768, 137 KB)A close-up of a 100% Polyester shirt. ... A tarpaulin or tarp (also known as hootchie) is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water resistant or waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas coated with plastic or latex. ... LCD redirects here. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ... In chemistry and common usage, a filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to block certain objects or substances while letting others through. ... A dielectric is a physical model commonly used to describe how an electric field behaves inside a material. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ...


Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystalline polymers. In general they have extremely good mechanical properties and are extremely heat resistant. For that reason, they can be used as an abradable seal in jet engines. 1 poloester is mixed with cotton


Thermosetting polyester resins are generally copolymers of unsaturated polyesters with styrene. The unsaturation in the polyester is generally governed by maleic acid or fumaric acid. Another important family is the group of vinyl esters. Here the unsaturation is found in the alcohol part of the polyester. The double bond of the unsaturated polyester reacts with styrene resulting in a 3-D crosslinked structure, the thermoset material. The cross-linking is initiated through an exothermic reaction involving an organic peroxide, such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide. Unsaturated polyesters are commonly used as casting materials, fiberglass laminating resins, and non-metallic auto-body fillers. Fiberglass reinforced unsaturated polyesters find wide application in bodies of yachts and as body parts of cars. Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) is an organic peroxide, a high explosive similar to acetone peroxide, and is quite dangerous to synthesize. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Autoignition temperature 80°C RTECS number DM8575000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Tube of Basiron, a water-based 5% benzoyl peroxide preparation for the treatment of acne. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ...


Polyester is also widely used as a finish on high-quality wooden products like guitars, pianos and vehicle/yacht interiors (Burns Guitars, Rolls Royce and Sunseeker are examples of companies that use polyester on their products). The thixotropic properties of the sprayable form of polyester make it ideal for use on open grain timbers as it can quickly fill the grain and has a high build film thickness per coat. The cured polyester can then be sanded and polished to a high-gloss, durable finish. For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rolls-Royce car may refer to vehicles produced by: Rolls-Royce Limited (1906-1973) Rolls-Royce Motors (1973-2003) Rolls-Royce Motor Cars (2003-present) // Rolls-Royce cars Rolls-Royce Limited vehicles 1904-1906 10 hp 1905-1905 15 hp 1905-1908 20 hp 1905-1906 30 hp 1905-1906... Sunseeker is a UK high-performance, luxury motor yacht manufacturer. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time dependant change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ...


Synthesis

Synthesis of polyesters is generally achieved by a polycondensation reaction. See "condensation reactions in polymer chemistry". A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ...


Azeotrope esterification

In this classical method, an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react to form a carboxylic ester. To assemble a polymer, the water formed by the reaction must be continually removed by azeotrope distillation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ...


Alcoholic transesterification

See main article on transesterification. In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ...

 O  C - OCH3 + OH[Oligomer2] / [Oligomer1] 
 O  C - O[Oligomer2] + CH3OH / [Oligomer1] 
(ester-terminated oligomer + alcohol-terminated oligomer)   (larger oligomer + methanol)

Acylation (HCl method)

The acid begins as an acid chloride, and thus the polycondensation proceeds with emission of hydrochloric acid (HCl) instead of water. This method can be carried out in solution or as an enamel. R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ...

Silyl method
In this variant of the HCl method, the carboxylic acid chloride is converted with the trimethyl silyl ether of the alcohol component; trimethyl silyl chloride is produced.

Acetate method (esterification)

Silyl acetate method

Ring-opening Polymerization

Aliphatic polyesters can be assembled from lactones under very mild conditions, catalyzed anionically, cationically or metallorganically. In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... A lactone is a cyclic ester in organic chemistry. ... In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ... In chemistry, a cationic species is one that contains a full positive charge. ... ...


References

  • Textiles, by Sara Kadolph and Anna Langford. 8th Edition, 1998.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polyester (1981) (609 words)
I am more familiar with his later works like Serial Mom or Cecil B. Demented, which is all great stuff.
Polyester is the bridge, as so many people put it, between his disgusting yet entertaining earlier work to more mainstream films like Hairspray.
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Polyester Fiber - Polyethyleneterephthalate - Polyethylene Naphthalate - Polyester Tow Fiber, Polyester Staple Fiber, ... (303 words)
Polyester Fiber - Polyethyleneterephthalate - Polyethylene Naphthalate - Polyester Tow Fiber, Polyester Staple Fiber, Polyester Fiberfill, Polyester Textile Filament Fiber, Polyester Industrial Filament Fiber
This is also the polymer used for many soft drink bottles and it is becoming increasingly common to recycle them after use by remelting the PET and extruding it as fiber.
Most items made from polyester can be machine washed and dried.
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